I am a physical oceanographer interested in a range of topics related to ocean, climate and extreme weather. My research aims to better understand atmosphere-ocean processes that affect and control the Earth's physical, chemical, and biological systems by using both observations and mathematical modeling tools. Currently, my research lies in the areas of inter-ocean transports of heat, salt and carbon; El Nino diversity and its remote impact on North American climate; Atlantic Nino diversity; atmosphere-ocean processes conducive to extreme weather; and Antarctic sea-ice and ocean interactions
Spatiotemporal diversity of Atlantic Nino: A phenomenon known as Atlantic Nino is characterized by the appearance of warm sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs) in the eastern equatorial Atlantic in northern summer. When it attains its full strength, it increases rainfall and the frequency of extreme flooding over the West African countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea and in northeastern South America. However, not all Atlantic Nino events are alike. Some appear earlier than others or persists longer. These variabilities during the onset and dissipation phases are well captured by the four most recurring Atlantic Nino varieties identified in this study. Largely consistent with the differences in the timings of onset and dissipation, these four varieties display remarkable differences in rainfall response over West Africa and South America. Most of the varieties are subject to preconditioning in northern spring by cold SSTAs in the North Atlantic or El Nino in the Pacific, except for one variety with no clear source of external forcing. (Valles-Casanova et al. 2020) [ENSO Blog: Do you know that El Nino has a little brother?].
Contrasting sea-ice trends around West Antarctica: Since late 1978, Antarctic sea-ice extent has overall expanded in all seasons in stark contrast to the retreating Arctic sea-ice extent. However, while the sea-ice extent around East Antarctica has increased monotonically, the sea-ice around West Antarctica exhibits regionally and seasonally inhomogeneous trends. For instance, Antarctic sea-ice extent in the East Pacific has decreased substantially in Austral summer. We used an ocean and sea-ice coupled model to show that the increased wind-driven upwelling of the relatively warm subsurface water, known as upper Circumpolar Deep Water, is mainly responsible for the declining sea-ice extent. This study also explains how the changes in Weddell Gyre circulations and associated meridional heat transport contributed to the increasing Antarctic sea ice in the Atlantic during Austral summer (Lee et al. 2017) [JGR editor's highlight].
Abrupt increase in Indian Ocean heat content during the warming hiatus: Global mean surface warming has stalled since the end of the 20th century, but the net radiation imbalance at the top of the atmosphere continues to suggest an increasingly warming planet. This apparent contradiction has been reconciled by an anomalous heat flux into the Pacific Ocean, induced by a shift toward a La Nina-like state over the past decade or so. This study found that the enhanced heat uptake by the Pacific Ocean has been compensated by an increased heat transport from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean, carried by the Indonesian throughflow. As a result, Indian Ocean heat content has increased abruptly during the warming hiatus (Lee et al. 2015) [highlighted in EOS and Nature].
What caused the significant increase in Atlantic ocean heat content since the mid-20th century?: As the upper layer of the world ocean warms gradually during the 20th century, the inter-ocean heat transport from the Indian to Atlantic basin should be enhanced, and the Atlantic Ocean should therefore gain extra heat due to the increased upper ocean temperature of the inflow via the Agulhas leakage. Consistent with this hypothesis, instrumental records indicate that the Atlantic Ocean has warmed substantially more than any other ocean basin since the mid-20th century. A surface-forced global ocean-sea ice coupled model is used to confirm this hypothesis (Lee et al. 2011) [highlighted in Nature as Community Choice].
Kim, D. S.-K. Lee, H. Lopez, G. R. Foltz and C. Wen, 2021: On the role of Atlantic Nino/Nina in seasonal Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. To be submitted.
Lopez, H., S.-K. Lee, D. Kim, A. T. Wittenberg, and S.-Y. Yeh, 2021: Projected increase in fast-growing and slow-dissipating El Nino events in the 21st Century. Submitted.
Lee, S.-K., H. Lopez, D. Kim, A. T. Wittenberg and A. Kumar, 2021: A seasonal probabilistic outlook for tornadoes (SPOTter) in the contiguous U.S. based on the leading patterns of large-scale atmospheric anomalies Mon. Wea. Rev., 149, 901-919. https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-20-0223.1.
Chung, E. S., K. J. Ha, A. Timmermann, M. F. Stuecker, T. Bodai, and S.-K. Lee, 2020: Cold-season Arctic amplification driven by Arctic Ocean-mediated seasonal energy transfer Earths Future, 8, e2020EF001898. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020EF001898.
Dong, S., H. Lopez, S.-K. Lee, C. Meinen, G. Goni and M. Baringer, 2020: What caused the large-scale heat deficit in the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean during 2009-2012? Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088206. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL088206.
Gomez, F. A., R. Wanninkhof, L. Barbero, S.-K. Lee, and F. J. Hernandez Jr., 2020: Seasonal patterns of surface inorganic carbon system variables in the Gulf of Mexico inferred from a regional high-resolution ocean-biogeochemical model. Biogeosciences. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1685-2020.
Gronholz, A., S. Dong, H. Lopez, S.-K. Lee, G. Goni, and M. Baringer, 2020: Variability of the South Atlantic Ocean heat content in an eddy-resolving versus a non-eddy-resolving General Circulation Model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL089908. hhttps://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL089908.
Kim, D., S.-K. Lee, H. Lopez and M. Goes, 2020: Pacific mean-state control of Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation-El Nino relationship. J. Climate., 33, 4273-4291. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0398.1.
Kim, D., S.-K. Lee and H. Lopez, 2020: Madden-Julian Oscillation-induced suppression of northeast Pacific convection increases U.S. tornadogenesis. J. Climate., 33, 4927-4939. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-19-0992.1.
Kim, D., S.-K. Lee and H. Lopez, G. Foltz, V. Misra, and A. Kumar, 2020: On the role of Pacific-Atlantic SST contrast and associated Caribbean Sea Convection in August-October U.S. regional rainfall variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087736. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087736.
Lee, S.-K., D. Kim, G. Foltz, and H. Lopez, 2020: Pantropical response to global warming and the emergence of a La Nina-like mean state trend. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2019GL086497. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL086497.
Valles-Casanova, I., S.-K. Lee, G. R. Foltz, and J. L. Pelegri, 2020: On the spatiotemporal diversity of Atlantic Nino and associated rainfall variability over West Africa and South America. Geophys. Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL087108. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GL087108.
Volkov, D., S.-K. Lee, A. L. Gordon, and M. Rudko, 2020: Unprecedented reduction and quick recovery of the South Indian Ocean heat content and sea level in 2014-2018. Sci. Adv., eabc1151. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc1151.
Lopez, H., S.-K. Lee, S. Dong, G. Goni, B. Kirtman, R. Atlas and A. Kumar, 2019: East Asian Monsoon as a modulator of U.S. Great Plains heat waves. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 24. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD030151.
Gomez, F. A., S.-K. Lee, F. J. Hernandez Jr., L. Chiaverano, F. E. Muller-Karger, Y. Liu, and J. T. Lamkin, 2019: ENSO-induced co-variability of salinity, plankton biomass and coastal currents in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Sci. Rep., 9, 178. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36655-y.
Lee, S.-K., R. Lumpkin, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, M. Goes, S. Dong, H. Lopez and S. G. Yeager, 2019: Global meridional overturning circulation inferred from a data-constrained ocean & sea-ice model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL080940.
Volkov, D., S.-K. Lee, R. Domingues, H. Zhang, and M. Goes, 2019: Interannual sea level variability along the southeastern seaboard of the United States in relation to the gyre-scale heat divergence in the North Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 46. https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083596.
Gomez, F. A., S.-K. Lee, Y. Liu, F. J. Hernandez Jr., F. E. Muller-Karger, and J. T. Lamkin, 2018: Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton biomass across the northern and deep Gulf of Mexico: A numerical model study. Biogeosciences, 15, 3561-3576. https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3561-2018.
Lee, S.-K., H. Lopez, E.-S. Chung, P. N. DiNezio, S.-W. Yeh and A. T. Wittenberg, 2018: On the fragile relationship between El Nino and California rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 907-915. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017GL076197.
Lopez, H, R. West, S. Dong, G. Goni, B. Kirtman, S.-K. Lee, and R. Atlas, 2018: Early emergence of anthropogenically-forced heat waves in the western US and Great Lakes. Nature Clim. Change, 8, 414-420. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-018-0116-y.
Dong, J., R. Domingues, G. Goni, G. Halliwell, H. Kim, S.-K. Lee, M. Mehari, F. Bringas, J. Morell, and L. Pomales, 2017: Impact of assimilating underwater glider data on Hurricane Gonzalo (2014) forecast. Wea. Forecasting., 32, 1143-1159. https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0182.1.
Lee, S.-K., D. Volkov, H. Lopez, W. G. Cheon, A. L. Gordon, Y. Liu, and R. Wanninkhof, 2017: Wind-driven ocean dynamics impact on the contrasting sea-ice trends around West Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 122, 4413-4430. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012416.
Muhling, B. A., R. Brill, J. T. Lamkin, M. A. Roffer, S.-K. Lee, Y. Liu, and F. Muller-Karger, 2017: Projections of future habitat use by Atlantic bluefin tuna: mechanistic vs. correlative distribution models. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 74, 698-716. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw215.
Volkov, D., S.-K. Lee, F. Landerer, and R. Lumpkin, 2017: Decade-long deep-ocean warming detected in the subtropical South Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 927-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071661.
Lee, S.-K., A. T. Wittenberg, D. B. Enfield, S. J. Weaver, C. Wang and R. Atlas, 2016: U.S. regional tornado outbreaks and their links to ENSO flavors and North Atlantic SST variability. Environ. Res. Lett., 11, 044008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/11/4/044008.
Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee and G. Goni, 2016: Decadal modulations of interhemispheric global atmospheric circulations and monsoons by the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Climate, 29, 1831-1851. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0491.1.
Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee and E. Campos, 2016: Remote influence of Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, 8250-8258. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069067.
Cheon, W. G., S.-K. Lee, A. L. Gordon, Y. Liu, C.-B. Cho and J. Park, 2015: Replicating the 1970s' Weddell Polynya using a coupled ocean - sea ice model with reanalysis surface flux fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5411-5418. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064364.
Domingues, R., G. Goni, F. Bringas, S.-K. Lee, H.-S. Kim, G. Halliwell, J. Dong, J. Morell and L. Pomales, 2015: Upper-ocean response to Hurricane Gonzalo (2014): salinity effects revealed by sustained and targeted observations from underwater gliders. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7131-7138. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065378.
Jo, H.-S., S.-W. Yeh and S.-K. Lee, 2015: Changes in the relationship in the SST variability between the tropical Pacific and the North Pacific across the 1998/99 regime shift. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7171-7178. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL065049.
Lee, S.-K., W. Park, M. O. Baringer, A. L. Gordon, B. Huber and Y. Liu, 2015: Pacific origin of the abrupt increase in Indian Ocean heat content during the warming hiatus. Nature Geosci., 8, 445-449. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2438.
Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee and D. Enfield, 2015: Inhomogeneous influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on United States precipitation. Atmosph. Sci. Lett., 16, 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1002/asl2.521.
Liu, Y., S.-K. Lee, D. B. Enfield, B. A. Muhling, J. T. Lamkin, F. Muller-Karger and M. A. Roffer, 2015: Potential impact of climate change on the Intra-Americas Seas: Part-1. A dynamic downscaling of the CMIP5 model projections. J. Marine Syst., 148, 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.01.007.
Muhling B. A., Y. Liu, S.-K. Lee, J. T. Lamkin, M. A. Roffer, F. Muller-Karger and J. F. Walter, 2015: Potential impact of climate change on the Intra-Americas Seas: Part-2. Implications for Atlantic bluefin tuna and skipjack tuna adult and larval habitats. J. Marine Syst., 148, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.01.010.
Song, Z. S.-K. Lee, C. Wang, B. Kirtman and F. Qiao, 2015: Contributions of the atmosphere-land and ocean-sea ice model components to the tropical Atlantic SST bias in CESM1. Ocean Modelling, 96, 280-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2015.09.008.
van Hooidonk, R., J. A. Maynard, Y. Liu and S.-K. Lee, 2015: Downscaled projections of Caribbean coral bleaching that can inform conservation planning. Glob. Change Biol., 21, 3389-3401. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12901.
Cheon, W. G., Y.-G. Park, J. R. Toggweiler and S.-K. Lee, 2014: The relationship of Weddell polynya and open-ocean deep convection to the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 44, 694-713. https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-13-0112.1
Ji, X., J. D. Neelin, S.-K. Lee and C. R. Mechoso, 2014: Interhemispheric teleconnections from tropical heat sources in intermediate and simple models. J. Climate, 27, 684-697. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00017.1.
Lee, S.-K., P. N. DiNezio, E.-S. Chung, S.-W. Yeh, A. T. Wittenberg and C. Wang, 2014: Spring persistence, transition and resurgence of El Nino. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 8578-8585. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062484.
Lee, S.-K., B. E. Mapes, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield and S. J. Weaver, 2014: Springtime ENSO phase evolution and its relation to rainfall in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1673-1680. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GL059137.
Wang, C., L. Zhang, S.-K. Lee, L. Wu and C. R. Mechoso, 2014: A global perspective on CMIP5 climate model biases. Nature Clim. Change, 4, 201-205. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2118.
Zhang, L., C. Wang and S.-K. Lee, 2014: Potential role of Atlantic warm pool-induced freshwater forcing in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: Ocean-sea ice coupled model simulations. Climate Dynam., 43, 553-574. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2034-z.
Zhang, L. C. Wang, Z. Song, S.-K. Lee, 2014: Remote effect of the model cold bias in the tropical North Atlantic on the warm bias in the tropical southeastern Pacific. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 1016-1026. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014MS000338.
Lee, S.-K., C. R. Mechoso, C. Wang and J. D. Neelin, 2013: Interhemispheric influence of the northern summer monsoons on the southern subtropical anticyclones. J. Climate, 26, 10193-10204. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00106.1.
Lee, S.-K., R. Atlas, D. B. Enfield, C. Wang and H. Liu, 2013: Is there an optimal ENSO pattern that enhances large-scale atmospheric processes conducive to major tornado outbreaks in the U.S.? J. Climate, 26, 1626-1642. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00128.1. [highlighted in Feb, 2013 issue of Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society as Paper in Note]
Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee and D. B. Enfield, 2013: Atlantic warm pool variability in the CMIP5 simulations. J. Climate, 26, 5315-5336. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00556.1.
Menary, M. B, C. D. Roberts, M. D. Palmer, P. R. Halloran, L. Jackson, R. A. Wood, W. A. Mueller, D. Matei and S.-K. Lee, 2013: Mechanisms of aerosol-forced AMOC variability in a state of the art climate model. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 2087-2096. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20178.
Wang, C., L. Zhang, S.-K. Lee, 2013: Response of freshwater and sea surface salinity to variability of the Atlantic warm pool. J. Climate, 26, 1249-1267. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00284.1.
DiNezio, P. N., B. P. Kirtman, A. C. Clement, S.-K. Lee, G. A. Vecchi and A. Wittenberg, 2012: Mean climate controls on the simulated response of ENSO to increasing greenhouse gases. J. Climate, 25, 7399-7420. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00494.1.
Larson, S., S.-K. Lee, C. Wang, E.-S. Chung and D. Enfield, 2012: Impacts of non-canonical El Nino patterns on Atlantic hurricane activity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052595.
Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee and D. B. Enfield, 2012: Atlantic warm pool variability in the IPCC AR4 CGCM simulations. J. Climate, 25, 5612-5628. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00376.1.
Liu, Y., S.-K. Lee, B. A. Muhling, J. T. Lamkin and D.B. Enfield, 2012: Significant reduction of the Loop Current in the 21st century and its impact on the Gulf of Mexico. J. Geophys. Res., 117, C05039. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007555
Wang, C., S. Dong, A. T. Evan, G. R. Foltz and S.-K. Lee, 2012: Multidecadal co-variability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature, African dust, Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. J. Climate, 25, 5404-5415. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00413.1.
Lee, S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M. O. Baringer, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, S. Yeager and B. P. Kirtman, 2011: What caused the significant increase in Atlantic ocean heat content since the mid-20th century? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17607. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048856. [highlighted in Oct. 6, 2011 issue of Nature as Community Choice]
Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield and C. Wang, 2011: Future impact of differential inter-basin ocean warming on Atlantic hurricanes. J. Climate, 24, 1264-1275. https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3883.1.
Muhling, B. A., S.-K. Lee, J. T. Lamkin and Y. Liu, 2011: Predicting the effects of climate change on bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico. ICES J. Mar. Sci., 68, 1051-1062. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsr008.
Wang, C., H. Liu, S.-K. Lee and R. Atlas, 2011: Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on United States landfalling hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett.. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL049265. [highlighted in Oct. 21, 2011 issue of Sciecne as Editor's Choice]
Lee, S.-K., C. Wang and D. B. Enfield, 2010: On the impact of central Pacific warming events on Atlantic tropical storm activity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37. L17702, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044459.
Lee, S.-K. and C. Wang, 2010: Delayed advective oscillation of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, 23, 1254-1261. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3339.1.
Wang, C. and S.-K. Lee, 2010: Is hurricane activity in one basin tied to another? EOS, 91, 93-94. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009ES002729.
Wang, C., S.-K. Lee and C. R. Mechoso, 2010: Inter-hemispheric influence of the Atlantic warm pool on the southeastern Pacific. J. Climate, 23, 404-418. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI3127.1.
Wang, C., H. Liu and S.-K. Lee, 2010: The record-breaking cold temperatures during the winter of 2009/10 in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmos. Sci. Lett.,, 11, 161-168. https://doi.org/10.1002/asl.278.
DiNezio, P. N., A. C. Clement, G. A. Vecchi, B. J. Soden, B. P. Kirtman and S.-K. Lee, 2009: Climate response of the equatorial Pacific to global warming. J. Climate, 22, 4873-4892. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2982.1.
Lee, S.-K., C. Wang and B. E. Mapes, 2009: A simple atmospheric model of the local and teleconnection responses to tropical heating anomalies. J. Climate, 22, 272-284. https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2303.1.
Wang, C. and S.-K. Lee, 2009: Co-variability of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and the eastern North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L24702. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041469.
Wang, C. and S.-K. Lee, 2009: Reply to comment by Joseph J. Barsugli on "Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes". Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L01706. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035111.
Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield and C. Wang, 2008: Why do some El Ninos have no impact on tropical North Atlantic SST? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16705. https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034734.
Lee, S.-K. and C. Wang, 2008: Tropical Atlantic decadal oscillation and its impact on the equatorial atmosphere-ocean dynamics: A simple model study. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 193-212. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JPO3450.1.
Wang, C. and S.-K. Lee, 2008: Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L02708. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032396.
Wang, C., S.-K. Lee and D. B. Enfield, 2008: Atlantic warm pool acting as a link between Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 9, Q05V03. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GC001809. [In the special issue of "Interactions between climate and tropical cyclones on all timescales"]
Wang, C., S.-K. Lee and D. B. Enfield, 2008: Climate response to anomalously large and small Atlantic warm pools during the summer. J. Climate, 21, 2437-2450. https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2029.1.
Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield and C. Wang, 2007: What drives seasonal onset and decay of the Western Hemisphere warm pool? J. Climate, 20, 2133-2146. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4113.1.
Wang, C. and S.-K. Lee, 2007: Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02703. https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028579.
Wang, C., S.-K. Lee and D. B. Enfield, 2007: Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on the summer climate of the Western Hemisphere. J. Climate, 20, 5021-5040. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4304.1.
Enfield, D. B., S.-K. Lee and C. Wang, 2006: How are large Western Hemisphere warm pools formed?. Prog. Oceanogr., 70, 346-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2005.07.006.
Pelegri, J. L., J. H. Churchill, A. D. Kirwan, Jr., S.-K. Lee, R. E. Munn and N. R. Pettigrew, 2006: Gabriel T. Csanady: Understanding the physics of the ocean. Prog. Oceanogr., 70, 91-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2006.07.002.
Wang, C., D. B. Enfield, S.-K. Lee and C. W. Landsea, 2006: Influences of Atlantic warm pool on Western Hemisphere summer rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. J. Climate, 19, 3011-3028. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3770.1.
Enfield, D. B. and S.-K. Lee, 2005: The heat balance of the Western Hemisphere warm pool. J. Climate, 18, 2662-2681. https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3427.1.
Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield and C. Wang, 2005: Ocean general circulation model sensitivity experiments on the annual cycle of Western Hemisphere warm pool. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 110, C09004. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002640.
Thacker, C. W., S.-K. Lee and G. R. Halliwell Jr., 2004: Assimilating 20 years of Atlantic XBT data into HYCOM: A first look. Ocean Modelling, 7, 183-210. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2003.08.002.
Lee, S.-K., J. L. Pelegri and J. Kroll, 2001. Slope control in western boundary currents. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31, 3349-3360. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(2001)031<3349:SCIWBC>2.0.CO;2
Lee, S.-K., 2001: On the structure of supercritical western boundary currents. Dynam. Atmos. Oceans, 33, 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-0265(01)00056-2.
Lee, S.-K. and G. T. Csanady, 1999: Warm water formation and escape in the upper tropical Atlantic Ocean: Part I. a literature review. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 104, c12, 29561-29571. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC900079.
Lee, S.-K. and G. T. Csanady, 1999: Warm water formation and escape in the upper tropical Atlantic Ocean: Part II. a numerical model study. J. Geophys. Res. Ocean, 104, c12, 29573-29590. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JC900078.
Lee, S.-K., 1999: Self-excited variability of the East Korean Warm Current: A quasi-geostrophic model study. J. Korean Soc. Oceanogr., 34, 1-21.
Lee, S.-K. and G. T. Csanady, 1994: Instability waves in the Gulf Stream front and its thermocline layer. J. Mar. Res., 52, 837-863. https://doi.org/10.1357/0022240943076920.