Dr. Shenfu Dong


4301 Rickenbacker Causeway
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (305) 361-4372

Research Interests

  • Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, in particular its characteristics in the South Atlantic.
  • Water mass formation/subduction and its climate impact.
  • Satellite oceanography from altimeter, microwave SST, etc.
  • Upper ocean salinity processes.
  • Frontal variability and dynamics in the Atlantic and Southern Ocean.

Current Work

  • Gulf Stream varability and its impact on weather and climate.
  • Monitoring South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
  • Assessing ocean heat content changes in the South Atlantic and its forcing/impacts.


    Dong, S., Baringer, M.O., and Goni, G., 2019: Slow down of the Gulf Stream during 1993-2016. Scientific Reports, 9:6672 (doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42829-8). [pdf].

    Frajka-Williams, E., Ansorge, I.J., Baehr, J., Bryden, H.L., Chidichimo, M.P., Cunningham, S.A., Danabasoglu, G., Dong, S., Donohue, K.A., Elipot, S., Heimbach, P., Holliday, N.P., Hummels, R., Jackson, L.C., Karstensen, J., Lankhorst, M., Le Bras, I., Lozier, M.S., McDonagh, E.L., Meinen, C.S., Mercier, H., Moat, B.I., Perez, R.C., Piecuch, C.G., Rhein, M., Srokosz, M.A., Trenberth, K.E., Bacon, S., Forget, G., Goni, G., Kieke, D., Koelling, J., Lamont, T., McCarthy, G.D., Mertens, C., Send, U., Smeed, D.A., Speich, S., van den Berg, M., Volkov, D., and Wilson, C., 2019: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed transport and variability. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:260 (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00260). [pdf].

    Goni, G.J., Sprintall, J., Bringas, F., Cheng, L., Cirano, M., Dong. S, Domingues, R., Goes, M., Lopez, H., Morrow, R., Rivero, U., Rossby, T., Todd, R.E., Trinanes, J., Zilberman, N., Baringer, M.O., Boyer T., Cowley, R., Domingues, C.M., Hutchinson, K., Kramp, M., Mata, M.M., Reseghetti, F., Sun, C., Bhaskar, U., and Volkov, D., 2019: More than 50 years of successful continuous temperature section measurements by the Global Expendable Bathythermograph Network, its integrability, societal benefits, and future. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6:452 (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00452). [pdf].

    Kersalé, M., Perez, R.C., Speich, S., Meinen, C.S., Lamont, T., Le Hénaff, M., van den Berg, M.A., Majumder, S., Ansorge, I.J., Dong, S., Schmid, C., Terre, T., and Garzoli, S.L., 2019: Shallow and deep eastern boundary currents in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S: Mean structure and variability. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 124(3):1634-1659 (doi:10.1029/2018JC014554). [pdf].

    Lee, S.-K., Lumpkin, R., Baringer, M.O., Meinen, C.S., Goes, M., Dong, S., Lopez, H., and Yeager, S.G., 2019: Global meridional overturning circulation inferred from a data-constrained ocean & sea-ice model. Geophysical Research Letters. 46(3):1521-1530 (doi.org/10.1029/2018GL080940). [pdf].

    Lopez, H., Lee, S.-K., Dong, S., Goni, G., Kirtman, B., Atlas, R., and Kumar, A., 2019: East Asian monsoon as a modulator of U.S. Great Plains heat waves. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 124:6342-6358 (doi:10.1029/2018JD030151). [pdf].

    Todd, R.E., Chavez, F.P., Clayton, S., Cravatte, S.E., Goes, M.P., Graco, M.I., Lin, X., Sprintall, J., Zilberman, N.V., Archer, M., Aristegui, J., Balmaseda, M.A., Bane, J.M., Baringer, M.O., Barth, J.A., Beal, L.M., Brandt, P., Calil, P.H.R., Campos, E., Centurioni, L.R., Chidichimo, M.P., Cirano, M., Cronin, M.F., Curchitser, E.N., Davis, R.E., Dengler, M., deYoung, B., Dong, S., Escribano, R., Fassbender, A.J., Fawcett, S.E., Feng, M., Goni, G.J., Gray, A.R., Gutierrez, D., Hebert, D., Hummels, R., Ito, S.-I., Krug, M., Lacan, F., Laurindo, L., Lazar, A., Lee, C.M., Lengaigne, M., Levine, N., Middleton, J., Montes, I., Muglia, M., Nagai, T., Palevsky, H.I., Palter, J.B., Phillips, H.E., Piola, A.R., Plueddemann, A.J., Qiu, B., Rodrigues, R.R., Rossby, T., Roughan, M., Rudnick, D.L., Rykaczewski, R.R., Saraceno, M., Seim, H., Gupta, A.S., Shannon, L., Sloyan, B.M., Sutton, A.J., Thompson, L., van der Plas, A.K., Volkov, D., Wilkin, J., Zhang, D., and Zhang, L., 2019: Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems. Frontiers in Marine Science, (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00423).

    Volkov, D., Dong, S., Foltz, G.R., Goni, G., and Lumpkin, R., 2019: Observations of near-surface salinity and temperature structure with dual-sensor Lagrangian drifters during SPURS-2. Oceanography, 32(2):66-75 (https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2019.214). [pdf].

    Baringer, M.O., Willis, J., Smeed, D.A., Moat, B., Dong, S., Hobbs, W.R., Rayner, D., Johns, W.E., Goni, G., Lankhorst, M. and Send, U., 2018: Meridional overturning and oceanic heat transport circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean. In State of the Climate in 2017, J. Blunden, D.S. Arndt, and G. Hartfield (eds.). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(8):S91-S94 (doi:10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1). [pdf].

    Goes, M., Christophersen, J., Dong, S., Goni, G., and Baringer, M., 2018: An updated estimate of salinity for the Atlantic Ocean sector using temperature-salinity relationships. Journal of Oceanic and Atmospheric Technology. (doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0029.1). [pdf].

    Lopez, H., West, R., Dong, S., Goni, G., Kirtman, B., Lee, S.-K. and Atlas, R., 2018: Early emergence of anthropogenically forced heat waves in the western United States and Great Lakes. Nature Climate Change, 8(5):414-420 (doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0116-y). [pdf].

    Meinen, C.S., Speich, S., Piola, A.R., Ansorge, I., Campos, E., Kersalé, M., Terre, T., Chidichimo, M.P., Lamont, T., Sato, O.T., Perez, R.C., Valla, D., Van den Berg, M., Le Hénaff, M., Dong, S., and Garzoli, S.L., 2018: Meridional Overturning Circulation transport variability at 34.5°S during 2009-2017: Baroclinic and barotropic flows and the dueling influence of the boundaries. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(9):4180-4188 (doi:10.1029/2018GL077408). [pdf].

    Baringer, M.O., D.A. Smeed, J. Willis, M. Lankhorst, W.R. Hobbs, S. Dong, G. McCarthy, D. Rayner, W.E. Johns, G. Goni, and and U. Send, 2017: Meridional overturning and oceanic heat transport circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean. In State of the Climate in 2016, J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (eds.). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98(8):S84-S87 (doi:10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1). [pdf].

    Dong. S., D. Volkov, G. Goni, R. Lumpkin, and G. Foltz, 2017: Near-surface Salinity and Temperature Structure Observed with Dual-Sensor Drifters in the Subtropical South Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, 122, (doi : 10.1002/2017JC012894). [pdf].

    Kelly, K.A., J.K. Willis, G. Reverdin, S. Dong, and L. Thompson, 2017: Monitoring and interpreting mid-latitude oceans by satellite altimetry. In Satellite Altimetry Over Oceans and Land Surfaces, D. Stammer and A. Cazenave (eds.). CRC Press, 211-230.

    Lindstrom, E.J., A.Y. Shcherbina, L. Rainville, J.T. Farrar, L.R. Centurioni, S. Dong, E.A. D’Asaro, C. Eriksen, D.M. Fratantoni, B.A. Hodges, V. Hormann, W.S. Kessler, C.M. Lee, S.C. Riser, L. St. Laurent, and D.L. Volkov, 2017: Autonomous multi-platform observations during the Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study. Oceanography, 30(2):38-48 (doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.218). [pdf].

    Lopez, H., G. Goni, and S. Dong, 2017: A reconstructed South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation time series since 1870. Geophysical Research Letter, 44(7):3309-3318 (doi:10.1002/2017GL073227). [pdf].

    Meinen, C.S., S.L. Garzoli, R.C. Perez, E. Campos, A. Piola, M.P. Chidichimo, S. Dong, and O. Sato, 2017: Characteristics and causes of Deep Western Boundary Current transport variability at 34.5°S during 2009-2014. Ocean Science, 13:175-194 (doi:10.5194/os-13-175-2017). [pdf].

    Baringer, M.O., M. Lankhorst, D. Volkov, S. Garzoli, S. Dong, U. Send, and C.S. Meinen, 2016: Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean. In State of the Climate in 2015, J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (eds.). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 97(8):S84S87. [pdf].

    Cheng, L., J. Abraham , G. Goni, T. Boyer, S. Wijffels, R. Cowley, V. Gouretski, F. Reseghetti, S. Kizu, S. Dong, F. Bringas, M. Goes, L. Houpert, J. Sprintall, and J. Zhu, 2016: XBT science: Assessment of instrumental biases and errors. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 97(6):924-933, (doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00031.1). [pdf].

    Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee, and E. Campos, 2016: Remote influence of interdecadal Pacific Oscillation on the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(15):8250 - 8258, doi:10.1002/2016GL069067. [pdf].

    Lopez, H., S. Dong, S.-K. Lee, and G. Goni, 2016: Decadal Modulations of Interhemispheric Global Atmospheric Circulations and Monsoons by the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. J. Clim., 29(5):1831 - 1851, (doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0491.1). [pdf].

    Dong, S., G. Goni, and R. Lumpkin, 2015: Mixed-layer salinity budget in the SPURS region on seasonal to interannual time scales. Oceanography, 28, (1), 78-85, (doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.05.) [pdf].

    Dong, S ., G. Goni , and F. Bringas, 2015: Temporal variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic between 20S and 35S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 7655 - 7662, (doi:10.1002/2015GL065603). [pdf].

    Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns, W. R. Hobbs, S. Garzoli, S. Dong, and J. Willis, 2015: [Global Oceans] Meridional oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2014"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., S78-S80, 96,(7). [pdf].

    Garzoli, S.L., S. Dong, R. Fine, C. Meinen, R.C. Perez, C. Schmid, E. van Sebille, and Q. Yao, 2015: The fate of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. I , (doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2015.05.008) [pdf].

    Goes, M., G. Goni, S. Dong, 2015: An optimal XBT-based monitoring system for the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 34S, J. Geophys. Res., 120, 1161-1181, doi:10.1002/2014GL061802. [pdf].

    Perez, R. C., M. O. Baringer, S. Dong, S. L. Garzoli, M. Goes, G. J. Goni, R. Lumpkin, C. S. Meinen, R. Msadek, and U. Rivero, 2015: Measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Mar. Tech. Soc. J., 49(2):167-177, (doi:10.4031/MTSJ.49.2.14.) [pdf].

    Dong, S. , M. O. Baringer , G. J. Goni , C. S. Meinen , and S. L. Garzoli, 2014: Seasonal variations in the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation from observations and numerical models , Geophys. Res. Lett., 41 , 4611 - 4618 , doi: 10.1002/2014GL060428. [pdf].

    Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns , S. Garzoli, S. Dong, D. Volkov, W. R. Hobbs, J. Willis, 2014: [Global Oceans] Meridional Oceanic Heat Transport in the Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95(7), 69 [pdf].

    Domingues, R., G. J. Goni, S. Swart, and S. Dong, 2014: Wind forced forced variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa between 1993 - 2010, J. Geophys. Res. 119 , 1123-1145, Doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2013.12.009. [pdf].

    Ansorge I., M. Baringer, E. Campos, S. Dong, R. A. Fine, S. Garzoli , G. Goni, C. Meinen, R. Perez, A. Piola, M. Roberts, S. Speich, J. Sprintall, T. Terre, and M. Van den Berg, 2014: Basin - Wide Oceanographic Array Bridges the South Atlantic. EOS Transactions, AGU, 95(6):53-54, 10.1002/2014EO060001 [pdf].

    Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns, G. McCarthy, J. Willis, S. Garzoli, M. Lankhorst, C. S. Meinen, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, D. A. Smeed, T. O. Kanzow, P. Heimbach, E. Frajka-Williams, A. Macdonald, S. Dong and J. Marotzke, 2013. Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean. [Global Oceans] Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2011], Bull. Am. Met. Soc.,94 (8) S65-68. [pdf].

    Dong, S., and K. A. Kelly, 2013: How Well Do Climate Models Reproduce North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water?J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43 , 2230 - 2244. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-12-0215.1. [pdf].

    Meinen, C, S ., S. Speich, R. C. Perez , S. Dong , A. R. Piola, S. L. Garzoli , M. O. Baringer , S. Gladyshev, and E. J. D. Campos, 2013: Temporal variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 34.5S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 6461-6478, doi:10.1002/2013JC009228. [pdf].

    Dong, S., and K. A. Kelly, 2013: How Well Do Climate Models Reproduce North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water? J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43 , 2230 - 2244. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JPO-D-12-0215.1 [pdf].

    Kelly, K.A., and S. Dong, 2013: The Contributions of atmosphere and ocean to North Atlantic Subtropical Mode Water volume anomalies. Deep-Sea Res., 91:111-127(doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2013,02. 020). [pdf]

    Garzoli, S.,M.O. Baringer, S. Dong, R. Perez, and Q. Yao, 2012: South Atlantic meridional fluxes. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 71:21-32, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.09.003. [pdf]

    Wang, C., S. Dong, A. T. Evan, G.R. Foltz, and S.-K. Lee, 2012: Multidecadal covariability of North Atlantic sea surface temperature, African dust, Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. J. Clim., 25:5404-5415, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00413.1. [pdf]

    Dong, S., M. Baringer, G. Goni, and S. Garzoli, 2011: Importance of the assimilation of Argo Float Measurements on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18603, doi:10.1029/2011GL048982. [pdf]

    Dong, S., S.L. Garzoli, and M.O. Baringer, 2011: The role of inter-ocean exchanges on decadal variations of the northward heat transport in the South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41(8):1498-1511. [pdf]

    Dong, S., S. T. Gille, J. Sprintall, and E. J. Fetzer (2010): Assessing the potential of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) surface temperature and specific humidity in turbulent heat flux estimates in the Southern Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C05013, doi:10.1029/2009JC005542. [pdf]

    Wang, C., and S. Dong, 2010: Is the basin-wide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L08707, doi:10.1029/2010GL042743. [pdf]

    Wang, C., S. Dong, and E. Munoz, 2010: Seawater density variations in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Clim. Dynam., 34:953-968, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0560-5 [pdf]

    Dong, S. S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, and G. J. Goni, 2009: Interannual variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and its relationship with the net northward heat transport in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20606, doi:10.1029/2009GL039356. [pdf]

    Dong, S., S. L. Garzoli, and M. O. Baringer, 2009: An Assessment of the Seasonal Mixed-Layer Salinity Budget in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C12001, doi:10.1029/2008JC005258. [pdf]

    Wang, C.,Z. Song, F. Qiao, and S. Dong, 2009: What signals are removed and retained by using an anomaly field in climatic research? Int. J. Oceanogr., 2009, Article ID 329754, 7 pages, doi:10.1155/2009/329754. [pdf]

    Xu, Y., J. Li, and S. Dong, 2009: Ocean circulation from altimetry: Progress and challenges. In Ocean Circulation and El Nino: New Research, J.A. Long and D.S. Wells (ed.). Nova Science Publishers, New York, Inc. 291pp. [pdf]

    Dong, S., J. Sprintall, S.T. Gille, and L. Talley, 2008: Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth from Argo float profiles. J. Geophys. Res., 113(C6):C06013, doi:10.1029/2006JC004051. [pdf]

    Dong, S., S.L. Hautala, and K.A. Kelly, 2007: Interannual variations in upper-ocean heat content and heat transport convergence in the western North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37(11):2682-2697. [pdf]

    Dong, S., S.T. Gille, and J. Sprintall, 2007: An assessment of the Southern Ocean mixed layer heat budget. J. Clim., 20(17):4425-4442. [pdf]

    Dong, S., J. Sprintall, and S. T. Gille, 2006. Location of the Polar Front from AMSR-E Satellite sea surface temperature measurements. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36:2075-2089.

    Dong, S., S. T. Gille, J. Sprintall, and C. L. Gentemann, 2006. Validation of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea surface temperature in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111:C04002, doi:10.1029/2005JC002934.

    Kelly, K. A., and S. Dong, 2004. The Relationship of Western Boundary Current Heat Transport and Storage to Mid-Latitude Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, in . Earth's Climate: The Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction, edited by C. Wang, S.-P. Xie, and J. A. Carton, pp. 347-363, American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monograph 147.

    Dong S., and K. A. Kelly, 2004. Heat budget in the Gulf Stream region: the importance of heat storage and advection. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 34:1214-1231.

    Dong S., and K. A. Kelly, 2003. Annual and interannual variations in geostrophic velocity in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108(c6), doi:10.1029/2002JC001357, 3172-3180.

    Frankignoul C., G. D. Coetlogon, T. M. Joyce, and S. Dong, 2001. Gulf Stream variability and ocean -atmosphere interaction. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31:3516-3529.

    Du, Y., H. Lu, S. Dong, and T. Ling, 1999. Observation and fuzzy mathematics analysis of the skin-bulk temperature difference in the coastal area of Qingdao. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 30(1):81-87.