1. Cormier, R., C.R. Kelble, M.R. Anderson, J.I. Allen, A. Grehan, and O. Gregersen. Moving from ecosystem-based policy objectives to operational implementation of ecosystem-based management measures. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1):406-413, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsw181 2017

    Abstract:

    The aim of ecosystem-based management (EBM) is to maintain an ecosystem in a healthy, productive, and resilient condition through the implementation of policies and management measures. Although cross-sectoral planning may be led by a planning competent authority, it is up to the sector competent authority to implement the necessary management measures within their operations to achieve EBM goals and objectives. We suggest that scientific impediments to EBM are no longer significant to implement EBM operationally. Instead, we consider that approaching EBM within current policy cycle approaches would provide the necessary policymaking process step to operationalize EBM. In addition to enabling and facilitating collaboration, exchange, understanding as promoted by EBM, policymaking processes also require that policy is to be implemented through programs, measures, procedures and controls that have expected outcomes to “carry into effect” the policy objective. We are of the view that moving EBM from planning and objective setting to operational implementation is a management problem solving issues instead of a scientific one.

  2. Harvey, C.J., C.R. Kelble, and F.B. Schwing. Implementing “the IEA”: Using integrated ecosystem assessment frameworks, programs, and applications in support of operationalizing ecosystem-based management. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 74(1):398-405, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fws201 2017

    Abstract:

    The Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) approach was designed to assimilate scientific knowledge in the ideal format for providing advice to inform marine Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM). As such, IEAs were envisioned as the cornerstone integrated science product for the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that would maximize efficiencies and synergies across the agency’s ecosystem science efforts. This led to the development of a NOAA IEA Program that would oversee regional implementation of the national IEA framework. As implementation proceeded, uptake by management entities was slower than anticipated, in part because EBM was not quickly embraced and applied to achieve management objectives. This slow movement to EBM in conjunction with the need to develop scientific analyses and methods to properly implement IEA resulted in the IEA process being viewed as its own endpoint. This commonly led to referring to “the IEA” when variously discussing the IEA framework, program, products, and process. Now that IEA and EBM are maturing, we need to be specific with what we are referring to when discussing IEAs, in order to develop reasonable expectations for applying IEA tools. We also now recognize the need to implement multiple IEA processes at varying geographic and complexity scales within an ecosystem to effectively meet the scientific requirements for operational EBM rather than viewing an IEA application as a single regional science product.

  3. Holsman, K., J. Samhouri, G. Cook, E. Hazen, E. Olsen, M. Dillard, S. Kasperski, S. Gaichas, C.R. Kelble, M. Fogarty, and K. Andrews. An ecosystem-based approach to marine risk assessment. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 3(1):e01256, doi:10.1002/ehs2.1256 2017

    Abstract:

    Risk assessments quantify the probability of undesirable events along with their consequences. They are used to prioritize management interventions and assess tradeoffs, serving as an essential component of ecosystem-based management (EBM). A central objective of most risk assessments for conservation and management is to characterize uncertainty and impacts associated with one or more pressures of interest. Risk assessments have been used in marine resource management to help evaluate the risk of environmental, ecological, and anthropogenic pressures on species or habitats including for data-poor fisheries management (e.g., toxicity, probability of extinction, habitat alteration impacts). Traditionally, marine risk assessments focused on singular pressure-response relationships, but recent advancements have included use of risk assessments in an EBM context, providing a method for evaluating the cumulative impacts of multiple pressures on multiple ecosystem components. Here, we describe a conceptual framework for ecosystem risk assessment (ERA), highlighting its role in operationalizing EBM, with specific attention to ocean management considerations. This framework builds on the ecotoxicological and conservation literature on risk assessment and includes recent advances that focus on risks posed by fishing to marine ecosystems. We review how examples of ERAs from the United States fit into this framework, explore the variety of analytical approaches that have been used to conduct ERAs, and assess the challenges and data gaps that remain. This review discusses future prospects for ERAs as EBM decision-support tools, their expanded role in integrated ecosystem assessments, and the development of next-generation risk assessments for coupled natural–human systems.

  4. Millette, N.C., C. Kelble, A. Linhoss, S. Ashby, and L. Visser. Shift in baseline chlorophyll-a concentration following a three-year Synechococcus bloom in southeastern Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, doi:10.5343/bms.2017.1046 2017

    Abstract:

    A picophytoplankton bloom dominated by Synechococcus formed in September 2005 in a series of shallow lagoons between Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay and lasted until May 2008. Chlorophyll-a concentrations peaked at >20 µg L−1. The bloom coincided with a massive mortality of sponges and caused massive mortality of the seagrass. However, follow-up analysis to determine if there were any long-term impacts from the bloom on the system is lacking. We used long-term water quality data (chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations) collected at 13 stations in the affected region over a 20-yr period to compare environmental conditions before (1995–2004) and after (2009–2014) the bloom. We found that after the bloom, baseline chlorophyll-a concentration significantly increased 45%, from 0.42 (SE 0.02) to 0.77 (SE 0.04) µg chl a L−1, at the stations most impacted by the bloom. Before-After Control-Impact paired analysis suggested these changes were related to the 3-yr bloom and not a larger, regional scale shift. The increase in chlorophyll-a does not appear to be associated with additional changes in water quality, but is potentially due to a reduction in the epibenthic community (e.g., SAV and sponges). Now that the bloom has terminated and the causes of the bloom abated, the system has not returned to its original status, suggesting a lasting impact from the bloom on the ecosystem.

  5. Sandifer, P.A., L.C. Knapp, T.K. Collier, A.L. Jones, R.P. Juster, C.R. Kelble, R.K. Kwok, J.V. Milgarese, L.A. Palinkas, D.E. Porter, G.I. Scott, L.M. Smith, W.C. Sullivan, and A.E. Sutton-Grier. A conceptual model to assess stress-associated health effects of multiple ecosystem services degraded by disaster events in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Geohealth, 1(1):17-36, doi:10.1002/2016GH000038 2017

    Abstract:

    Few conceptual frameworks attempt to connect disaster-associated environmental injuries to impacts on ecosystem services (the benefits humans derive from nature) and thence to both psychological and physiological human health effects. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first, if not the first, to develop a detailed conceptual model of how degraded ecosystem services affect cumulative stress impacts on the health of individual humans and communities. Our comprehensive Disaster-Pressure State-Ecosystem Services-Response-Health model demonstrates that oil spills, hurricanes, and other disasters can change key ecosystem components resulting in reductions in individual and multiple ecosystem services that support people's livelihoods, health, and way of life. Further, the model elucidates how damage to ecosystem services produces acute, chronic, and cumulative stress in humans which increases risk of adverse psychological and physiological health outcomes. While developed and initially applied within the context of the Gulf of Mexico, it should work equally well in other geographies and for many disasters that cause impairment of ecosystem services. Use of this new tool will improve planning for responses to future disasters and help society more fully account for the costs and benefits of potential management responses. The model also can be used to help direct investments in improving response capabilities of the public health community, biomedical researchers, and environmental scientists. Finally, the model illustrates why the broad range of potential human health effects of disasters should receive equal attention to that accorded environmental damages in assessing restoration and recovery costs and time frames.

  6. Lee, T.N., N. Melo, N. Smith, E.M. Johns, C.R. Kelble, R.H. Smith, and P.B. Ortner. Circulation and water renewal of Florida Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science, 92(2):153-180, doi:10.5343/bms.2015.1019 2016

    Abstract:

    The circulation and exchange processes controlling transport and water renewal within the western subregion of Florida Bay, USA, are presented and compared to our previous findings for the north-central and northeast subregions of the bay. We find there is a common bank/basin flow response to wind forcing that is the primary driver of water renewal for each of the regions studied. Florida Bay is a patchwork of shallow basins surrounded by very shallow banks that are cut through with deeper channels connecting to nearby basins. We observed that, for each subregion studied, there was a net downwind basin outflow through the larger channels that was approximately balanced by a net basin inflow over the surrounding shallow banks. The resulting basin throughflows are used to estimate exchange times for renewal of western basin waters of approximately 1 month. This exchange time is sufficient to prevent hypersalinity and degradation of water quality in the western basin, in contrast to the north-central subregion, where hypersalinity development is an annual occurrence. Our results highlight the importance of wind induced water renewal in shallow coastal bays with weak to moderate tidal exchange. In addition, we have discovered a significant clockwise circulation pattern through the western basins from strong inflows of coastal waters through Flamingo Channel that turn southward through the western basins before rejoining the coastal flow toward the Florida Keys tidal passages and Atlantic coastal zone. A practical solution to control hypersalinity, sea grass die-off, and water quality degradation of Florida Bay is proposed.

  7. Karnauskas, M., M.J. Schirripa, J.K. Craig, G.S. Cook, C.R. Kelble, J.J. Agar, B.A. Black, D.B. Enfield, D. Lindo-Atichati, B.A. Muhling, K.M. Purcell, P.M. Richards, and C. Wang. Evidence of climate-driven ecosystem reorganization in the Gulf of Mexico. Global Change Biology, 21(7):2554-2568, doi:10.1111/gcb.12894 2015

    Abstract:

    The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic phenomena including climate, hurricanes, coastal development, agricultural runoff, oil spills, and fishing. These complex and interacting stressors, together with the highly dynamic nature of this ecosystem, present challenges for the effective management of its resources. We analyze a compilation of over 100 indicators representing physical, biological, and economic aspects of the Gulf of Mexico and find that an ecosystem-wide reorganization occurred in the mid-1990s. Further analysis of fishery landings composition data indicates a major shift in the late 1970s coincident with the advent of US national fisheries management policy, as well as significant shifts in the mid-1960s and the mid-1990s. These latter shifts are aligned temporally with changes in a major climate mode in the Atlantic Ocean: the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). We provide an explanation for how the AMO may drive physical changes in the Gulf of Mexico, thus altering higher-level ecosystem dynamics. The hypotheses presented here should provide focus for further targeted studies, particularly in regard to whether and how management should adjust to different climate regimes or states of nature. Our study highlights the challenges in understanding the effects of climatic drivers against a background of multiple anthropogenic pressures, particularly in a system where these forces interact in complex and nonlinear ways.

  8. Kearney, K.A., M. Butler, R. Glazer, C.R. Kelble, J.E. Serafy, and E. Stabenau. Quantifying Florida Bay habitat suitability for fishes and invertebrates under climate change scenarios. Environmental Management, 55(4):836-856, doi:10.1007/s00267-014-0336-5 2015

    Abstract:

    The Florida Bay ecosystem supports a number of economically important ecosystem services, including several recreational fisheries, which may be affected by changing salinity and temperature due to climate change. In this paper, we use a combination of physical models and habitat suitability index models to quantify the effects of potential climate change scenarios on a variety of juvenile fish and lobster species in Florida Bay. The climate scenarios include alterations in sea level, evaporation and precipitation rates, coastal runoff, and water temperature. We find that the changes in habitat suitability vary in both magnitude and direction across the scenarios and species, but are on average small. Only one of the seven species we investigate (Lagodon rhomboides, i.e., pinfish) sees a sizable decrease in optimal habitat under any of the scenarios. This suggests that the estuarine fauna of Florida Bay may not be as vulnerable to climate change as other components of the ecosystem, such as those in the marine/terrestrial ecotone. However, these models are relatively simplistic, looking only at single species effects of physical drivers without considering the many interspecific interactions that may play a key role in the adjustment of the ecosystem as a whole. More complex models that capture the mechanistic links between physics and biology, as well as the complex dynamics of the estuarine food web, may be necessary to further understand the potential effects of climate change on the Florida Bay ecosystem.

  9. Conmy, R.N., P.G. Coble, J. Farr, A.M. Wood, K. Lee, W.S. Pegau, I.D. Walsh, C.R. Koch, M.I. Abercrombie, M.S. Miles, M.R. Lewis, S.A. Ryan, B.J. Robinson, T.L. King, C.R. Kelble, and J. Lacoste. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: Wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(3):1803-1810, doi:10.1021/es404206y 2014

    Abstract:

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements—both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  10. Cook, G.S., P.J. Fletcher, and C.R. Kelble. Towards marine ecosystem based management in South Florida: Investigating the connections among ecosystem pressures, states, and services in a complex coastal system. Ecological Indicators, 44:26-39, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.10.026 2014

    Abstract:

    Marine ecosystem based management plans are gaining popularity with natural resource managers, but examples of their successful implementation remain few. The complexity inherent in marine ecosystems presents a major obstacle to understanding how individual ecosystem pressures impact multiple ecosystem states that in turn impact the provisioning of ecosystem services. To create and implement successful ecosystem based management plans will require tools for understanding these processes. Over the past three years integrated conceptual ecosystem models of the coastal marine environment have been developed as part of the Marine and Estuarine Goal Setting for South Florida (MARES) project. Here we use these conceptual models in conjunction with a modified DPSIR model, expert opinion and matrix-based analyses to explore the direct and indirect relative impact of 12 ecosystem pressures on 11 ecosystem states and 11 ecosystem services identified through MARES. Within the South Florida coastal ecosystem the most pervasive pressures were freshwater delivery, temperature effects of climate change, and impacts of climate change on weather. For the study region the least pervasive pressures were recreational fishing, commercial fishing, and invasive species. The most at risk ecosystem states, as determined by cumulative impacts were fish and shellfish, protected species, and marine birds. By the same measure, the least at risk states were oyster reefs and inshore flats. The most at risk ecosystem services were existence of a natural system, pristine wilderness experience, and non-extractive recreation. The least impacted ecosystem services were commercial extraction, recreational fishing and climate stability. When the relative direct and indirect (i.e., including state to state interactions) impacts of ecosystem pressures were traced to individual ecosystem services, it was apparent that within the study domain a lack of freshwater delivery to coastal estuaries was the predominant pressure, and recreational fishing had the lowest relative impact on the provisioning of ecosystem services. Through this expert opinion analysis and exploration of the interaction strength among various ecosystem pressures, states, and ecosystem services, we can begin to understand the diverse manners in which ecosystem services are impacted by various pressures. In so doing we provide a tool for resource managers to understand the trade-offs among individual user groups and the possible impact on provisioning of ecosystem services that may occur when considering various management strategies.

  11. Fletcher, P.J., C.R. Kelble, W.K. Nuttle, and G.A. Kiker. Using the integrated ecosystem assessment framework to build consensus and transfer information to managers. Ecological Indicators, 44:11-25, doi:10.1016/ j.ecolind.2014.03.024 2014

    Abstract:

    Ecosystem-based management is widely regarded as a method to improve the way we manage our coastal marine resources and ecosystems. Effective ecosystem-based management relies upon synthesizing our scientific knowledge and transferring this knowledge into management actions. Integrated ecosystem assessment is a framework to conduct this scientific synthesis and transfer information to resource managers. Portions of the framework were applied to build consensus on the focal ecosystem components and processes that are characteristic of a sustainable South Florida coastal ecosystem that is producing ecosystem services at the level society desires. Consensus was developed through facilitated meetings that aimed to conceptualize the ecosystem, develop ecosystem indicators, and conduct risk analysis. Resource managers, researchers, academics, and non-governmental organizations participated in these meetings and contributed to the synthesis of science and a myriad of science communications to transfer information to decision makers and the public. A proof of concept Bayesian Belief Network was developed to explore integrating the results of this assessment into an interactive management scenario evaluation tool. The four year effort resulted in the development of a research and management coordination network in South Florida that should provide the foundation for implementing ecosystem-based resource management across multiple agencies.

  12. Levin, P.S., C.R. Kelble, R.L. Shuford, C. Ainsworth, Y. deReynier, R. Dunsmore, M.J. Fogarty, K. Holsman, E.A. Howell, M.E. Monaco, S.A. Oakes, and F. Werner. Guidance for implementation of integrated ecosystem assessments: A U.S. perspective. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 71(5):1198-1204, doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst112 2014

    Abstract:

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has emerged as a basic approach for managing human activities in marine ecosystems, with the aim of recovering and conserving marine ecosystems and the services they deliver. Integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) further the transition of EBM from principle to practice by providing an efficient, transparent means of summarizing the status of ecosystem components, screening and prioritizing potential risks, and evaluating alternative management strategies against a backdrop of environmental variability. In this paper, we draw upon lessons learned from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's IEA programme to outline steps required for IEA implementation. We provide an overview of the conceptual framework for IEAs, the practical constraints that shape the structure of individual IEAs, and the uses and outcomes of IEAs in support of EBM.

  13. Loomis, D.K., P.B. Ortner, C.R. Kelble, and S.K. Paterson. Developing integrated ecosystem indices. Ecological Indicators, 44:57-62, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.02.032 2014

    Abstract:

    Enabling ecosystem-based management requires, among other things, reaching a scientifically based consensus with respect to the key characteristics of a sustainable ecosystem capable of supporting those levels of key ecosystem services desired by society. To determine and convey whether an ecosystem is in fact approaching this goal implies developing indicators that capture the status of both the natural and societal aspects of the system. That said, developing consistent and useful indicators for both societal and natural system aspects of the ecosystem requires both resolving disparate perspectives and inconsistent terminology between human dimensions and natural system scientists and keeping the number of indicators manageably few, without oversimplifying a highly complex ecosystem. To accomplish this we employed a “recursive relationship” approach that defined (and redefined) variables, indicators, and indices along a sliding hierarchy from measurable parameters to highly aggregated indices. To illustrate this approach it is applied herein to both a human dimensions index (recreational quality), and a natural sciences index (water column). This “recursive relationship” approach facilitated development of a parsimonious set of high-level indices that together constitute an ecosystem report card integrating natural system status and related societal dimensions from an ecosystem services perspective, while maintaining all of the information at lower levels necessary to inform specific management decisions.

  14. Ortner, P.B., P.J. Fletcher, and C.R. Kelble. Introduction to tools to support ecosystem based management of South Florida’s coastal resources. Ecological Indicators, 44:2-5, doi:10.1016/ j.ecolind.2014.04.020 2014

    Abstract:

  15. Smith, R.H., E.M. Johns, G.J. Goni, J. Trinanes, R. Lumpkin, A.M. Wood, C.R. Kelble, S.R. Cummings, J.T. Lamkin, and S. Privoznik. Oceanographic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico in July 2010, during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Continental Shelf Research, 77:118-131, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2013.12.009 2014

    Abstract:

    Circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is dominated by mesoscale features that include the Loop Current (LC), Loop Current Rings (LCRs), and smaller frontal eddies. During May-June 2010, while oil was still flowing from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) platform explosion on April 20, 2010, drifter trajectories, satellite observations, and numerical simulations indicated a potential for direct connectivity between the northern Gulf and the Florida Straits via the LC system. This pathway could have potentially entrained particles, including northern GOM contaminants related to the oil spill, carrying them directly towards the coastal ecosystems of south Florida and northern Cuba. To assess this connectivity, and to evaluate the potential oil impacts on economically important GOM fisheries, an interdisciplinary shipboard survey was conducted in the eastern Gulf during July 2010. Analysis of the resulting hydrographic data confirmed that: (1) by July 2010 a large LCR had become separated from the main LC by a cyclonic eddy resulting in the loss of a direct transport mechanism from the northern GOM to the Florida Straits, leaving only indirect pathways available to potential contaminants; and (2) with the exception of four hydrographic stations occupied within 84 km of the wellhead, no evidence of oil was found during the survey on the surface or within the water column. These results corroborated analysis of satellite altimetry observations of the GOM surface circulation and verified official surface oil coverage forecasts where they intersected with the survey track. This cruise sampled the LC, LCR, and frontal eddies to a depth of 2000 m, with the results suggesting that any oil entrained by circulation features in prior months had either been weathered, consumed by bacteria, dispersed to undetectable levels, or was only present in unsurveyed areas. The assembled subsurface measurements represent one of only a few data sets collected across the dominant GOM mesoscale circulation features at a time when there was great concern about the potential long-range spreading of DWH related contaminants. Direct observations such as these are critical for the assessment of particle trajectory and circulations models utilized during the spill, and for the improvement of future numerical forecast products.

  16. Cannizzaro, J.P., C. Hu, K.L. Carder, C.R. Kelble, N. Melo, E.M. Johns, G.A. Vargo, and C.A. Heil. On the accuracy of SeaWiFS ocean color data products on the West Florida Shelf. Journal of Coastal Research, 29(6):1257-1272, doi:10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-12-00223.1 2013

    Abstract:

    Despite the importance of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) on regional ecology and local economy, systematic shelf-wide assessment of the ocean biology has not been conducted, primarily because of budgetary limitations for routine field campaigns and unknown accuracy of satellite-based data products. Here, using shipboard spectral normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw[λ]) data and chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl-a) collected regularly during two multiyear field programs spanning >10 years, the accuracies of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) standard data products were evaluated. The in situ data covered a wide dynamic range, with about one order of magnitude in nLw(490) (0.47-4.01 mW cm−2 μm−1 sr−1) and two orders of magnitude in Chl-a (0.07-10.6 mg m−3). Near-concurrent in situ and satellite nLw(λ) data showed absolute percent differences (APD) increasing from 7–9% to 10–14% when data with elevated aerosol optical thicknesses at 865 nm (τa865) were included. Most of this uncertainty, however, canceled in the maximal blue-to-green reflectance band ratios traditionally used for estimating Chl-a. SeaWiFS OC4 Chl-a data showed a root mean square (RMS) uncertainty of 0.106 for log-transformed data in waters offshore of the 20-m isobath that increased to 0.255 when all data were considered. The increased likelihood for nearshore SeaWiFS Chl-a greater than 0.5 mg m−3 to be overestimated was shown to be caused by a variety of factors (colored dissolved organic matter [CDOM], suspended sediments, and bottom reflectance) that varied in both time and space. In the future, more sophisticated algorithms capable of taking these factors into consideration are required to improve remote determinations of Chl-a in nearshore waters of the WFS.

  17. Karnauskas, M., M.J. Schirripa, C.R. Kelble, G.S. Cook, and J.K. Craig. Ecosystem status report for the Gulf of Mexico. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-SEFSC-653, 52 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  18. Kelble, C.R. Low salinity predation refugia could cause HAB initiation. Journal of Phycology, 49(9):18-19, doi:10.1111/jpy.12015 2013

    Abstract: No abstract.

  19. Kelble, C.R., D.K. Loomis, S. Lovelace, W.K. Nuttle, P.B. Ortner, P. Fletcher, G.S. Cook, J.J. Lorenz, and J.N. Boyer. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model: Integrating ecosystem services into the DPSIR framework. PLoS ONE, 8(8):e70766, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070766 2013

    Abstract:

    There is a pressing need to integrate biophysical and human dimensions science to better inform holistic ecosystem management supporting the transition from single species or single-sector management to multi-sector ecosystem-based management. Ecosystem-based management should focus upon ecosystem services, since they reflect societal goals, values, desires, and benefits. The inclusion of ecosystem services into holistic management strategies improves management by better capturing the diversity of positive and negative human-natural interactions and making explicit the benefits to society. To facilitate this inclusion, we propose a conceptual model that merges the broadly applied Driver, Pressure, State, Impact, and Response (DPSIR) conceptual model with ecosystem services yielding a Driver, Pressure, State, Ecosystem service, and Response (EBM-DPSER) conceptual model. The impact module in traditional DPSIR models focuses attention upon negative anthropomorphic impacts on the ecosystem; by replacing impacts with ecosystem services the EBM-DPSER model incorporates not only negative, but also positive changes in the ecosystem. Responses occur as a result of changes in ecosystem services and include inter alia management actions directed at proactively altering human population or individual behavior and infrastructure to meet societal goals. The EBM-DPSER conceptual model was applied to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas marine ecosystem as a case study to illustrate how it can inform management decisions. This case study captures our system-level understanding and results in a more holistic representation of ecosystem and human society interactions, thus improving our ability to identify trade-offs. The EBM-DPSER model should be a useful operational tool for implementing EBM, in that it fully integrates our knowledge of all ecosystem components while focusing management attention upon those aspects of the ecosystem most important to human society and does so within a framework already familiar to resource managers.

  20. Stamates S.J., P.L. Blackwelder, C.J. Brown, T.P. Carsey, C.M. Featherstone, M.L. Gidley, C.R. Kelble, R.M. Kotkowski, and R.J. Roddy. Biscayne Bay turbidity study. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-41, 65 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  21. Kelble, C. Plankton type affects food webs. In Tropical Connections: South Florida's Marine Environment, W.L. Kruczynski and P.J. Fletcher (eds.). IAN Press, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, 125, 2012

    Abstract: No abstract.

  22. Kelble, C. Salinity is an important variable in Florida Bay. In Tropical Connections: South Florida's Marine Environment, W.L. Kruczynski and P.J. Fletcher (eds.). IAN Press, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, 120, 2012

    Abstract: No abstract.

  23. Kelble, C., C. Heil, and P.M. Gilbert. Water quality is monitored to assess environmental conditions. In Tropical Connections: South Florida's Marine Environment, W.L. Kruczynski and P.J. Fletcher (eds.). IAN Press, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, 108-109, 2012

    Abstract: No abstract.

  24. Kelble, C.R. The effect of salinity on the plankton community of Florida Bay. Ph.D. thesis, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 174 pp., 2010

    Abstract: The greater Everglades ecosystem, including Florida Bay, has undergone significant anthropogenic manipulation over the past century. These actions resulted in a series of ecologically undesirable events in the Everglades ecosystem, prompting passage of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). It is necessary to understand the variability in, and relationship between, salinity and ecology to fully evaluate the potential effects of CERP on Florida Bay. A seven-year dataset on surface salinity along with eleven-year and eight-year datasets on mesozooplankton and planktivorous fish were analyzed. Overall, mean Bay-wide salinity varied from a low of 24.2 just after the passing of Hurricane Irene in October 1999 to a high of 41.8 near the end of a drought period in July 2001. Bay-wide mean salinity exhibited dramatic decreases, up to 0.5 per day, whereas increases in bay-wide salinity were slower, with a maximum rate of 0.1 per day. Meteorological phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and ENSO, dramatically altered the salinity patterns of Florida Bay on interannual time scales. There was a large degree of spatial heterogeneity in salinity between sub-regions of Florida Bay due to differing freshwater sources and geomorphology. Mesozooplankton abundance displayed interannual variability and a positive correlation with salinity. Both of these features were also closely correlated with abundance of the dominant planktivorous fish, Anchoa mitchilli, indicating the importance of top-down control. The hypersaline periods appear to provide a refuge from predators, allowing mesozooplankton to increase in abundance during periods of increased physiological stress. The interaction between mesozooplankton and A. mitchilli, along with its correlation to salinity, was further investigated through the development of a mechanistic model of the populations in Florida Bay. The model indicated predation alone was insufficient to control mesozooplankton populations; rather, it was necessary to incorporate density-dependence utilizing a logistic prey population. With both mechanisms the model was able to replicate the observed interannual variability pattern and positive correlation between mesozooplankton and salinity. A preliminary management scenario evaluation suggests a two to six-fold difference in A. mitchilli and mesozooplankton populations between targeted and general salinity reductions. This suggests alternative freshwater management scenarios could produce drastically different ecological consequences.

  25. Kelble, C.R., P.B. Ortner, G.L. Hitchcock, M.J. Dagg, and J.N. Boyer. Temporal and spatial variability of mesozooplankton in a shallow sub-tropical bay: Influence of top-down control. Estuaries and Coasts, 33(3):727-737, doi:10.1007/s12237-010-9270-9 2010

    Abstract: Quantifying the relationship between mesozooplankton and water quality parameters identifies the factors that structure the mesozooplankton community and can be used to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that control the mesozooplankton population and potentially the trophic network. To investigate this relationship, mesozooplankton and water quality data were collected in Florida Bay from 1994 to 2004. Three key characteristics were found in the mesozooplankton community structure: (1) there are significant differences between the four sub-regions of Florida Bay; (2) there is a break in May of 1997 with significant differences before and after this date; and (3) there is a positive correlation between mesozooplankton abundance and salinity. The latter two characteristics are closely correlated with predator abundance, indicating the importance of top-down control. Hypersaline periods appear to provide a refuge from predators, allowing mesozooplankton to increase in abundance despite the increased physiological stress.

  26. Boyer, J.N., C.R. Kelble, P.B. Ortner, and D.T. Rudnick. Phytoplankton bloom status: Chlorophyll a biomass as an indicator of water quality condition in the southern estuaries of Florida, USA. Ecological Indicators, 9(6) (Suppl):S56-S67, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2008.11.013 2009

    Abstract: Altered freshwater inflows have affected circulation, salinity, and water quality patterns of Florida Bay, in turn altering the structure and function of this estuary. Changes in water quality and salinity and associated loss of dense turtle grass and other submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Florida Bay have created a condition in the bay where sediments and nutrients have been regularly disturbed, frequently causing large and dense phytoplankton blooms. These algal and cyanobacterial blooms in turn often cause further loss of more recently established SAV, exacerbating the conditions causing the blooms. Chlorophyll a (CHLA) was selected as an indicator of water quality because it is an indicator of phytoplankton biomass, with concentrations reflecting the integrated effect of many of the water quality factors that may be altered by restoration activities. Overall, we assessed the CHLA indicator as being (1) relevant and reflecting the state of the Florida Bay ecosystem, (2) sensitive to ecosystem drivers (stressors, especially nutrient loading), (3) feasible to monitor, and (4) scientifically defensible. Distinct zones within the bay were defined according to statistical and consensual information. Threshold levels of CHLA for each zone were defined using historical data and scientific consensus. A presentation template of condition of the bay using these thresholds is shown as an example of an outreach product.

  27. Zhang, J.-Z., C.R. Kelble, C.J. Fischer, and L.D. Moore. Hurricane Katrina induced nutrient runoff from an agricultural area to coastal waters in Biscayne Bay, Florida. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 84(2):209-218, doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.06.026 2009

    Abstract: Water quality surveys conducted in Biscayne Bay, Florida, indicated enhanced nutrient input coupled with increased runoff as a result of precipitation associated with Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations before Katrina ranged from 0.06-24.2 mM (mean 3.3 mM) for nitrate and 0.01-0.18 mM (mean 0.1 mM) for soluble reactive phosphate. Five days after Katrina, nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.87-80.0 mM (mean 17.0 mM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 5.2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. Soluble reactive phosphate concentrations ranged from 0.07-0.62 mM (mean 0.2 mM), with a bay-wide mean increase of 2-fold over pre-hurricane levels. The maximum concentrations for both nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate were found at a water quality monitoring station near the mouth of Mowry Canal, which drains an agricultural area in the southern Biscayne Bay watershed near Homestead, Florida. At this station, nitrate and soluble reactive phosphate concentrations increased 7- and 10-fold, respectively. Storm-induced fertilizer runoff from this agricultural area caused a bay-wide increase in nutrient concentrations after Hurricane Katrina. Nutrient concentrations in the bay returned to pre-hurricane levels within three months after Hurricane Katrina, showing the resiliency of the Biscayne Bay ecosystem.

  28. Hitchcock, G.L., W.S. Arnold, M. Frischer, C.R. Kelble, and R.K. Cowen. Short-term dispersal of an intentionally-released patch of larval Mercenaria spp. in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Bulletin of Marine Science, 82(1):41-57, 2008

    Abstract: In July 1998 approximately 2.5 x 108 of recently-spawned Mercenaria spp. larvae were intentionally released in the northernmost basin of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, to characterize the initial dispersion from a point source at time scales of hours to days. Larval densities measured with a quantitative molecular method indicated ambient concentrations were enhanced by 10 larvae L-1 near surface drifters released with the larvae. Surface distributions from samples collected near the drifters indicate that larval patches developed during the first day. Diffusive processes evaluated from dye releases yield apparent diffusivity coefficients that suggest diffusive processes could spread larvae over several km2 within 2 d. Our observations suggest that high-resolution methods for mapping larvae are essential to better resolve spatial distribution evolution at time scales of hours to days, and spatial scales of tens to hundreds of meters. This capability could better define the temporal evolution of larval distributions following a mass spawning event.

  29. Lee, T.N., N. Melo, E. Johns, C. Kelble, R.H. Smith, and P.B. Ortner. On water renewal and salinity variability in the northeast subregion of Florida Bay. Bulletin of Marine Science, 82(1):83-105, 2008

    Abstract: The northeast subregion of Florida Bay receives approximately 75% of the direct freshwater runoff to the bay, most of which is retained within the subregion and has little impact on the dilution of hypersalinity development in adjacent subregions. Using direct measurements of the volume transports through connecting channels and indirectly estimating the total transport to the subregion from mean sea level variability, we show that interior basin water exchanges are weak and controlled by local wind forcing. East-west winds produced seasonally averaged throughflows of 33 and 78 m3 s-1 during the El Niño-influenced wet and dry seasons of 2002 and 2003, respectively, and resulted in a one year residence time for the northeast sub-region. The long residence time of the interior waters is due to the confining nature of the shallow banks and mangrove borders that surround the northeast subregion, as well as the lack of significant tidal exchange. Weak interbasin exchange results in the trapping of freshwater discharge from the Everglades within the northeast subregion. Development of hypersalinity within the north-central subregion of the bay has been associated with seagrass die-off and algal blooms that can cause water quality reduction in south Florida's coastal waters, including the Florida Keys reef tract. To reduce the development of hypersalinity within this region of the bay it will be necessary to divert a portion of the Everglades flow away from the northeast basin and into Whipray Basin during the dry season. Seasonal water balance estimates made for the northeast subregion and previous estimates from the north-central region indicate that groundwater inflows to Florida Bay are negligible and probably not a factor in water quality considerations.

  30. Serafy, J.E., C.R. Kelble, T.R. Capo, S.A. Luthy, and P.B. Ortner. Vertical movement rates of captive larval billfishes (Istiophoridae) collected from the Straits of Florida. Florida Scientist, 71(1):23-30, 2008

    Abstract: Challenges associated with species identification, live collection and laboratory maintenance of billfish larvae have hindered research on their physiology and behavior. In the present study, short-duration neuston net tows in the Straits of Florida yielded 19 live istiophorid billfish larvae, which were immediately placed in a shipboard vertical swimming chamber to measure their vertical movement rates. After swimming trials, larvae were transferred to the laboratory where they were identified to species, classified as to flexion stage and measured for length. Mean vertical swimming speeds of captive larval sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 cm s-1 or 1.6 to 5.6 body lengths s-1. These rates exceed most larval fish sinking rates reported for other species and are comparable to mean larval "cruising" speeds reported for several temperate freshwater and marine fishes; however, they appear far lower than most swimming speed estimates for reef fish larvae.

  31. Kelble, C.R., and J.N. Boyer. Southern estuaries hypothesis cluster: Water quality, pp. 7.5-7.34. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Assessment Team (eds.). Final 2007 System Status Report, 471 pp., 2007

    Abstract: South Florida's bays and the plants and animals that they support reflect the volume, distribution, and quality of fresh water flowing into these aquatic systems. Past changes to the quality, quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater flow have degraded water quality and compromised estuarine community structure and function in some areas of the southern estuaries. Current water quality monitoring programs provide adequate spatial and temporal coverage throughout the southern estuaries with the possible exception of the southwest Florida shelf where the temporal variability may not be adequately captured. Chlorophyll-a was selected as an indicator of water quality because its biomass is an integrator of many of the water quality factors which may be altered by CERP. There is concern that increased freshwater flow due to CERP activities may result in more frequent, intense, and persistent phytoplankton blooms in the southern estuaries. The baseline conditions indicate that most of the southern estuaries is oligotrophic with median chlorophyll-a concentrations of less than or approximately 1 ppb. This baseline data was used as the reference condition to assess the 2006 southern estuaries data, and only the Barnes, Manatee, and Blackwater Sound subregion was found to have chlorophyll a biomass significantly higher than the baseline. This algal bloom was the result of an increase in total P in this subregion from the combined effects of highway construction and hurricane impacts, including the pre-hurricane freshwater release. This phytoplankton bloom illustrates the sensitivity of the southern estuaries to small increases in nutrient loading, because it took only a small increase in TP (> 10 ppb) to trigger this large phytoplankton bloom, which continues to persist. The ability of our methodologies to adequately detect this decline in water quality due to altered environmental conditions indicates the applicability of this technique to detect changes in water quality as a result of CERP activities. Understanding how CERP affects water quality in the southern estuaries will facilitate adaptively managing and guiding restoration efforts.

  32. Kelble, C.R., E.M. Johns, W.K. Nuttle, T.N. Lee, R.H. Smith, and P.B. Ortner. Salinity patterns of Florida Bay. Estuarine, Coastal, and Shelf Science, 71(1-2):318-334, doi:10.1016.j.ecss.2006.08.006 2007

    Abstract:

    The salinity of Florida Bay has undergone dramatic changes over the past century. Salinity values reached their most extreme, up to 70, in the late 1980s, concurrent with ecological changes in Florida Bay including a mass seagrass die-off. In this study, surface salinity was measured at approximately monthly intervals between 1998 and 2004. The 7-year data set was analyzed to quantify the effects of precipitation, runoff, evaporation, and climatic variability on salinity in Florida Bay. Overall mean Bay-wide salinity varied from a low of 24.2 just after the passing of Hurricane Irene in October 1999 to a high of 41.8 near the end of a drought period in July 2001. Bay-wide mean salinity exhibited dramatic decreases, up to -0.5 per day, whereas increases were slower, with a maximum rate of 0.1 per day. The freshwater budget for Florida Bay was slightly negative on an annual basis with significant positive monthly values observed during the peak of the rainy season (August through October) and significant negative monthly values observed during the peak of the dry season (March through May). This resulted in a minimum mean monthly Bay-wide salinity in January and a maximum monthly mean in July. Mean salinity for the overall Bay and for each of its four sub-regions could be predicted with reasonable accuracy utilizing a mass balance box model. There was no monotonic trend in salinity over this 7-year study; however, meteorological phenomena, such as tropical cyclones and El Niño-Southern Oscillation, dramatically altered the salinity patterns of Florida Bay on interannual time scales.

  33. Serafy, J.E., T.R. Capo, and C.R. Kelble. Live capture of larval billfishes: Design and field testing of the continuous access Neuston observation net (CANON). Bulletin of Marine Science, 79(3):853-857, 2006

    Abstract:

    Basic research on larval billfish biology and ecology has been hampered by difficulties with species identification, the capture of live specimens, and their survival after capture (Richards, 1974; Post et al., 1997; Serafy et al., 2003). Whereas, genetic techniques are helping to resolve the identification problems (McDowell and Graves, 2002; Hyde et al., 2005; Luthy et al., 2005), obtaining live, uninjured billfish larvae for scientific study remains a serious obstacle (Idrisi et al., 2003; Serafy et al., 2003). To date, the most successful effort to collect live istiophorid larvae, and to subsequently maintain them in captivity, was conducted by Post et al. (1997). They sampled over a 2-yr period off Miami, Florida with a circular, 1 m diameter plankton net with 1 mm mesh. By limiting their Neuston tow duration to 2 min or less, overall larval istiophorid survival immediately after collection was 30%. Building on the Post et al. (1997) work, we addressed the problem of live billfish collection by developing a new Neuston gear in which tow duration can span, uninterrupted, whatever time period desired, and while underway, its cod-end contents are both viewable and immediately collectable. The rationale behind the "continuous access Neuston observation net" (CANON) design is that the key to minimizing larval injury (due to net abrasion, turbulence, and interactions with other organisms in the cod-end) lies in reducing the time larvae spend in the collection gear. Here, we describe the components, configuration, and operation of the CANON as well as provide results of its performance relative to conventional Neuston net sampling. Possible future applications for this new gear are also described.

  34. Hitchcock, G.L., T.N. Lee, P.B. Ortner, S.R. Cummings, C.R. Kelble, and E. Williams. Property fields in a Tortugas eddy in the southern Straits of Florida. Deep-Sea Research, Part I, 52(12):2195-2213, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2005.08.006 2005

    Abstract:

    Sea surface temperature imagery, ship-based surveys, and moored current meters described the passage of a Tortugas eddy as it moved east at ca. 6 km day-1 through the southern Straits of Florida (SSF). In mid-April 1999, the eddy SST signature extended across half the width of the Straits. While in the western SSF, the eddy center was ca. 30 km seaward of the outer reef. The upper pycnocline, the subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM), and nutricline shoaled from ca. 80 m at the eddy edge to -3, although the depth-integrated concentrations (mg m-2) were similar across the feature. Nutrient-density relationships show nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silicate decreased to detection limits at sigmat <25.0; the SCM was centered near this isopycnal surface. As the Eddy passed Looe Key (81.5°W), the alongshore currents reversed to the west. During this period high-nutrient, cool waters shoaled near the bottom on the outer reef. By early May, the eddy SST signature was compressed into a thin band of cool surface waters off the middle to upper Keys. As the feature moved towards shore in the middle to upper Florida Keys, the nitrate+nitrite and chlorophyll concentrations increased in bottom waters along the outer reef. Processes such as internal tidal bores and breaking internal waves are likely responsible for delivering nutrients from Tortugas eddies to the outer reef in the middle to upper Keys.

  35. Hu, C., F.E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, K.L. Carder, C. Kelble, E. Johns, and C.A. Heil. Red tide detection and tracing using MODIS fluorescence data: A regional example in southwest Florida coastal waters. Remote Sensing of Environment, 97(3):311-321, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2005.05.013 2005

    Abstract:

    Near real-time data from the MODIS satellite sensor was used to detect and trace a harmful algal bloom (HAB), or red tide, in southwest Florida coastal waters from October to December 2004. MODIS fluorescence line height (FLH in W m-2 m-1 sr-1) data showed the highest correlation with near-concurrent in situ chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl in mg m-3). For Chl ranging between 0.4 to 4 mg m-3 the ratio between MODIS FLH and in situ Chl is about 0.1 W m-2 m-1 sr-1 per mg m-3 chlorophyll (Chl = 1.255 (FLH x 10)0.86, r = 0.92, n = 77). In contrast, the band-ratio chlorophyll product of either MODIS or SeaWiFS in this complex coastal environment provided false information. Errors in the satellite Chl data can be both negative and positive (3-15 times higher than in situ Chl), and these data are often inconsistent either spatially or temporally due to interferences of other water constituents. The red tide that formed from November to December 2004 off southwest Florida was revealed by MODIS FLH imagery and was confirmed by field sampling to contain medium (104 to 105 cells L-1) to high (>105 cells L-1) concentrations of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. The FLH imagery also showed that the bloom started in mid-October south of Charlotte Harbor, and that it developed and moved to the south and southwest in the subsequent weeks. Despite some artifacts in the data and uncertainty caused by factors such as unknown fluorescence efficiency, our results show that the MODIS FLH data provide an unprecedented tool for research and managers to study and monitor algal blooms in coastal environments.

  36. Johns, E., R.H. Smith, P.B. Ortner, T.N. Lee, C.R. Kelble, and N. Melo. Real-time oceanographic and meteorological observations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Proceedings, 2005 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Duck Key, FL, December 11-14, 2005. University of Florida, 133-134, 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  37. Johns, E., R.H. Smith, P.B. Ortner, T.N. Lee, C.R. Kelble, and N. Melo. Salinity variability in south Florida coastal waters, 1995-2005. Proceedings, 2005 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Duck Key, FL, December 11-14, 2005. University of Florida, 135-136, 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  38. Kelble, C.R., E.M. Johns, P.B. Ortner, W.K. Nuttle, T.N. Lee, C.D. Hittle, and R.H. Smith. Salinity patterns of Florida Bay. Proceedings, 2005 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Duck Key, FL, December 11-14, 2005. University of Florida, 137-138, 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  39. Kelble, C.R., P.B. Ortner, G.L. Hitchcock, and J.N. Boyer. Attenuation of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) in Florida Bay: Potential for light limitation of primary producers. Estuaries, 28(4):560-571, 2005

    Abstract:

    Light attenuation in marine ecosystems can limit primary production and determine the species composition and abundance of primary producers. In Florida Bay, the importance of understanding the present light environment has heightened as major upstream water management restoration projects have been proposed and some are already being implemented. We analyzed a two-yearr (2001-2003) data set of the light attenuation coefficient (Kt) and its principal components (water, chromophoric dissolved organic matter [CDOM], tripton, phytoplankton) obtained at 40 stations within Florida Bay, calibrated synoptic underway data to produce high spatial resolution maps, examined the potential for light limitation, and quantified the individual effect of each component upon light attenuation. Tripton was the dominant component controlling light attenuation throughout Florida Bay, whereas the contribution of chlorophyll a and CDOM to Kt was much smaller in all regions of Florida Bay. It was possible to accurately estimate the light attenuation coefficient from component concentrations, using either a mechanistic or a statistical model with root mean square errors of 0.252 or 0.193 m-1, respectively. Compared to other estuaries, Florida Bay had the lowest overall Kt and the greatest relative contribution from tripton. Comparing the recent data to a study of Florida Bay's light environment conducted in 1993-1994, we found that overall water clarity in the Bay increased significantly, indicated by a nearly three-fold decrease in Kt, as a result of lower tripton concentrations, although the percent contribution of each of the components to Kt is unchanged. Only the northwest corner of Florida Bay, an area comprised of approximately 8% of the Bay's total area, was found on average to have sufficient light attenuation to limit the growth of seagrasses. This is much less extensive than in 1993-1994, when seagrass growth was potentially limited by light at over 50% of the stations sampled.

  40. Smith, R.H., E. Johns, P.B. Ortner, T.N. Lee, C.R. Kelble, and N. Melo. Satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories reveal the spatial and temporal current variability of south Florida. Proceedings, 2005 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Duck Key, FL, December 11-14, 2005. University of Florida, 148-149, 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  41. Smith, R.H., E.M. Johns, S.R. Cummings, P.B. Ortner, C.R. Kelble, N. Melo, and T.N. Lee. The influence of the 2005 hurricane season on water quality in Florida Bay and surrounding coastal waters. Proceedings, 2005 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Duck Key, FL, December 11-14, 2005. University of Florida, 146-147, 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  42. Lawrence, D., M.J. Dagg, H. Liu, S.R. Cummings, P.B. Ortner, and C.R. Kelble. Wind events and benthic-pelagic coupling in a shallow subtropical bay in Florida. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 266:1-13, doi:10.3354/meps266001 2004

    Abstract:

    During the winter months (December to April), the southeast United States is influenced by continental air masses from the north or northwest which pass at approximately 4 to 7 d intervals. These wind events can cause suspension of bottom sediments in Florida Bay. Over a 9 d period in March 2001, we examined the effects of a wind-mixing event on the pelagic system within the northwest part of Florida Bay, where water depth is 2 to 3 m. This event caused significant suspension of bottom materials, large increases in NH4 and PO4, smaller increases in NO3+NO2 and Si(OH)4, a decrease in microzooplankton abundance, and an increase in benthic copepods in the water column. As wind speeds declined, there was a rapid decline in PO4 concentration, gradual declines in suspended sediment, NH4 and Si(OH)4, an increase in chlorophyll a (chl a) stock, an increase in phytoplankton growth and productivity, an increase in microzooplankton grazing rate, and a settling of the benthic harpacticoid community. No grazing response was apparent in the mesozooplankton community. The wind event clearly injected dissolved and particulate benthic materials into the water column, where they directly stimulated the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and microzooplankton communities within 1 to 2 d after the event. The water column was strongly net heterotrophic at this time, suggesting a large input of dissolved organic matter from the bottom. Stimulation of the pelagic food web continued at least until we completed our study 6 d after the event. By the end of our study, the water column was net autotrophic.

  43. Johns, E., P.B. Ortner, R.H. Smith, C.R. Kelble, S.R. Cummings, J.C. Hendee, N. Melo, T.N. Lee, and E.J. Williams. New interdisciplinary oceanographic observations in the coastal waters adjacent to Florida Bay. Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem from Kissimmee to the Keys, Palm Harbor, FL, April 13-18, 2003. University of Florida Office of Conferences and Institutes, 45-47 (CD-ROM), 2003

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  44. Kelble, C.R. Attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in Florida Bay, USA. MS thesis, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 96 pp., 2003

    Abstract:

    Abstract: The availability of light in marine ecosystems is of vital importance to primary producers, both benthic and pelagic, and is governed by attenuation within the water column. Light attenuation is especially important for Florida Bay because the Bay is dominated by seagrass. Light attenuation is measured as the light attenuation coefficient, Kt, which is affected by four main factors: seawater, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), phytoplankton, and tripton (non-living particulate matter). In this study, Kt was measured in Florida Bay, along with the concentration of each of these factors during survey cruises from July 2001 to March 2002. The effect of each of the factors on Kt was quantified to produce an equation to estimate Kt from factor concentrations and identify the dominant factor(s). These surveys also consisted of a series of underway measurements that were used to estimate factor concentrations along the entire cruise track. These underway factor concentration estimates were then inserted into the equation to estimate Kt without a loss of accuracy and allowed for a high-resolution study of light-limitation on the primary producers of Florida Bay. Light-limitation of pelagic phytoplankton was of minimal importance overall, but did occur in a minute area of northwest Florida Bay. However, light-limitation of seagrass was of much greater importance with seagrass growth being inhibited throughout a large portion of northwest Florida Bay. This study indicates the importance of light attenuation in Florida Bay and highlights the need for continued monitoring to identify and predict the effects of light attenuation on Florida Bay's primary producers.

  45. Kelble, C.R., G.L. Hitchcock, P.B. Ortner, and J.N. Boyer. A recent study of the light environment in Florida Bay. Joint Conference on the Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem from Kissimmee to the Keys, Palm Harbor, FL, April 13-18, 2003. University of Florida Office of Conferences and Institutes, 48-50 (CD-ROM), 2003

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  46. Zhang, J.-Z., C.R. Kelble, and F.J. Millero. Gas-segmented continuous flow analysis of iron in water with a long liquid waveguide capillary flow cell. Analytica Chimica Acta, 438(1-2):49-57, doi:10.1016/S0003-2670(01)01031-5 2001

    Abstract:

    A long liquid waveguide capillary flow cell has been successfully adapted to a gas-segmented continuous flow auto-analyzer for trace analysis of iron in water. The flow cell was made of new material, Teflon AF-2400, which has a refractive index (1.29) lower than water (1.33). Total reflection of light can be achieved provided that the incident angle at each reflection on the water/Teflon interface is greater than the critical angle. Teflon AF-2400 is superior to currently used materials in both refractivity and mechanical stability. This allows for construction of a long liquid waveguide capillary flow cell in a helical, rather than linear shape, with compact dimensions. Since the internal volume of a 2 m-long, 550 ?m ID liquid waveguide capillary flow cell is only approximately 0.5 cm3, a small sample volume is required. Utilization of this long flow cell significantly enhances the sensitivity of automated colorimetric analysis of iron by the ferrozine method, allowing for accurate determination of nanomolar concentrations of iron in natural waters. The advantages of this technique are low detection limit (0.1 nM), small sample volume (2 ml), high precision (1%), and automation for rapid analysis of a large number of samples. This technique is applicable to any gas-segmented continuous flow analysis or flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection.