Meridional Overturning Circulation

The Meridional Overturning Circulation

Monitoring Global Ocean Circulation

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Who We Are

The overturning circulation is one of the main mechanisms the ocean uses to move heat, salt, carbon, and nutrients throughout the global oceans. Achieving a more complete understanding of the behavior of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) requires an observational network spanning the globe.

AOML scientists and our national and international partners are leading several programs that make crucial observations of the MOC in both the North and South Atlantic. The AOML projects that monitor/measure the MOC include: Western Boundary Time Series, Southwest Atlantic MOC , GO-SHIP, Argo, and the eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) network.

Our Objectives

  1. Measure, describe, and understand the pathways and variability of the upper and lower limbs of the MOC in the North and South Atlantic Oceans. 
  2. Assess the role of the MOC in redistributing heat and salt in the ocean, and how it affects regional and coastal sea level changes.
  3. Study the relationship between the MOC and extreme weather events, including global monsoons, heat waves, hurricanes, and droughts. 

| Molly Baringer, Ph.D

| Shenfu Dong, Ph.D

| Marlos Goes, Ph.D

| Gustavo Goni, Ph.D

| Sang-Ki Lee, Ph.D

| Matthieu LeHenaff, Ph.D

| Hosmay Lopez, Ph.D

| Rick Lumpkin, Ph.D

| Renellys Perez, Ph.D

| Claudia Schmid, Ph.D

| Denis Volkov, Ph.D

Top News

Deep Ocean Warming Continues into the Vema Channel

In a recent study published in American Geophysical Union (AGU), scientists at NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) contributed to an international study that confirmed warming trends and the possibility of increased rates of warming in one of the deepest channels of the Southwest Atlantic ocean, the Vema Channel.

The view of a sunset from the deck of the 2021 PIRATA cruise.

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Image of seafoam at the ocean surface. Photo Credit: NOAA AOML.
RV Endeavor as viewed from a small boat. Image credit: NOAA
A satellite image of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC).

Results & Research Impacts

The Importance of Long Term Time-Series Data on the Meridional Overturning Circulation.

Prediction of Local Sea Level Events

The time scales range from a few days to inter-annual, and there is a lack of coherency between the North and South Atlantic MOC. Having a long-term data set will allow us to better understand this variability to better predict sea level changes.

Model Validation Benchmark

Our MOC observations are valuable because they are widely used to validate and improve ocean and climate models.  Models often fail to reproduce the mean and the variability of the Atlantic MOC (AMOC) and its components. Continuous monitoring is necessary to improve model’s physics.

Detecting Climate Related Signals

Continuous monitoring is crucial to avoid misinterpreting short term variations as long term changes.

Precision in Frequency and Magnitude

Routine, high quality, measurements will help identify the time scales on which the MOC varies, and how large the variations might be on these different time scales.

Key Findings & Accomplishments

What is the Overturning Circulation

The Oceanic Conveyer Belt

A “meridian” is a north-south line on the globe along a constant longitude. The term “meridional,” is commonly used to refer to motion that is primarily in the north-south direction.  

The Meridional Overturning Circulation is a component of ocean circulation, which constantly moves water, heat, salt, carbon, and nutrients north-south within the ocean basins, and ultimately between the ocean basins and around the globe. In the Atlantic Ocean, warm and salty water in the upper ocean is transported from the South Atlantic towards the Nordic Seas (Greenland, England, and Northern Canada), where, after losing its heat to the atmosphere and mixing with ambient water masses, it sinks and forms deep water that flows south all the way down toward Antarctica.

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At the same time, near the coast of Antarctica, even heavier waters are formed. These waters flow north along the seafloor into the North Atlantic where they slowly rise and mix with other waters that flow back to the south. The MOC is responsible for about two-thirds of the oceanic northward heat transport and, thus, plays an important role in regulating the Earth’s climate system. 

Changes in the Atlantic MOC determine how much heat is transported and influence regional heat content variations. This makes monitoring the Meridional Overturning Circulation critical for tracking changes in the global and regional climate and weather. 

Observational MOC arrays are constructed so that they measure the strength of the circulation from coast to coast as the flow crosses a line of constant latitude either in the North Atlantic (e.g., from North America to North Africa) or South Atlantic (from South America to South Africa).

See the video below by NASA to learn more about why the MOC is important, or check out the tweet thread we did about the #thermohalinecirculation with Renellys Perez.

Effects on Global Climate

Regional Sea Level

Heat moved around the oceans by the MOC largely controls the regional oceanic heat content. It has recently been shown that this movement of heat also impacts the year-to-year variability of sea level both along the U.S. southeastern coastline and along the coastlines around the Mediterranean Sea. Continuous observations of the MOC can potentially be used to develop or improve coastal sea level predictions. 

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One of AOML’s contributions to MOC monitoring is a system that measures the transport of the Gulf Stream near the Florida coast using voltages on a submarine cable.  These daily observations started back in 1982, and now provide the longest nearly-continuous record of a boundary current transport in the world. Changes in the Gulf Stream strength directly affects sea levels along the eastern coast of Florida. A stronger current is associated with lower sea levels along the east coast of Florida, and a weaker current is associated with higher sea levels.

Oceanic Heat Content Change

Several ongoing projects are investigating the variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in both the North and the South Atlantic Ocean using shipboard measurements, moored buoys, and satellite data. These studies involve measurements of the full-water-column, full-basin-width, meridional velocity, temperature, and salinity along a line of constant latitude: 26.5N in the North Atlantic and 34.5S in the South Atlantic. This is crucial, because the Atlantic Ocean is unique as the only basin where heat is transported northward in both hemispheres, strongly impacting the heat content. 

Extreme Weather

The MOC is a driver of global climate and has a substantial impact on precipitation patterns. Studying these patterns helps our physical oceanographers provide data and insights that can improve weather forecasts beyond the current weather timescales of up to 10 days. We also conduct research to understand how the MOC is connected to monsoons and extreme weather events such as heat waves and tornadoes.

How do we monitor the MOC?

Observing Systems and the MOC

Read the plain-language article about several different types of observational systems that are used by scientists to measure the complex nature of the meridional overturning circulation.

Measuring Ocean Transport

The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation plays a crucial role in redistributing heat and salt throughout the global oceans. Achieving a more complete understanding of the behavior of the MOC system requires a comprehensive observational network that spans the entire Atlantic basin.

The Florida Current

AOML has continuously monitored the Florida current since 1982 to learn more about how local and global sea level rise are connected over time and space. These observations, taken at 26.5N latitude in the Atlantic, allow AOML scientists to draw important conclusions about the speed of the Meridional Overturning Circulation over long and short timescales. Results from long-term monitoring and subsequent research helps to improve coastal sea level predictions.

Click through the slides below to learn more about the Florida Current and its impacts on South Florida.

To watch the full presentation click here. 

medconnection

Expanding our Reach Beyond South Florida.

Trends across the Atlantic.

Watch the Lightning Presentation: Monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in both Hemispheres

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Global mean sea level rise caused by ocean warming and melting of ice sheets and glaciers is one of the most alarming aspects of climate change. However, while the global mean sea level is rising, regional sea level trends are quite different, with some regions rising faster than others or even experiencing decreasing sea levels. For example, a pronounced acceleration of sea level rise in 2010-2015 was observed south of Cape Hatteras along the U.S. eastern coastline, while a deceleration occurred further north. This regional sea level variability is largely due to the changing dynamics of the ocean and atmosphere. These dynamics also further influence regional sea level changes region by region and over time.

These large-scale, slow, sea level pattern changes are added on top of shorter-period (and often stronger) sea level changes that coastal communities directly experience every day. These can include tides, storm surge, and the strength of the Gulf Stream. To improve regional sea level predictions, it’s important to understand both the large scale and small scale patterns and to explore how they change over time. Read how AOML scientists are discovering how ocean dynamics affect regional sea level in the Mediterranean Sea and along the U.S. southeastern seaboard.

Read the Full Blog Post

precip

Extreme Weather Events

In order to expand weather forecasts beyond the typical timescales, we need information from the surface ocean and the ocean at depth, as well as the land.

-Hosmay Lopez, Ph.D

Extreme weather events are responsible for large mortality and vast economic impact in the U.S. on a yearly basis. However, the current operational forecasts for extreme weather are limited to only several days in advance. There is a pressing need for extending the time frame of severe weather forecast beyond the 7-10 days’ time scale. Research conducted at AOML shows a physical link between the state of the ocean and high impact extreme weather events, such as heat waves and tornadoes.

Changes in the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) influences the occurrence of heat waves in the U.S., as well as global monsoon precipitation. AOML scientists have found evidence that weaker northward transports of heat within the ocean in the South Atlantic leads to stronger Northern Hemisphere monsoons about 20 years later. This research and related studies are allowing AOML scientists to link monsoon intensity and other severe weather events to changes in the MOC. Click on the link below to learn more about the extreme weather research happening at AOML.  

Observations in the South Atlantic

Traditionally, most Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) observations have been focused on the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans where the largest volumes of new deep waters are formed. However, to understand the feedback and interaction between the waters formed in the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans it is imperative to improve our understanding of the pathways of the upper and lower limbs of the MOC in the South Atlantic Ocean. Numerical climate models indicate that important water mass transformations and exchanges occur in the South Atlantic. These exchanges are thought to control the stability of the entire MOC flow system. Recognition of the importance of the South Atlantic led to the formation of an international group dedicated to advancing our understanding of the role of the South Atlantic Ocean in the MOC system, as well as the establishment of an observing system to capture key components of the circulation: these endeavors are known as the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, or SAMOC initiative. The SAMOC initiative is a collaboration involving partners in Argentina, Brazil, France, Germany, Spain, South Africa, and the United States (NOAA/AOML). The main objective of the SAMOC initiative is to measure the strength and variability of the MOC in the South Atlantic, and how it transports water mass properties like heat and salt, to link those variations with weather phenomena and climate system variability.

Temporal variability of the volume transports from the SAMOC basin-wide array of moorings within the upper cell (A – black) and the abyssal cell (B – red). Gray shading indicates the estimated daily accuracy. The magenta dots/bars highlight the independent volume transports estimated using data from the trans-basin expendable bathythermograph (XBT) line at 35°S. Image modified from Kersale et al. 2020.
Temporal variability of the volume transports from the SAMOC basin-wide array of moorings within the upper cell (A – black) and the abyssal cell (B – red). Gray shading indicates the estimated daily accuracy. The magenta dots/bars highlight the independent volume transports estimated using data from the trans-basin expendable bathythermograph (XBT) line at 35°S. Image modified from Kersale et al. 2020.

XBT

AOML collects expendable bathythermograph (XBT) data on two transects spanning the subtropical oceans on quarterly repeats:  in the North Atlantic since 1995 along AX07 running between Spain and Miami, Florida, and in the South Atlantic since 2002 along AX18 between Cape Town, South Africa, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. These data capture the upper limb of the MOC transport, which provide a means to monitor the variability in MOC and its associated heat transport. AOML currently provides quarterly reports for the North and South Atlantic MHT using data from these two repeat XBT transects.

South Atlantic Meridional Heat Transport (SAMHT)

Observations in the South Atlantic have been historically sparse both in space and time compared to the North Atlantic. To enhance our understanding of the Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC)  and Meridional Heat Transport (MHT) variability in the South Atlantic, AOML developed a methodology to estimate the MOC and MHT by combining sea surface height measurements from satellite altimetry and in situ measurements (Dong et al., 2015). This new methodology allows us to estimate the MOC and MHT in real time.

Argo and Altimetry

There is increasing evidence that the South Atlantic may be playing a crucial role to the MOC variability. Therefore, in an attempt to understand the variability of the upper branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic, a three dimensional absolute velocity product is constructed using sea surface height measurements from satellite altimetry, observations from Argo floats, and wind fields. These velocity fields along with the hydrographic profiles are then used to estimate meridional volume and heat transport at several latitudes in the South Atlantic. The analysis has been expanded into the North Atlantic where the integrated meridional volume and heat transports are derived at two latitudes.

Featured Publication

First page of 'Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic' publication

Kersale, M., Meinen, C. S., Perez, R. C., Le Henaff, M., Valla, D., Lamont, T., … & Garzoli, S. L. (2020). Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic. Science advances, 6(32), eaba7573.

Abstract: The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a primary mechanism driving oceanic heat redistribution on Earth, thereby affecting Earth’s climate and weather. However, the full-depth structure and variability of the MOC are still poorly understood, particularly in the South Atlantic. This study presents unique multiyear records of the oceanic volume transport of both the upper (<~3100 meters) and abyssal (>~3100 meters) overturning cells based on daily moored measurements in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S. The vertical structure of the time-mean flows is consistent with the limited historical observations. Both the upper and abyssal cells exhibit a high degree of variability relative to the temporal means at time scales, ranging from a few days to a few weeks. Observed variations in the abyssal flow appear to be largely independent of the flow in the overlying upper cell. No meaningful trends are detected in either cell.

Download full pdf.

Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic

Kersale, M., Meinen, C. S., Perez, R. C., Le Henaff, M., Valla, D., Lamont, T., … & Garzoli, S. L. (2020). Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic. Science advances, 6(32), eaba7573.

Abstract: The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is a primary mechanism driving oceanic heat redistribution on Earth, thereby affecting Earth’s climate and weather. However, the full-depth structure and variability of the MOC are still poorly understood, particularly in the South Atlantic. This study presents unique multiyear records of the oceanic volume transport of both the upper (<~3100 meters) and abyssal (>~3100 meters) overturning cells based on daily moored measurements in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S. The vertical structure of the time-mean flows is consistent with the limited historical observations. Both the upper and abyssal cells exhibit a high degree of variability relative to the temporal means at time scales, ranging from a few days to a few weeks. Observed variations in the abyssal flow appear to be largely independent of the flow in the overlying upper cell. No meaningful trends are detected in either cell.

Download full pdf.

First page of 'Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic' publication

Publications & References

  • 2021

    Brown, P. J., McDonagh, E. L., Sanders, R., Watson, A. J., Wanninkhof, R., King, B. A., … & Messias, M. J. (2021). Circulation-driven variability of Atlantic anthropogenic carbon transports and uptake. Nature Geoscience, 14(8), 571-577.

    Dong, S., Goni, G., Domingues, R., Bringas, F., Goes, M., Christophersen, J., & Baringer, M. (2021). Synergy of In Situ and Satellite Ocean Observations in Determining Meridional Heat Transport in the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(4), e2020JC017073.

    Goes, M., Goni, G., Dong, S., Boyer, T., & Baringer, M. (2020). The complementary value of XBT and Argo observations to monitor ocean boundary currents and meridional heat and volume transports: A case study in the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 37(12), 2267-2282.

    Kersalé, M., Meinen, C. S., Perez, R. C., Piola, A. R., Speich, S., Campos, E. J. D., … & van den Berg, M. (2021). Multi‐Year Estimates of Daily Heat Transport by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 34.5° S. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(5), e2020JC016947.

    Manta, G., Speich, S., Karstensen, J., Hummels, R., Kersalé, M., Laxenaire, R., … & Meinen, C. S. (2021). The South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and Mesoscale Eddies in the First GO‐SHIP Section at 34.5° S. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 126(2), e2020JC016962.

    Volkov, D.L., S. Dong, M. Lankhorst, M. Kersalé, A. Sanchez-Franks, C. Schmid, J. Herrford, R.C. Perez, B.I. Moat, P. Brandt, C.S. Meinen, M.O. Baringer, E. Frajka-Williams, and D.A. Smeed.  Global oceans:  Meridional overturning circulation and heat transport in the Atlantic Ocean. In State of the Climate in 2020, J. Blunden, and T. Boyer (eds.). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(8):S176-S179 (https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-21-0083.1) (2021).

  • 2020

    Kersalé, M., C.S. Meinen, R.C. Perez, M. Le Hénaff, D. Valla, T. Lamont, O.T. Sato, S. Dong, T. Terre, M. van Caspel, M.P. Chidichimo, M. van den Berg, S. Speich, A.R. Piola, E.J.D. Campos, I. Ansorge, D.L. Volkov, R. Lumpkin, and S.L. Garzoli, 2020: Highly variable upper and abyssal overturning cells in the South Atlantic. Science Advances, 6(32):7573, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba7573.

    Dong, S., H. Lopez, S.-K. Lee, C. Meinen, G. Goni and M. Baringer, 2020: What caused the large-scale heat deficit in the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean during 2009-2012? Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088206. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088206.

    Volkov, D.L., C.S. Meinen, C. Schmid, B. Moat, M. Lankhorst, S. Dong, F. Li, W. Johns, S. Lozier, R. Perez, G. Goni, M. Kersale, E. Frajka-Williams, M. Baringer, D. Smeed, D. Rayner, A. Sanchez-Franks, and U. Send, 2020: Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transport [in “State of the Climate in 2019″]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 101 (8), S163–S169, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0105.1.

    McCarthy, G.D., P.J. Brown, C.N. Flagg, G.J. Goni, L. Houpert, C.W. Hughes, R. Hummels, M. Inall, K. Jochumsen, K.M.H. Larsen, P. Lherminier, C.S. Meinen, B.I. Moat, D. Rayner, M. Rhein, A. Roessler, C. Schmid, and D.A. Smeed. Sustainable observations of the AMOC: Methodology and technology. Reviews of Geophysics, 58(1):e2019RG000654, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019RG000654 2020 FY2020

    Moat, B.I., D.A. Smeed, E. Frajka-Williams, D.G. Desbruyeres, C. Beaulieu, W.E. Johns, D. Rayner, A. Sanchez-Franks, M.O. Baringer, D. Volkov, L.C. Jackson, and H.L. Bryden. Pending recovery in the strength of the meridional overturning circulation at 26°N. Ocean Science, 16(4):863-874, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-16-863-2020 2020 FY2020

  • 2019

    Domingues, R.M., W.E. Johns, and C.S. Meinen. Mechanisms of eddy-driven variability of the Florida Current. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 49(5):1319-1338, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-18-0192.1 2019 FY2019

    Foltz, G.R., P. Brandt, I. Richter, B. Rodriguez-Fonseca, F. Hernandez, M. Dengler, R.R. Rodrigues, J.O. Schmidt, L. Yu, N. Lefevre, L.C. Da Cunha, M.J. McPhaden, M.C. de Araujo Filho, J. Karstensen, J. Hahn, M. Martin-Rey, C.M. Patricola, P. Poli, P. Zuidema, R. Hummels, R.C. Perez, V. Hatje, J. Luebbecke, I. Polo, R. Lumpkin, B. Bourles, F.E. Asuquo, P. Lehodey, A. Conchon, P. Chang, P. Dandin, C. Schmid, A.J. Sutton, H. Giordani, Y. Xue, S. Illig, T. Losada, S. Grodsky, F. Gasparin, T. Lee, E. Mohino, P. Nobre, R. Wanninkhof, N.S. Keenlyside, V. Garcon, E. Sanchez-Gomez, H.C. Nnamchi, M. Drevillon, A. Storto, E. Remy, A. Lazar, S. Speich, M. Goes, T. Dorrington, W.E. Johns, J.N. Moum, C. Robinson, C. Perruche, R.B. de Souza, A. Gaye, J. Lopez-Parages, P.-A. Monerie, M. Castellanos, N.U. Benson, M.N. Hounkonnou, J. Trotte Duha, R. Laxenaire, and N. Reul. The tropical Atlantic observing system. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:206, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00206 2019 FY2019

    Frajka-Williams, E., I.J. Ansorge, J. Baehr, H.L. Bryden, M.P. Chidichimo, S.A. Cunningham, G. Danabasoglu, S. Dong, K.A. Donohue, S. Elipot, N.P. Holliday, R. Hummels, L.C. Jackson, J. Karstensen, M. Lankhorst, I. Le Bras, M.S. Lozier, E.L. McDonagh, C.S. Meinen, H. Mercier, B.I. Moat, R.C. Perez, C.G. Piecuch, M. Rhein, M. Srokosz, K.E. Trenberth, S. Bacon, G. Forget, G.J. Goni, P. Heimbach, D. Kieke, J. Koelling, T. Lamont, G. McCarthy, C. Mertens, U. Send, D.A. Smeed, M. Van den Berg, D. Volkov, and C. Wilson. Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed transports and variability. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:260, doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00260 2019 FY2019

    Goes, M., L.N. Murphy, and A.C. Clement. The stability of the AMOC during Heinrich events is not dependent on the AMOC strength in an Intermediate Complexity Earth System model ensemble. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(8):1359-1374, doi:10.1029/2019PA003580 2019 FY2019

    Goni, G.J., Sprintall, J., Bringas, F., Cheng, L., Cirano, M., Dong. S, Domingues, R., Goes, M., Lopez, H., Morrow, R., Rivero, U., Rossby, T., Todd, R.E., Trinanes, J., Zilberman, N., Baringer, M.O., Boyer T., Cowley, R., Domingues, C.M., Hutchinson, K., Kramp, M., Mata, M.M., Reseghetti, F., Sun, C., Bhaskar, U., and Volkov, D., 2019: More than 50 years of successful continuous temperature section measurements by the Global Expendable Bathythermograph Network, its integrability, societal benefits, and future. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:452 (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00452).

    Kersalé, M., Perez, R. C., Speich, S., Meinen, C. S., Lamont, T., Le Hénaff, M., van den Berg, M., Majumder, S., Ansorge, I. J., Dong, S., Schmid, C., Terre, T., Garzoli, S. L. Shallow and Deep Eastern Boundary Currents in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S: Mean structure and variability. J. Geophys. Res. doi: 10.1029/2018JC014554, 2019.

    Lee, S.-K., R. Lumpkin, M.O. Baringer, C.S. Meinen, M. Goes, S. Dong, H. Lopez, and S.G. Yeager. Global meridional overturning circulation inferred from a data-constrained ocean and sea-ice model. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(3):1521-1530, doi:10.1029/2018GL080940 2019 FY2019.

    Majumder, S., M. Goes, P.S. Polito, R. Lumpkin, C. Schmid, and H. Lopez. Propagating modes of variability and their impact on the western boundary current in the South Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(5):3168-3185, doi:10.1029/2018JC014812 2019 FY2019

    Meinen, C.S., W.E. Johns, B.I. Moat, R.H. Smith, E.M. Johns, D. Rayner, E. Frajka-Williams, R.F. Garcia, and S.L. Garzoli. Structure and variability of the Antilles Current at 26.5°N. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(6):3700-3723, doi:10.1029/2018JC014836 2019 FY2019

    Valla, D., A.R. Piola, C.S. Meinen, and E. Campos; 2019. Abyssal transport variations in the southwest South Atlantic: First insights from a long-term observation array at 34.5°S. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(12):6699-6705, doi:10.1029/2019GL082740.  

    Volkov, D.L., M. Baringer, D. Smeed, W. Johns, and F. Landerer. Teleconnection between the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and sea level in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Climate, 32(3):935-955, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0474.1 2019 FY2019

    Volkov, D.L., S.-K. Lee, R. Domingues, H. Zhang, and M. Goes. Interannual sea level variability along the southeastern seaboard of the United States in relation to the gyre-scale heat divergence in the North Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(13):7481-7490, doi:10.1029/2019GL083596 2019 FY2019

  • 2018

    Kersale, M., T. Lamont, S. Speich, T. Terre, R. Laxenaire, M.J. Roberts, M.A. van den Berg, and I.J. Ansorge. Moored observations of mesoscale features in the Cape Basin: Characteristics and local impacts on water mass distributions. Ocean Science, 14(5):923-945, doi:10.5194/os-14-923-2018 2018 FY2018

    Majumder, S. and Schmid, C., 2018: A study of the variability in the Benguela Current volume transport. Ocean Science, 14(2):273-283 (doi:10.5194/os-14-273-2018). [PDF]

    Meinen, C.S., S. Speich, A.R. Piola, I. Ansorge, E. Campos. M. Kersale, T. Terre, M.-P. Chidichimo, T. Lamont, O.T. Sato, R.C. Perez, D. Valla, M. Van den Berg, M. Le Henaff, S. Dong, and S.L. Garzoli. Meridional Overturning Circulation transport variability at 34.5°S during 2009-2017: Baroclinic and barotropic flows and the dueling influence of the boundaries. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(9):4810-4188, doi:10.1029/2018GL077408 2018 FY2018

    Schmid, C., and Majumder, S., 2018: Transport variability of the Brazil Current from observations and a data assimilation model. Ocean Science, 14(3):417-436 (doi:10.5194/os-14-417-2018). [PDF]

    Smeed, D.A., S.A. Josey, C. Beaulieu, W.E. Johns, B.I. Moat, E. Frajka-Williams, D. Rayner, C.S. Meinen, M.O. Baringer, H.L. Bryden, and G.D. McCarthy. The North Atlantic Ocean is in a state of reduced overturning. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(3):1527-1533, doi:10.1002/GL076350 2018 FY2018

    Valla, D., A.R. Piola, C.S. Meinen, and E. Campos. Strong mixing and recirculation in the northwestern Argentine Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 123(7):4624-4648, doi:10.1029/2018JC013907 2018 FY2018

  • 2017

    Lopez, H., G. Goni, and S. Dong. A reconstructed South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation time series since 1870. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(7):3309-3318, doi:10.1002/2017GL073227 2017 FY2017

    Meinen, C.S., S.L. Garzoli, R.C. Perez, E. Campos, A.R. Piola, M.P. Chidichimo, S. Dong, and O.T. Sato. Characteristics and causes of Deep Western Boundary Current transport variability at 34.5°S during 2009-2014. Ocean Science, 13(1):175-194, doi:10.5194/os-13-175-2017 2017 FY2017

    Murphy, L.N., M. Goes, and A.C. Clement. The role of African dust in Atlantic climate during Heinrich events. Paleoceanography, 32(11):1291-1308, doi:10.1002/2017PA003150 2017 FY2018

    Szuts, Z.B., and C.S. Meinen. Florida Current salinity and salinity transport: Mean and decadal changes. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(20):10,495-10,503, doi:10.1002/2017GL074538 2017 FY2018

  • 2016

    Baringer, M.O., M. Lankhorst, D. Volkov, S. Garzoli, S. Dong, U. Send, and C.S. Meinen; 2016. Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean. In State of the Climate in 2015, J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (eds.). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(8):S84-S87, doi:10.1175/2016BAMSStateoftheClimate.1.

    Frajka-Williams, E., C.S. Meinen, W.E. Johns, D.A. Smeed, A. Duchez, A.J. Lawrence, D.A. Cuthbertson, G.D. McCarthy, H.L. Bryden, M.O. Baringer, B.I. Moat, and D. Rayner. Compensation between meridional flow components of the Atlantic MOC at 26°N. Ocean Science, 12(2):481-493, doi:10.5194/os-12-481-2016 2016 FY2016

    Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee and G. Goni, 2016: Decadal modulations of interhemispheric global atmospheric circulations and monsoons by the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Climate, 29, 1831-1851. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0491.1.

    Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee, and E. Campos Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic meridional overturning circulation variability. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(15):8250-8258, doi:10.1002/2016GL069067 2016 FY2016

    Majumder, S., C. Schmid, and G. Halliwell. An observations and model-based analysis of meridional transports in the South Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 121(8):5622-5638, doi:10.1002/2016JC011693 2016 FY2016

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