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2000 Tropical Cyclone Meteorology and Oceanography Publications

by Chris Landsea and Noel Charles

This is a compilation of all reviewed papers and books (or chapters of books) on the meteorology/oceanography of hurricanes, tropical cyclones, tropical storms, typhoons and easterly waves that were published in 2000. If there are any additions or corrections that need to be made, please e-mail me directly.

All Available Journals 2000


  • Le Marshall, J.F., Leslie, L.M., Morison, R.P., Pescod, N.R., Seecamp, R. and Spinoso, C. 2000 "Recent developments in the continuous assimilation of satellite wind data for tropical cyclone track forecasting" Adv. Space Res., 25, 1077-1080

Australian Journal of Emergency Management

  • Nott, J. and Hayne, M. 2000. How high was the storm surge from tropical cyclone Mahina 1899. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, Autumn issue, 11-14.


  • Chappel L.-C., Bate P.W. 2000: The South Pacific and southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season 1997-98. Aus. Meteor. Mag., 49, 121-138.
  • Cheung N., Kyle W. J., 2000: Trends in seasonal forecasting of tropical cyclone activity. Aus. Meteor. Mag., 49, 201-223.
  • Oates, S. 2000. The South Pacific and southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclone season 1998-99. Aust. Met. Mag., 49, 223-244.


  • Geerts B., Heymsfield G. M., Tian L., Halverson J. B., Guillory A., Mejia M. I., 2000: Hurricane Georges's landfall in the Dominican Republic: Detailed airborne doppler radar imagery. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 999-1018.
  • McAdie C. J., Lawrence M. B., 2000: Improvements in tropical cyclone track forecasting in the atlantic basin, 1970-98. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 989-998.
  • Rappaport, Edward N. 2000: Loss of Life in the United States Associated with Recent Atlantic Tropical Cyclones. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 9, pp.2065-2074.
  • Sampson, C. R., and A. J. Schrader, 2000: The automated tropical cyclone forecasting system (Version 3.2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 81, 1231-1240.


  • None


  • None


  • Murnane, R. J, C. Barton, E. Collins, J. Donnelly, J. Elsner, K. Emanuel, I. Ginis, S. Howard, C. Landsea, K. Liu, D. Malmquist, M. McKay, A. Michaels, N. Nelson, J. O'Brien, D. Scott, and T. Webb, 2000: Model estimates hurricane wind speed probabilities. Eos, 81, 433-438.


  • Elsner, J. B., and B. Kocher, 2000: Global tropical cyclone activity: A link to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 129-132.
  • Saunders, M. A., R. E Chandler, C. J. Merchant, and F. P. Roberts, 2000: Atlantic hurricanes and NW Pacific typhoons: ENSO spatial impacts on occurrence and landfall. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 1147-1150.
  • Sobel, A. H., and E. D. Maloney, 2000: Effect of ENSO and the MJO on Western North Pacific tropical cyclones. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 1739-1742.
  • Elsner, J. B., T. Jagger, and X. Niu, 2000: Changes in the rates of North Atlantic major hurricane activity during the 20th Century. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 1743-1746.
  • Knupp, K. R., J. Walters, and E. W. McCaul, Jr., 2000: Profiler observations of Hurricane Georges during landfall. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 3361-3364.
  • Collins, J.M. and I.M. Mason, 2000: Local environmental conditions related to seasonal tropical cyclone activity in the Northeast Pacific basin. Geo. Res. Letters, 27, 3881-3884.


  • Chan J. C.L. , Shi J.-E. 2000: Frequency of typhoon landfall over Guangdong Province of China during the period 1470-1931. Int. J. Climatol., 20, 183-190.


  • Katsaros, K.B., P.W. Vachon, P.G. Black, P.P. Dodge, and E.W. Uhlhorn, 2000: Wind fields from SAR: Could they improve our understanding of storm dynamics? Johns Hopkins APL Technical Digest, 21, 86-93.


  • Edwards, R. B., Adler, R. F., Pierce, H. F., 2000: Contribution of tropical cyclones to the North Pacific climatological rainfall as observed from satellites. J. App. Meteor., 39, 1658-1678.


  • Shen W., Tuleya, R. E., Ginis I, 2000: A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming. J. Climate, 13, 109-121.
  • Elsner J. B., Liu K., Kocher B., 2000: Spatial variations in major U.S. hurricane activity: Statistics and a physical mechanism. J. Climate, 13, 2293-2305.
  • Solow A. R., Moore L., 2000: Testing for a trend in a partially incomplete hurricane record. J. Climate, 13, 3696-3699.



  • Chu, P. C., Veneziano J. M., Fan C. , Carron M. J., Liu W. T., 2000: Response of the South China Sea to Tropical Cyclone Ernie 1996 J. Geophys. Res., 105, 13,991.
  • Timothy K. R., Susan A. E.: 2000 The generation of internal waves on the continental shelf by Hurricane Andrew. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 26,203.


  • Khain, A.P., I. Ginis and A. Falkovich, 2000: Interaction of binary tropical cyclones in a coupled tropical cyclone-ocean model. J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D17), 22,337-22,354.


  • Vickery, P. J., P. F. Skerlj, and L. A. Twisdale, 2000: Simulation of hurricane risk in the U. S. using empirical track model. J. of Structural Engineering, 126, 1222-1237.


  • Cubukcu, N., Pfeffer R. L., Dietrich D. E., 2000: Simulation of the effects of bathymetry and land-sea contrasts on hurricane development using a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 481-492.
  • Zou, X., Xiao Q., 2000: Studies on the initialization and simulation of a mature hurricane using a variational bogus data assimilation scheme. J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 836-860.
  • Moeller, J. D., and M. T. Montgomery, 2000: Tropical cyclone evolution via potential vorticity anomalies in a three- dimensional balance model. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3366-3387.
  • Nolan, D. S., and Montgomery M. T., 2000: The algebraic growth of wavenumber one disturbances in hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3514-3538.
  • Shapiro, L. J., 2000: Potential vorticity asymmetries and tropical cyclone evolution in a three-layer model. J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 3645-3662.
  • Kossin, J. P., Schubert W. T., Montgomery M. T., 2000: Unstable interactions between a hurricane's primary eyewall and a secondary ring of enhanced vorticity. J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3893-3917.


  • Sobel, A. H., and T. Horinouchi, 2000: On the dynamics of easterly waves, monsoon depressions, and tropical depression type disturbances. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 167-173.
  • Wu C.-C., Bender M. A., and Kurihara Y., 2000: Typhoon forecasts with the GFDL hurricane model: Forecast skill and comparison of predictions using AVN and NOGAPS global analyses. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 777-788.
  • Murata A., and M. Ueno, 2000: The effects of different cumulus parameterization schemes on the intensity forecast of Typhoon Flo (1990). J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 819-833.
  • Baik J.-J., Paek J. -S., 2000: A neural network model for predicting typhoon intensity. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 78, 857-869.


  • None


  • None


  • Cerveny, Randall S., Lynn E. Newman, 2000: Climatological Relationships between Tropical Cyclones and Rainfall. Monthly Weather Review Vol. 128, No. 9, pp. 3329-3336.
  • Molinari, J., D. Vollaro, S. Skubis, and M. Dickinson, 2000: Origins and mechanisms of eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis: A case study. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 125-139.
  • Bosart L. F., Velden C. S., Bracken W. E., Molinari J., Black P. G., 2000: Environmental influences on the rapid intensification of hurricane Opal (1995) over the Gulf of Mexico. Mon. Wea. Rev. 128, 322-352.
  • Tonkin, H., Holland, G.J., Holbrook, N. and Henderson-Sellers, A. 2000: An evaluation of thermodynamic estimates of climatological maximum potential tropical cyclone intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 746-762.
  • Bender, M. A., and I. Ginis, 2000: Real-case simulations of hurricane-ocean interaction using a high-resolution coupled model: Effects on hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev.128, 917-946.
  • Thorncroft, C. D., and S. C. Jones, 2000: The extratropical transitions of hurricanes Felix and Iris in 1995. Mon. Wea. Rev. 128, 947-972.
  • Emanuel, K.A., 2000: A statistical analysis of hurricane intensity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1139-1152.
  • Davidson, N. E., and H. C. Weber, 2000: The BMRC high-resolution tropical cyclone prediction system: TC-LAPS. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1245-1265.
  • Hong X., Chang S. W., Raman S., Shay L. K., Hodur R., 2000: The interaction between hurricane Opal (1995) and a warm core ring in the Gulf of Mexico. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1347-1365.
  • Shay L. K., Goni G. J., Black P. G., 2000: Effects of a warm oceanic feature on hurricane Opal. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1366-1383.
  • Cione J. J., Black P. G., Houston S. H., 2000: Surface observations in the hurricane environment. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1550-1561.
  • Reasor P. D., Montgomery M. T., Marks F. D. Jr., Gamache J. F., 2000: Low-wavenumber structure and evolution of the hurricane inner core observed by airborne dual-doppler radar. Mon. Wea. Rev. 128, 1653-1680.
  • Lee, W.-C., and F. D. Marks, Jr., 2000: Tropical cyclone kinematic structure retrieved from single Doppler radar observations. Part II: The GBVTD-simplex center finding algorithm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1925-1936.
  • Bao J.-W., Wilczak J. M., Choi J.-K., Kantha L. H., 2000: Numerical simulations of air-sea interaction under high wind conditions using a coupled model: A study of hurricane development. Mon. Wea. Rev.128, 2190-2210.
  • Ritchie, E. A., and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Simulated impacts of a mesoscale convective system on the track of Typhoon Robyn during TCM-93. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2232-2251.
  • Xiao Q., Zou X., Wang B., 2000: Initialization and simulation of a landfalling hurricane using a variational bogus data assimilation scheme. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2252-2269.
  • Harr, P. A. and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific. Part I: Evolution of structural characteristics during the transition process. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2613-2633.
  • Harr, P. A., R. L. Elsberry and T. F. Hogan, 2000: Extratropical transition of tropical cyclones over the Western North Pacific. Part II: The impact of midlatitude circulation characteristics. Mon. Wea. Rev. 128, 2634-2653.
  • Kuo, H.-C., G. T.-J. Chen, and C.-H. Lin, 2000: Merging processes of tropical cyclone Zeb and Alex. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2967-2975.
  • Avila, L. A., and J. L. Guiney, 2000: Eastern North Pacific hurricane season of 1998. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2990-3000.
  • Molinari, J., and D. Vollaro, 2000: Planetary and synoptic scale influences on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3296-3307.
  • Knaff, J. A., J. F. Weaver, 2000: A mesoscale low-Level thunderstorm outflow boundary associated with Hurricane Luis. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3352-3355.
  • Avila, L.A., E.N. Pasch, J.-G. Jiing, 2000: Atlantic Tropical Systems of 1996 and 1997: Years of Contrasts. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3695-3706.
  • Zhang D.-L., Liu Y., Yau M. K., 2000: A multiscale numerical study of Hurricane Andrew (1992). Part III: Dynamically induced vertical motion. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3772-3788.
  • Braun S. A., Tao W.-K., 2000: Sensitivity of high-resolution simulations of Hurricane Bob (1991) to planetary boundary layer parameterizations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3941-3961.
  • Lee, W.-C., J.-D. Jou, P.-L. Chang and F. D. Marks, 2000: Tropical cyclone kinematic structure retrieved from single- Doppler radar observations. Part III: Evolution and structure of Typhoon Alex (1987). Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 3982-4001.
  • Blackwell K.G., 2000: The evolution of Hurricane Danny (1997) at landfall: Doppler-observed eyewall replacement, vortex contraction/intensification, and low-level wind maxima. Mon. Wea. Rev.128, 4002-4016.
  • Goerss, J. S., 2000: Tropical cyclone track forecasts using an ensemble of dynamical models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 1187-1193
  • Elsberry, R. L., and L. E. Carr, 2000: Consensus of dynamical tropical cyclone track forecasts - Errors versus spread. Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 4131-4138


  • None


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  • Dengler K., Keyser D., 2000: Intensification of tropical-cyclone like vortices in uniform zonal background-flows. Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc. 126, 549-568.
  • Weber, H. C., 2000: A numerical study of tropical-cyclone structure: Quasi-stationary spiral bands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, 811-836.
  • Smith, R. K., W. Ulrich, and G. Sneddon, 2000: The dynamics of hurricane-like vortices in vertical shear flows. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 126, 2653-2670.
  • Jones S.C., 2000: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. II: Large-scale asymmetries. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 3137-3160.
  • Jones S.C., 2000: The evolution of vortices in vertical shear. III: Baroclinic vortices. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 3161-3186.


  • Smith, R. K., 2000: The role of cumulus convection in hurricanes and its representation in hurricane models. Rev. Geophys., 38, 465-489.


  • Maloney E. D., Hartmann D. L, 2000: Modulation of hurricane activity in the Gulf of Mexico by the Madden-Julian Oscillation. Science, 287, 2002-2004,


  • None


  • Bogner, P. B., G. M. Barnes, and J. L. Franklin, 2000: Conditional instability and shear for six hurricanes over the Atlantic Ocean. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 192-207.
  • Petty, K. R., and J. S. Hobgood, 2000: Improving tropical cyclone intensity guidance in the Eastern North Pacific. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 233-245.
  • Hoarau, K., 2000: Supertyphoon Forrest (September 1983): The overlooked record holder of intensification in 24, 36, and 48 h. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 357-360.
  • Klein, P. M., P. A. Harr and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Extratropical transition of Western North Pacific tropical cyclones: An overview and conceptual model of the transformation stage. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 373-396.
  • Sievers, O., K. Fraedrich, and C. C. Raible, 2000: Self-adapting analog ensemble predictions of tropical cyclone tracks. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 623-629.
  • Carr, L. E., and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Dynamical tropical cyclone track forecast errors. Part I: Tropical region error sources. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 641-661.
  • Carr, L. E., and R. L. Elsberry, 2000: Dynamical tropical cyclone track forecast errors. Part II: Midlatitude circulation influences. Wea. Forecasting, 15, 662-681.

Books published in 2000

  • Pielke, Jr., R. A., and R. A. Pielke, Sr. (eds.), 2000: Storms. Volume I. (Chapters by W. M. Gray, C. Neumann, M. D. Powell, C. W. Landsea, L. Cochran, R. L. Southern, E. J. Baker, G. R. Foley, S. Raghavan, A. K. S. Sarma, L. Chen, R. A. Pielke, Jr.) Routledge Press, London, 563 pp.
  • Sharkov, E. A., 2000: Global Tropical Cyclogenesis, Spring Publishing, London, 370 pp.

the files - TCpubs.1993, TCpubs.1994, TCpubs.1995, TCpubs.1996, TCpubs.1997 and TCpubs.1998 - in the subdirectory "papers" contain all known refereed publications concerning tropical cyclones that were in journals around the world with a print date for those years.

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