FIG. 6. Conceptual illustration of the the changes in the oceanic conveyor belt circulation and its effect on the sea surface temperature, Sahel rainfall, Atlantic hurricanes, and ENSO. A) Less ice amounts increase the salinity in the extreme North Atlantic increasing the oceanic conveyor circulation. This leads to a warmer North Atlantic and cooler South Atlantic in the tropical and subtropical latitudes, contributing toward a stronger North African monsoon, greater Sahel rainfall, and more Atlantic hurricanes. The stronger conveyor circulation also tends to store less heat in the Western Pacific Ocean leading to fewer El Niño events, reinforcing the high frequency of hurricanes and wet Sahel conditions. These were the general conditions which were present from the late 1940s to the late 1960s. B) More ice and lower salinity forces a slightly weaker conveyor and thus less Sahel rainfall, fewer Atlantic intense hurricanes, and more El Niño events. Such conditions have prevailed since the late 1960s.