HRD 2000 Programs by Subject
The majority of the Hurricane Research Division projects
actively address the "Advance Short-term Warning and Forecast Services"
element of the NOAA 1995-2005 Strategic Plan. However, our scientists
are also involved in important research relating to the "Coastal
Ecosystems Health", "Implement Seasonal to Interannual Climate
Forecasts", and "Predict and Assess Decadal to Centennial
Tropical Cyclone Research
Modeling the hurricane dynamics with explicit moist convection
- Comprehensive understanding of hurricane dynamics with a
numerical model that explicitly includes the cloud-scale moist
convection interacting with the hurricane environment.
- AN IMPROVED
UNDERSTANDING OF LOW-LEVEL THERMODYNAMIC CONDITIONS NEAR THE
TROPICAL CYCLONE INNER CORE
- Through observations, obtain an improved physical
understanding of air-sea interaction processes and boundary
layer thermodynamics within and outside the tropical cyclone
(TC) inner core.
- HURRICANE EYE
- Physical understanding of the eye's role in hurricane
Climatological and Synoptic Characteristics of Rapidly
Intensifying Tropical Cyclones in the North Atlantic Basin
- To investigate rapidly intensifying tropical cyclones as
defined for the North Atlantic Basin.
ARE THE BETA GYRES NORMAL MODES?
- To determine whether the streamfunction dipoles
induced by the beta effect on simulated hurricane-like vortices
are normal modes or continuous-spectrum solutions.
Structure of Hurricanes and its Variation as observed by
Airborne Doppler Radar
Describe the various inner core kinematic and reflectivity
structures, and their relationships to environmental factors,
such as wind shear and sea-surface temperature . Also
describe their short-term variation.
- KINEMATIC VELOCITY
STRUCTURE OF HURRICANE GILBERT (1988)
- Analyze airborne Doppler radar data collected in Hurricane Gilbert
on 14 September 1988, to estimate the axisymmetric components of the
three-dimensional windfield of this Category 5 hurricane.
Development of a TRMM-based Tropical Cyclone Precipitation
- Use data from the TRMM satellite to estimate tropical
rainfall and compare it to ground-truth from the WP-3 aircraft
- DROP DISTORTIONS NEAR
LARGE AIRCRAFT AS OBSERVED BY 2-D PARTICLE PROBE IMAGES
- To determine the cause and extent of the distortion of raindrops
around the WP-3D 2-D probe mounts, and to devise means of minimizing
and/or compensating for it.
- CLOUD-TO-GROUND LIGHTNING
AND TROPICAL CYCLONES
- To identify the location and characteristics of cloud-to-ground (CG)
lightning with respect to a hurricane's center, to explain why
certain regions of the hurricane are more electrically-active than
others, and to determine the universality of past results.
- TROPICAL CYCLONE
- To determine the conditions under which tropical oceanic
convection becomes electrified, and to relate that activity to
the evolution of the storm circulation.
variational analysis of airborne Doppler observations
To improve dual- and multiple-Doppler analyses by incorporating
the Doppler projection equations, the three-dimensional
continuity equation, and filtering within a variational scheme.
Boundary Layer Measurements
in Hurricanes using GPS-sondes : Comparisons with in situ
HRD began dropping the newly developed NCAR Global Positioning
System (GPS) dropwindsondes in the vicinity of Atlantic
tropical cyclones. High-resolution vertical profiles of wind
speed and direction, temperature, dew point, and pressure were
collected from flight-level to the surface. Sondes were dropped
near National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) platforms to compare
with in situ measurements. Preliminary comparisons have been
made between the available mean boundary layer and surface
data from profiles in the vicinity of NDBC platforms in tropical
- REAL-TIME HURRICANE WIND
FIELD ANALYSIS AND DAMAGE MITIGATION
- To develop a real-time hurricane surface wind analysis
system for forecast, damage assessment and recovery planning
- AIRBORNE HURRICANE
- To analyze the relatively large amounts of data collected
on board the P-3 aircraft and to transmit key information to
forecasters on the ground.
WSR-88D observations of hurricane atmospheric boundary layer
structure at landfall
- Using data from land-based radar of landfalling hurricanes
and intercomparing them with airborne Doppler radar to define
the structure of the hurricane boundary layer.
An Empirical Inland Wind Decay Model for the New England Region
Use data archived at the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) and the
National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) to derive an empirical
model for predicting the decrease in tropical cyclone wind
speeds after landfall for the New England Region.
Study of Supertyphoon Paka
The NOAA Paka Data Acquisition Team of Arthur Chiu, Greg
Forbes, and Sam Houston was assembled on Guam soon after
Super Typhoon Paka's movement through the Marshall Islands in
mid-December 1997. This was the first such group charged with
gathering storm related data under the National Post-Storm Data
Acquisition Plan. A full report of the findings and recommendations
of this team is provided.
- TROPICAL CYCLONE
WINDFIELDS AT LANDFALL FROM AIRBORNE AND LAND BASED DOPPLER
- Analyze the three-dimensional wind structure of landfalling
tropical cyclones by combining airborne Doppler radar data collected by
NOAA research aircraft with Doppler data archived by National Weather Service WSR-88D coastal radars.
Seasonal Forecasting of Tropical Cyclones, Tropical Rainfall and
the El Nino-Southern Oscillation
- To investigate statistical seasonal forecasting methodologies
and to issue real-time seasonal predictions for various tropical
meteorology/oceanography phenomena, including Atlantic basin
hurricanes, African rainfall and the El Nino/Southern
Climate Variability of Tropical Cyclones around the World
To analyze past tropical cyclone variability and its accompanying
climate and to quantify how changes have occurred on the timescales of
intra-seasonal, interannual, interdecadal and century ranges.
EL NIÑO AND ATLANTIC TROPICAL CYCLONES
Use of objective techniques to better elucidate the role of
tropical Pacific SSTs (e.g., ENSO) in Atlantic tropical cyclone
Other Research Programs and HRD Projects
METEOROLOGICAL EVENTS AFFECTING FLORIDA BAY
- The primary objective of this research project is to reconstruct
episodic/catastrophic meteorological events and local weather regimes which critically affect the South Florida ecosystem.
- RECONSTRUCTION OF
SURFACE WIND FIELDS FOR TROPICAL CYCLONES AFFECTING FLORIDA
- The primary objective of this research project is to
reconstruct episodic/catastrophic meteorological events which
critically affect the South Florida ecosystem.
Hurricanes, Typhoons and Tropical Cyclones Frequently Asked Questions
- To provide informative answers to public/media frequently asked questions on hurricanes via the World Wide Web.
TROPICAL CYCLONE PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMS: PREPARING FOR THE
- This effort supports the World Meteorological
Organization's Tropical Cyclone Programme (TCP). The primary
goal of this work is to develop a resource guide, for disaster
preparedness officials and educators, for use in creating
awareness in tropical-cyclone-prone nations.