The First XBT Science Workshop: Building a Multi-Decadal Upper Ocean Temperature Record

Melbourne, Australia

7-8 July 2011

Organizers: Molly O. Baringer, Gustavo Goni, Ken Ridgway and Susan Wijffels (Contact)

NEW: Workshop Report (pdf)

The First XBT Science Workshop (XSW-1) will run two full days on 7-8 July 2011. The meeting will be hosted by Australia's Bureau of Meteorology in Melbourne and will be held immediately following the IUGG XXV General Assembly.

XSW-1 Schedule:

     • The abstract submission deadline is 1 May 2011.

     • Please let us know if you are planning to attend.

     • A draft agenda will be available no later than 1 June 2011.

     • The registration deadline is 10 June 2011.

If you have questions, please send us an email.


The goal of the meeting is to bring together scientists working on the upper ocean thermal structure to highlight the uses of XBT data. Topics include upper ocean heat budgets, transport, circulation and variability of near surface temperature and salinity. The use of multiple data types is encouraged that include novel inclusions of different instruments and is not strictly limited to XBT data alone. Abstracts about the advances in our understanding of upper ocean processes in general are encouraged and could include observations from altimetry, ARGO, drifters, thermosalinographs, etc as well as XBT/XCTD data.

The purpose of the meeting is to assess the general utility of the XBT data and its future direction and so we encourage presenters to spend a little time commenting on how well the project worked and, if possible, mention what changes to the program that might have improved the research.

We invite abstract submissions for oral or poster presentations on any topic and any region of the oceans provided that substantial use of XBT data is made. General Abstract Themes:

  • Heat budgets on global to regional scales
  • Seasonal to inter-annual variability of the upper ocean as seen by XBTs and other observational platforms
  • The role of XBTs and other upper ocean thermal measurements in constraining Ocean Data Assimilation fields and/or model verification.
  • Estimation of circulation fields on global to regional scales
  • New technologies, including changes to the operation abilities of an XBT, fall-rate estimation and XCTDs or other topics that might arise

back to top


The registration for this workshop is now open. To register please send us an email with the following information:

  • Name
  • Affiliation
  • Address
  • Telephone number
  • Email address
  • Whether you intend to submit an abstract

Upon registration, your name will appear in the List of Participants. The registration deadline is 10 June 2011.

back to top

Abstract Submission

Please submit electronically, a one-page abstract in Microsoft Word or text format by email. Indicate your preference for an oral presentation or a poster. As the number of oral slots is limited, the Science Workshop Committee will select oral presentations from those who indicate that preference. Please keep in mind it may be necessary to have some abstracts presented as posters.

The deadline for abstract submission is 1 May 2011.

Please limit the abstract length to 200-500 words and no more than one figure. Font should be in 10 point Times New Roman. Please use the example template.

For questions about abstracts, send us an email. Authors of accepted presentations will be notified via email.

back to top

Agenda (PDF), Abstracts and Presentations

Day 1 (Thursday July 7, 09:00AM - 06:00PM)

Chair: Molly Baringer (AM), Lisa Krummel (PM)

Rapporteur: Tim Boyer (AM), Pedro DiNezio (PM)

08:30AM-09:00AM 30 min. Registration and Presentations Upload
09:00AM-09:05AM 5 min. Molly Baringer Introduction Presentation
09:05AM-09:10AM 5 min. Graeme Ball Welcome/Logistics
09:10AM-09:25AM 15 min. Gustavo Goni The XBT Network Overview of Program Objectives Presentation
09:25AM-09:40AM 15 min. Helen Beggs Use and Requirements for XBT Surface Temperature Observations by the Group for High Resolution SST (GHRSST) Presentation
09:40AM-10:40AM 60 min. Dean Roemmich Ocean Circulation and the Mass, Heat, and Freshwater Budgets of Large Ocean Regions: The Synergies of High Resolution XBT Transects, Argo, and Satellite Altimetry Abstract Presentation
10:40AM-11:00AM 20 min. BREAK
11:00AM-11:30AM 30 min. Janet Sprintall Recent Science Highlights using Air-Sea Underway Observations in Drake Passage Abstract Presentation
11:30AM-12:00PM 30 min. Isabelle Ansorge Understanding the ACC south of Africa Presentation
12:00PM-01:00PM 60 min. LUNCH
01:00PM-01:30PM 30 min. Steve Rintoul The Interannual Variability of the Indonesian Throughflow from 20 Years of XBT Data and The Survostral High Density XBT line South of Australia Presentation
01:30PM-02:00PM 30 min. Molly Baringer Estimating the Meridional Heat Transport and Overturning Circulation from XBTs Abstract Presentation
02:00PM-02:30PM 30 min. Gustavo Goni Variability of the Meridional Heat Transport and Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic Abstract Presentation
02:30PM-03:00PM 30 min. Mathieu Hamon Empirical Correction of XBT Data and Global Field Reconstruction Using EOFs Presentation
03:00PM-03:20PM 20 min. BREAK
03:20PM-04:20PM 60 min. Peter Oke Observing System Evaluation Activities under GODAE OceanView Abstract Presentation
04:20PM-04:50PM 30 min. You-Soon Chang Basin Patterns of the Upper Ocean Warming for 1993-2008 Abstract Presentation
04:50PM-05:20PM 30 min. V.V. Gopalakrishna Inter annual and intra seasonal variability of upper layer temperature fields in the south eastern Arabian Sea Presentation
05:20PM-05:50PM 30 min. Alex Ganachaud DISCUSSION - Sustaining the Observing System Presentation
06:00PM RECEPTION - Summit Café (700 Collins Street)

Day 2 (Friday July 8, 09:00AM - 05:45PM)

Chair: Graeme Ball (AM), Ann Thresher (PM)

Rapporteur: Janet Sprintall (AM), Rebecca Cowley (PM)

08:30AM-09:00AM 30 min. Presentations Upload
09:00AM-09:30AM 30 min. Pedro DiNezio Observational Evidence for a Weakly Coupled Mode of Pacific Decadal Variability Abstract Presentation
09:30AM-10:00AM 30 min. Alex Ganachaud Monitoring the Northern Limb of the Subtropical Gyre with High-Resolution XBT Surveys in the South Pacific Ocean Abstract Presentation
10:00AM-10:30AM 30 min. Katy Hill Decadal Changes in the East Australian Current System - the Relationship to Changes in the South Pacific Gyre Abstract Presentation
10:30AM-10:50AM 20 min. BREAK
10:50AM-11:20AM 30 min. Robert Helber The U.S. Navy's Global Ocean Temperature and Salinity Climatology Abstract Presentation
11:20AM-11:50PM 30 min. Marlos Goes Investigation of the Tropical Atlantic Variability during 1993-2010 Abstract Presentation
11:50PM-12:20PM 30 min. Gustavo Goni DISCUSSION - The Way Forward Presentation
12:20PM-01:20PM 60 min. LUNCH
01:20PM-01:50PM 30 min. Tim Boyer Effects of Different XBT Corrections on Historic and Recent Ocean Heat Content Calculations Abstract Presentation
01:50PM-02:20PM 30 min. Lijing Cheng A New Analysis on Fall-Rate Coefficients in Historical XBT Data Based on Side-by-Side Comparisons Abstract Presentation
02:20PM-02:50PM 30 min. Rebecca Cowley A New View of XBT Biases Abstract Presentation
02:50PM-03:10PM 20 min. BREAK
03:10PM-03:40PM 30 min. Kimio Hanawa Trial to Check XBT Fall Rate and to Develop Simple Numerical Model Abstract Presentation
03:40PM-04:10PM 30 min. Shoichi Kizu An Assessment of the Effect of Variance in Probe Weight on the Fall-Rate of Expendable Bathythermograph and Pure Temperature Bias Abstract Presentation
04:10PM-04:40PM 30 min. Okuku A. Ediang Decadal Marine Climate Prediction and Change in Nigeria Abstract 1 Abstract 2
04:40PM-05:10PM 30 min. Catia Domingues The Importance of XBT Data to Climate Studies
05:10PM-05:40PM 30 min. Molly Baringer DISCUSSION - Wrap Up

back to top

List of participants

The following is a list of confirmed participants. Upon registration, your name will be included in this list.

Isabelle Ansorge (UCT, South Africa)
Graeme Ball (BOM, Australia)
Molly Baringer (NOAA/AOML, US)
Helen Beggs (BOM, Australia)
Roger Bodman (Unimelb, Australia)
Tim Boyer (NOAA/NODC, US)
Gary Brassington (BOM, Australia)
Jaclyn Brown (CAWCR, Australia)
Wenju Cai (CSIRO, Australia)
You-Soon Chang (NOAA/GFDL, US)
Lijing Cheng (IAP/AC, China)
Philip Chu (NRL, US)
Colin Cooper (LM Sippican, Australia)
Rebecca Cowley (CSIRO, Australia)
Peter Dexter (BOM, Australia)
Catia Domingues (CSIRO, Australia)
David Fratantoni (WHOI, US)
Alexandre Ganachaud (IRD, France)
Gustavo Goni (NOAA/AOML, US)
Max Gonzalez (BOM, Australia)
V.V. Gopalakrishna (NIO, India)
Ann Gronell Thresher (CSIRO, Australia)
Mathieu Hamon (IFREMER, France)
Kimio Hanawa (Tohoku University, Japan)
Robert W. Helber (NRL, US)
Katy Hill (IMOS, Australia)
Xinmei Huang (BOM, Australia)
Shoichi Kizu (Tohoku University, Japan)
Lisa Krummel (BOM, Australia)
Catia Motta Domingues (CSIRO, Australia)
Hans Ngodock (NRL, US)
Peter Oke (CSIRO, Australia) Invited Speaker
Ediang Okuku Archibong (NIMET, Nigeria)
Greg Reed (RAN, Australia)
Steve Rintoul (CSIRO, Australia)
Dean Roemmich (SIO, US) Invited Speaker
Janet Sprintall (SIO, US)
Susan Wijffels (CSIRO, Australia)

back to top


XSW-1 will take place in the Conference Facilities in Room 3, 6th floor of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Headquarters Building, 700 Collins Street, Docklands. The building is on the edge of the Melbourne Central Business District, well served by all forms of transport and close to hotels, restaurants, etc (Map). It is located at about 50 m from the recommended hotel.

All visitors to the Bureau are required to sign in at the Bureau reception on Level 5 (Collins St), behind Summit Café, to obtain a visitor pass. They can then proceed directly to Conference Room 3 on Level 6, via the low-rise lifts.

  • Hotels

We recommend the Travelodge Docklands, 66 Aurora Lane, Docklands, 3008, (adjacent to the Bureau building, near Etihad Stadium), Tel: +613 8615 1000, Fax: +613 9356 1085. It is situated directly behind the Bureau and 200 m from the SkyBus city terminal (Map). The hotel has a 4 star rating, with associated amenities. For details, visit their web site. The hotel has a breakfast room, but no restaurant; however there are many cafes and restaurants within a few meters. There is also a supermarket nearby.

A block booking of 35 rooms has been made for XSW-1. Rates are AUD 135 (or AUD 150 including breakfast for 1 person) for a standard King room per night. The booking is from Wednesday 6 July to Saturday 9 July (3 nights). These rooms will be held until 6 May 2011. Bookings can be made after this date - subject to availability. Please book directly through the hotel, quoting "XSW-1" or #7748601.

Other hotels near to the Bureau are:

  1. The Holiday Inn on Flinders Hotel, 575 Flinders Lane (corner of Flinders Lane and Spencer Street), Melbourne, Tel: +613 9629 4111, Fax: +613 9629 7027, email: It is situated about 300 m from the Bureau and about 400 m from the SkyBus city terminal (Map). The hotel has a 4 star rating, with all the normal amenities expected in such hotel class. For details, visit their web site. The on-line room rate is AUD 198 per night, standard single/double. Reservations should be made directly with the hotel at their web site. Quoting the Bureau of Meteorology may contribute to obtain a slightly better rate.
  2. Quality Batman's Hill on Collins, 623 Collins Street, Melbourne, 3000 (corner of Collins and Spencer Streets), Tel: +613 9614 6344, Fax: +613 9614 1189, email: It is situated about 200 m from the Bureau and about 300 m from the SkyBus city terminal (Map). The hotel has a 3 star rating, with all the normal amenities expected in such hotel class. For details and reservations, see their web site. The on-line room rate is AUD 107 per night, standard single/double. Reservations should be made directly with the hotel at their web site. Quoting the Bureau of Meteorology may contribute to obtain a slightly better rate.
  3. Kingsgate Hotel, 131 King Street, Melbourne, 3000 (near corner of King and Bourke Streets), Tel: +613 9629 4171, Fax: +613 9629 7110, email: It is situated about 400 m from the Bureau and 300 m from the SkyBus terminal (Map). The hotel has a 3 star rating, with all the normal amenities expected in such hotel class. For details and reservations, visit their web site. The on-line room rate is AUD 99 per night, standard single/double with breakfast extra. Reservations should be made directly with the hotel at their web site. Quoting the Bureau of Meteorology may contribute to obtain a slightly better rate.
  • Airport

Melbourne International and Domestic Airport Tullamarine is located about 20 km to the north-west of the city center. Transport to the city is by SkyBus or taxi. For details you may visit SkyBus web site. The fare is AUD 16 one way, and the city terminal is around 200 m from the recommended hotel, via the Bourke Street elevated walkway over Southern Cross Station. A shuttle service also operates from the SkyBus city terminal to most city hotels at no extra cost. A taxi from the airport to the hotel will cost AUD 40-45, depending on the time of day.

  • Visas

Visitors to Australia from most countries will require a visa or electronic travel authority (ETA) to enter the country. They should also be in possession of national passports valid for at least 6 months from the first date of travel. For visa requirements and other information on entry conditions you may visit Australia's Department of Immigration and Citizenship web site. Another useful web site: Acacia Immigration Australia

  • Local contacts

Lisa Krummel
Observations & Engineering Branch
Bureau of Meteorology
GPO Box 1289. Melbourne, Victoria 3001. Australia
Tel: +61 3 9669 4155
Fax: +61 3 9669 4168

back to top

Graeme Ball
Observations & Engineering Branch
Bureau of Meteorology
GPO Box 1289. Melbourne, Victoria 3001. Australia
Tel: +61 3 9669 4203
Fax: +61 3 9669 4168

Additional Information

  • Money

The Australian currency is the Australian dollar (AUD) and cents. In January 2011:

   1 AUD = 0.996 US dollar
   1 AUD = 0.747 Euro

All major credit cards are accepted virtually everywhere.

Most restaurant, taxi and similar bills already incorporate some form of service charge, so additional tipping is not obligatory. Nevertheless, tips are always welcome, 5% of the bill is suggested.

  • Melbourne

Melbourne is Australia's second largest city, with a population approaching 4 million, renowned for its parks and gardens, art and culture, sport and extensive tramway system. For more information on the city and its services, you may visit the City of Melbourne's web site.

The city transport system, comprising a network of tramways, rail and bus lines, is excellent (Map). For details of timetables, fares etc, you may visit Melbourne's public transport web site.

  • Climate

Early July, in winter, is a the coldest time of year for visiting Melbourne, with normally cool to mild to cool days and cool to cold nights. Average conditions for July:

Mean daily max.: 13.4 ℃
Mean daily min.: 6.0 ℃
Mean monthly rainfall: 47.6 mm
Mean no. rain days: 9.8
Mean daily sunshine: 3.7 hours

For more detailed climate information, see BOM's Climate information for Melbourne. For daily weather forecasts and related information, see BOM's Victorian Weather and Warnings.

  • Tourism

There are many cultural, entertainment and sporting events happening in and around Melbourne at any time of year, as well as interesting places to see and things to do in the city, surrounding areas and the State of Victoria in general. For up to date information on events, visit Melbourne's citysearch web site. For general tourist information on Victoria, visit Tourism Victoria's web site.

For those planning to spend time in Victoria before or after the meeting, one-day or longer excursions can be arranged to attractions in areas surrounding Melbourne such as the Healesville wildlife park; Phillip Island and the Fairy Penguin colony; the goldfields, Ballarat and Bendigo; the Great Ocean Road; wineries; etc. If anyone is interested in arranging such visits in advance, please contact the local organizers.

back to top


City of Melbourne transport map Go

Transport timetables, fares, etc Go

Victoria Tourism Go

Bureau weather information Go

Bureau climate information Go

Airport-City transport by SkyBus Go

Melbourne City Council Go

Melbourne City Happenings Go

back to top

Travelodge Docklands Hotel Go

Holiday Inn Hotel on Flinders Melbourne Go

Vibe Savoy Hotel Melbourne Go

Quality Hotel Batman's Hill On Collins Melbourne Go

Quest Docklands Hotel Go

Kingsgate Hotel Go

Australia's Dept. of Immigration and Citizenship Go

Acacia Immigration Australia Go