1. Bakker, D.C.E., B. Pfeil, C.S. Landa, N. Metzl, K.M. O'Brien, A. Olsen, K. Smith, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, S.D. Jones, S.-I. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, U. Schuster, T. Steinhoff, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, R. Wanninkhof, S.R. Alin, C.F. Balestrini, L. Barbero, N.R. Bates, A.A. Bianchi, F. Bonou, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, E.F. Burger, W.-J. Cai, R.D. Castle, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, W. Evans, C. Featherstone, R.A. Feely, A. Fransson, C. Goyet, N. Greenwood, L. Gregor, S. Hankin, N.J. Hardman-Mountford, J. Harlay, J. Hauck, M. Hoppema, M.P. Humphreys, C.W. Hunt, B. Huss, J.S.P. Ibánhez, T. Johannessen, R. Keeling, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, A. Kozyr, E. Krasakopoulou, A. Kuwata, P. Landschützer, S.K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, C. Lo Monaco, A. Manke, J.T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, F.J. Millero, P.M.S. Monteiro, D.R. Munro, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A.M. Omar, T. Ono, K. Paterson, D. Pearce, D. Pierrot, L.L. Robbins, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, R. Schlitzer, B. Schneider, R. Schweitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, K.F. Sullivan, S.C. Sutherland, A.J. Sutton, K. Tadokoro, M. Telszewski, M. Tuma, S.M.A.C. Van Heuven, D. Vandemark, B. Ward, A.J. Watson, and S. Xu. A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO2 data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT). Earth System Science Data, 8:383-413, doi:10.5194/essd-8-383-2016 2016

    Abstract:

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled fCO2 (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million fCO2 values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million fCO2 values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water fCO2 values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and platforms. The accuracy of surface water fCO2 has been defined for all data set QC flags. Automated range checking has been carried out for all data sets during their upload into SOCAT. The upgrade of the interactive Data Set Viewer (previously known as the Cruise Data Viewer) allows better interrogation of the SOCAT data collection and rapid creation of high-quality figures for scientific presentations. Automated data upload has been launched for version 4 and will enable more frequent SOCAT releases in the future. High-profile scientific applications of SOCAT include quantification of the ocean sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide and its long-term variation, detection of ocean acidification, as well as evaluation of coupled-climate and ocean-only biogeochemical models. Users of SOCAT data products are urged to acknowledge the contribution of data providers, as stated in the SOCAT Fair Data Use Statement. This ESSD (Earth System Science Data) “living data” publication documents the methods and data sets used for the assembly of this new version of the SOCAT data collection and compares these with those used for earlier versions of the data collection (Pfeil et al., 2013; Sabine et al., 2013; Bakker et al., 2014). Individual data set files, included in the synthesis product, can be downloaded here: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.849770. The gridded products are available here: doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.SOCAT_V3_GRID.

  2. Carsey, T., J. Stamates, J.-Z. Zhang, F. Bloetscher, D. Meeroff, and C. Featherstone. Point source nutrient fluxes from an urban coast: The Boynton (Florida) Inlet. Environment and Natural Resources Research, 5(2):121-134, doi:10.5539/enrr.v5n2p121 2015

    Abstract:

    The Boynton Inlet (SE Florida, USA) is one of two tidal inlets connecting the Lake Worth Lagoon to the Atlantic Ocean. To quantitate the amount of anthropogenic materials reaching the South Florida coastal ocean and reef track, nutrient fluxes through the Boynton Inlet were measured during two 48-hour intensive studies conducted on June 4-6 and September 26-28, 2007. These studies combined analyses of water samples taken at regular intervals in the Boynton Inlet with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the flow through the inlet. Data collected include concentrations of nutrients (silicate [Si], orthophosphate [PO4], ammonium [NH4], nitrate+nitrite [N+N]), isotope ratios of nitrogen, and physical parameters that included pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity. The study found a significant but highly variable flux of nutrients in the eight outgoing (ebb) tidal pulses sampled. Daily fluxes of nitrate+nitrite ranged from 16 to 565 kg N, silicate from 564 to 5197 kg Si, phosphate from 154 to 309 kg P, and ammonium from 34 to 354 kg N. These results are compared with other sources of nutrient inputs into the coastal environment. Inlets are a significant source of offshore nutrients.

  3. Carsey, T.P., S.J. Stamates, C.M. Featherstone, N. Amornthammarong, J.R. Bishop, C.J. Brown, A. Campbell, H.L. Casanova, M.L. Gidley, M. Kosenko, R.M. Kotkowski, J.V. Lopez, C.D. Sinagalliano, L.A. Visser, and J.-Z. Zhang. Broward County coastal ocean water quality study, 2010-2012. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-44, 217 pp., doi:10.7289/V5TD9VCC 2015

    Abstract:

    Researchers with the Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducted 12 monthly cruises in two separate track lines off of Broward County, Florida, from November 2010 through January 2012. The cruise tracks were designed to provide information on three categories of the coastal ocean: (1) the vicinity of the Broward and Hollywood treated-wastewater outfalls; (2) the vicinity of the Hillsboro and Port Everglades inlets; and (3) the interstitial areas in between. Sampling took place from aboard the NOAA R/V Hildebrand using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/rosette for water samples and water column profiles and appropriately located acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments for ocean current information. Measured discrete parameters included location, depth, salinity, temperature, pH, oxygen saturation (dissolved oxygen, DO), oxidation-reduction (redox) potential (ORP), chlorophyll-a, phaeopigments, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), ammonium (NH4), silicate (Si), orthophosphate (PO4), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), particulate carbon (PC), particulate phosphorus (PP), particulate nitrogen (PN), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). CTD profile data included depth, turbidity, ORP, DO, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, and density. A variety of microbiological entities were measured, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), selected waterborne pathogens, and molecular microbial source tracking (MST) markers. Community bacterial metagenomic profiles were also generated for selected sample sites. Quality controls of nutrient sample analyses were obtained following National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC)-certified procedures. The data obtained present a view of the coastal ocean as having a low “background” concentration of most analytes, interrupted by elevated concentrations near the outfalls and inlets whose excess concentrations decreased rapidly away from the point sources. The waters were found to be oligotrophic, with no evidence of bloom events. A major upwelling event was observed on August 11, 2011, where a ~10°C temperature drop was observed near the southernmost portion of the sampled area.

  4. Stamates S.J., P.L. Blackwelder, C.J. Brown, T.P. Carsey, C.M. Featherstone, M.L. Gidley, C.R. Kelble, R.M. Kotkowski, and R.J. Roddy. Biscayne Bay turbidity study. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-41, 65 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  5. Carsey, T.P., S.J. Stamates, N. Amornthammarong, J.R. Bishop, F. Bloetscher, C.J. Brown, J.F. Craynock, S.R. Cummings, W.P. Dammann, J. Davis, C.M. Featherstone, C.J. Fischer, K.D. Goodwin, D.E. Meeroff, J.R. Proni, C.D. Sinigalliano, P.K. Swart, and J.-Z. Zhang. Boynton Inlet 48-hour sampling intensives: June and September 2007. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-40, 43 pp., 2012

    Abstract:

    Researchers with the Ocean Chemistry Division of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory performed two 48-hour intensive studies of the water flowing through the Boynton Inlet at Boynton Beach, Florida, during June and September 2007. These studies were conducted in support of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program. Academic partners who also participated in the effort included colleagues with the University of Miami’s Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies and the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Florida Atlantic University’s Laboratories for Engineered Environmental Solutions, and the Applied Research Center of Florida International University. Sampling was performed from the southern boardwalk at Boynton Beach during the June intensive and the Boynton Beach Inlet Bridge during the September intensive. The sampling strategy was designed to collect water samples over four complete tidal cycles for each intensive; these data would be employed to quantify the total flux of nearshore-source entities into the coastal waters. The first sampling event was conducted on June 4-6, 2007, and the second was conducted on September 26-28, 2007. Data collected include nutrients (silicate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite+nitrate), isotope ratios of nitrogen, the presence or absence of selected biological indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total coliform), and physical parameters that included pH, salinity, total suspended solids, and turbidity. Critical to this study was the continuous in situ flow rate measurements obtained via an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on the north side of the inlet. This report presents the data gathered from the two sampling intensives. The data reported herein suggest that inlets are important contributors of nutrient and microbiological loads to the coastal zone. The overall view presented is that the lagoon input into Boynton Inlet may be substantial but is also highly variable.

  6. Carsey, T.P., C.M. Featherstone, K.D. Goodwin, C.D. Sinigalliano, S.J. Stamates, J.-Z. Zhang, J. Proni, J.R. Bishop, C.J. Brown, M. Adler, P.L. Blackwelder, and H. Alsayegh. The Boynton-Delray coastal water quality monitoring program. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-39, 177 pp., 2011

    Abstract:

    This report discusses a sequence of six cruises in the vicinity of the Boynton-Delray (South Central) treated-wastewater plant outfall plume (26°27'43"N, 80°2'32"W), the Boynton Inlet (26°32'43"N, 80°2'30"W), and the Lake Worth Lagoon, Palm Beach County, Florida. The sampling cruises took place on June 5-6, 2007; August 28-29, 2007; October 18-19, 2007; February 14 and 18, 2008; May 19-20, 2008; and July 11-13, 2008. Water was sampled at 18 locations at the surface, middle, and near the seafloor (where there was sufficient depth) for a total of 45 samples; these samples were analyzed for a variety of nutrients and related parameters. The water sampling unit contained a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument from which data were obtained at each sampling site. Synchronal ocean current data were measured by a nearby acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instrument.

  7. Carsey, T.P., H. Casanova, C. Drayer, C. Featherstone, C. Fischer, K. Goodwin, J. Proni, A. Saied, C. Sinigalliano, J. Stamates, P. Swart, and J.-Z. Zhang. FACE outfalls survey cruise: October 6-19, 2006. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-38, 130 pp. (CD-ROM), 2010

    Abstract:

    In October 2006, a cruise of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program was conducted aboard the NOAA RV Nancy Foster. The cruise visited coastal sites in the vicinity of six treated wastewater boils in south Florida. The outfalls included in this study were those for the South Central, Boca Raton, Broward, Hollywood, Miami-Dade North, and Miami-Dade Central wastewater treatment plants. The boils and associated down-current plumes were studied to produce a data set of ocean currents, ocean chemistry, and microbiology. Seawater was analyzed for nitrate + nitrite, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, and silicate. Samples down-current of each boil were collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) rosette at three depths--near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom--and from three transects--inshore of the boil, approximately in line with the boil, and further offshore of the boil. Overall, surface samples showed the highest nutrient concentrations versus samples taken at other depths; surface samples taken nearest the boil showed the highest nutrient concentrations in comparison to other samples collected in the vicinity of the outfall. The only exception was Si, which had a maximum observed concentration at an inlet sampling site. The outfall plume was found to be dynamic, irregular, and mainly in the upper 10 m of the water column. Samples were analyzed for a variety of microbes; the detection frequency was higher for the southern boils compared to the northern boils. The CTD data indicated a tendency toward better defined and deeper thermoclines at the 20-30 m depth in the deeper (more offshore) casts; the thermocline showed a tendency to shoal at 10-20 m and become less well defined in more inshore casts.

  8. Carsey, T., K.D. Goodwin, J. Hendee, J.R. Proni, C. Sinigalliano, J. Stewart, J.-Z. Zhang, N. Amornthammarong, J. Craynock, S. Cummings, P. Dammann, C. Featherstone, J. Stamates, and K. Sullivan. A glimpse of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program. Proceedings, 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, July 7-11, 2008. International Society for Reef Studies, 559-563, 2009

    Abstract: The Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) research program gathers a variety of data related to water inputs into the coastal zone of southeast Florida. The water inputs studied include treated wastewater discharges, inlet flows, and upwelling events. Measurements include currents, nutrients, microbial contaminants, and stable isotopes. This report provides a glimpse of the data collected in this program. Data collected from the Boynton inlet point to the significance of this discharge as a source of nutrient and microbiological loads to coastal waters and demonstrate the importance of accounting for all major discharges in order to fully understand the impact of land use and water management decisions on coastal resources.

  9. Featherstone, C., J.R. Proni, T.P. Carsey, C. Brown, M. Adler, P. Blackwelder, H. Alsayegh, T. Hood, C. Piela, and D. McCorquodale. Spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment cores from Blind Pass, St. Pete Beach, Florida. NOAA Technical Memorandum, OAR-AOML-97 (PB2010-109245), 252 pp. (CD-ROM), 2009

    Abstract:

    One hundred and one sediment cores were collected to characterize the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons within and just outside Blind Pass, St. Pete Beach, Florida. Twenty-five percent of the cores exhibited levels of petroleum hydrocarbons above detection limits of the gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) (0.01 mg/Kg), but at generally low concentrations. Petroleum hydrocarbon speciation studies of these samples (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy [GC/MS]) indicate above-detection level (1 µg/Kg) petroleum hydrocarbons are similar to the non-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons found in a Bouchard 155 reference sample collected after the 1993 oil spill in the area, but are in a much degraded and weathered state. Individual petroleum hydrocarbons were, in all but one case, below the threshold effective level (TEL) described in the literature (MacDonald, 1994). The petroleum hydrocarbons were primarily found at 100-300 cm depth in Blind Pass cores. Above-detection level petroleum hydrocarbons were generally found in samples from cores in the center of the channel, near the edges of the shoal, and just outside of Blind Pass. A second mixture of hydrocarbons, primarily phthalates, ketones, and ether, was found at relatively shallow core depths (0-99 cm) in the Mid- and North End Channel cores. These suggest a separate source of contamination, possibly storm water runoff. The fuel fluorescence detector (FFD) probe was investigated for its ability to detect petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments. When analyzed with the FFD, all sediments from the cores produced peaks of fluorescence, but none above the background levels of Blind Pass native sediments. All but two samples analyzed by GC/FID were below the detection limits (100 ppm) of the FFD. These samples were found in dark-colored sediments. The combination of the detection limits of the instrument, sediment color, and the degraded nature of the heavier weight petroleum hydrocarbons may have resulted in fluorescence outputs below background levels. These studies demonstrate that the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons within Blind Pass sediments is generally low and patchy. However, 25% of the cores exhibited levels above detection using GC/FID/MS. These cores could be subjected to individual speciation studies which indicate generally below TEL levels and an association of some, but not all, with the 1993 oil spill in Blind Pass. Appendix A provides photographs and tables for sediment subsamples which exhibited total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above detection limits, while Appendix B presents the results from fuel fluorescence detector probe analyses. A discussion of the results of the study in relation to sediment quality guidelines and soil cleanup target level guidance documents is included as Appendix C. Some preliminary results using the above techniques on core samples from the nearby Johns Pass are presented in Appendix D.

  10. Alvarez-Zarikian, C.A., P.K. Swart, T. Hood, P.L. Blackwelder, T.A. Nelsen, and C. Featherstone. A century of environmental variability in Oyster Bay using ostracode ecological and isotopic data as paleoenvironmental tools. Bulletin of American Paleontology, 361:133-143, 2001

    Abstract:

    Stable isotopic analysis (delta18O and delta13C) and characterization of the ostracode community structure were carried out from a high-resolution sediment core recovered from Oyster Bay in the west of the Everglades National Park. Because of its location between Shark River Slough (SRS) and the Gulf of Mexico, the Oyster Bay core locality experiences extreme salinity fluctuations due to the interaction of freshwater run-off, precipitation, and marine water inputs. Ostracode population dynamics and isotopic variability over the 20th century are linked to natural and anthropogenic forces that affect the south Florida coastal ecosystem on interannual to decadal time scales. Three ostracode assemblages can be recognized within the 100 year sediment-core record: the first extending from the turn of the century to about 1950; the second, from the early 1950s to the late 1970s; and the third to core recovery in 1995. An abrupt decrease in ostracode abundance, species diversity, and shifts in species dominance occurred in the mid-1980s and reflects episodes of environmental stress. Markedly enriched delta18O values from the ostracode Peratocytheridea setipunctata and the benthic foraminifer Ammonia parkinsoniana typica at this time are concurrent with a major regional drought in south Florida, as well as with documented algal blooms and major die-off of sea grasses in Florida Bay. In addition, the timing of these events is contemporaneous to the onset of the South Florida Water Management District "Rainfall Plan" and the closing of the Buttonwood Canal. Higher ostracode abundance and species richness occurs between the late 1950s and late 1970s. Stable isotopic data and ostracode assemblage characteristics suggest a period of relative environmental stability and possibly improved water circulation in Whitewater Bay and Oyster Bay. Fluctuations in community structure during this time are most systematic and appear to be temporally correlated to rainfall variability patterns. Water management policies at this time are also discernable from the microfaunal and isotopic record, particularly the Congressionally mandated Monthly Minimum Allocation Plan of water supply to SRS. Before 1950, hurricane events and their effects are the major cause for immediate modifications within the ostracode community, although our data show that ostracode populations are capable of rapid recovery. Over the complete record of the last century, the effects of water management practices can be assessed from information embedded in the ostracode record. Nevertheless, the effects of natural climatic variability in Oyster Bay appear to outweigh the impact of anthropogenic forces.

  11. Alvarez-Zarikian, C.A., P.L. Blackwelder, T. Hood, H.R. Wanless, T.A. Nelsen, and C. Featherstone. Impact on the sedimentary record derived from micropaleontological data. Proceedings, 2001 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Key Largo, FL, April 23-26, 2001. University of Florida, 58-59, 2001

    Abstract:

    Hurricanes are the strongest force causing immediate and long-term environmental changes to coastal areas in the lower Everglades and Florida Bay, and their sedimentary record. Hurricane-induced sediment erosion and deposition, and bi-directional sediment transport, can disrupt the sediment record, blending the signature of other ecological factors (i.e., salinity fluctuations) and leaving behind a complex overprint of natural and anthropogenic influences. Their frequency is also a potential mechanism for carbon storage and removal. Paleohurricane impact in the stratigraphic record is marked by abrupt changes in microfaunal abundance and community structure, as well as in quantitative and qualitative organic carbon content and sediment texture. Hurricane signatures, verifiable by offsets in 210Pb-geochronology data, are found in sediment cores recovered from Florida and Oyster Bays. Sediment core location controls the magnitude of variations in the sediment record. Semi-protected areas such as Oyster Bay exhibit the least amount of sediment disruption during and following the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 and Hurricane Donna in 1960, whereas unprotected or less protected areas such as the First National Bank and Jimmy Key in western and central Florida Bay, respectively, experience the greatest effects.

  12. Nelsen, T.A., G. Garte, C. Featherstone, H.R. Wanless, J.H. Trefry, W.-J. Kang, S. Metz, C. Alvarez-Zarikian, T. Hood, P. Swart, G. Ellis, P. Blackwelder, L. Tedesco, C. Slouch, J.F. Pachut, and M. O'Neal. Linkages between the south Florida peninsula and coastal zone: A sediment-based history of natural and anthropogenic influences. In The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook, K.G. Porter and J.W. Porter (eds.). CRC Press (ISBN 0849320267), 415-449, 2001

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  13. Alvarez Zarikian, C.A., P.L. Blackwelder, T. Hood, T.A. Nelsen, and C. Featherstone. Ostracodes as indicators of natural and anthropogenically-induced changes in coastal marine ecosystems. Proceedings, 17th International Conference of the Coastal Society: Coasts at the Millenium, Portland, OR, July 9-12, 2000. The Coastal Society, 896-905, 2000

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  14. Hood, T., C.A. Alvarez Zarikian, P.L. Blackwelder, T.A. Nelsen, and C. Featherstone. Identifying multiple stressors in the coastal ocean: The role of microfauna in discriminating between natural and anthropogenic influences. Proceedings, 17th International Conference of the Coastal Society: Coasts at the Millenium, Portland, OR, July 9-12, 2000. The Coastal Society, 697-704, 2000

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  15. Nelsen, T.A., G. Garte, C.M. Featherstone, P.L. Blackwelder, T. Hood, C. Alvarez-Zarikian, P. Swart, H.R. Wanless, L. Tedesco, C. Souch, J. Pachut, and J. Arthur. Understanding long-term rainfall, freshwater flow, and salinity patterns with concomitant responses of benthic microfauna, stable isotopes, and pollen in Oyster and Florida Bays. 1999 Florida Bay and Adjacent Marine Systems Science Conference, Programs and Abstracts, Key Largo, FL, November 1-5, 1999. University of Florida Sea Grant Program, 189-190, 1999

    Abstract:

    Salinity records exhibited variability from the decadal scale to the monthly scale that can be accounted for by changing patterns in regional rainfall. Changes in salinity, both near the outflow of the Shart River Slough at Oyster Bay, and in central Florida Bay near Jimmy Key, show a direct response to regional rainfall on these time scales. Moreover, regional rainfall, represented by the 80+ year record at Homestead, Florida, proved representative of the study area and indicated high correlation with flow into Shark River Slough prior to major watershed construction instigated in the early 1960s. During subsequent periods of water management strategies, enacted from the mid-1960s to present, results indicate essentially no correlation between regional ranfall and flow during the Monthly Allocation Plan. In contrast, correlations most closely paralleled pre-construction, apparently more natural condtions, during the Rainfall Plan. Investigated characteristics for the benthic microfaunal community (foraminifers and ostracods) such as stable isotopes, abundance, and community diversity, exhibited changes and trends that apparently more closely paralleled natural rather than anthropogenic influences over the whole period of record. At both Jimmy Key and Oyster Bay, foraminifer and ostracod data indicate direct correlation to rainfall patterns for temporal scales ranging from decadal down to the limit-of-resolution of our geochronology. An exception to this natural influence was observed from the late-1940s to mid-1950s during which time a dual transition occurred in the sediments adjacent to the Shark River Slough in Oyster Bay. Organic carbon content permanently declined from above- to below-average with concurrent onset of major increases in foraminifer and ostracod abundances. These events temporally conicided with the construction of the Everglades Agricultural Area, which impounded 700,000 acres of organic-rich swampland. These effects were not observed for sediments representing the same time period at Jimmy Key. Stable isotope (delta 18O, delta 13O) trends alone for ostracods and foraminifers at Oyster Bay and Jimmy Key showed mixed signals, with most data suggesting upcore trends to less fresh, more marine conditions. However, when long-term trends for relative abundance of salinity-sensitive species were examined, for the same time periods and locations, they confirmed a statistically valid upcore trend toward less fresh, more marine conditions at both Oyster and Florida Bay study sites. This trend was coincident with a weak decline in regional rainfall over the same time span. Changes in the stable isotopic values of these microfauna indicated, to the limits of our geochronology, direct responses to regional rainfall. Such responses more closely paralleled rainfall than freshwater runoff, even adjacent to the outflow of the Shark River Slough. At Oyster Bay, istracod stable isotope (delta18O) trends correlated better with variabions in regional rainfall than with freshwater outflow from the adjacent Shark River Slough. Crashes in microfaunal abundances at Oyster Bay and more gradual declines at Jimmy Key were salinity related. This abundance drop was concurrent with an equally dramatic drop in community diversity. The latter was characterized by survivor-mode dominance by two microfaunal species and occurred over a period of drought at both sites and the related reduced flow from Shart River Slough. A non-traditional use of pollen allowed evaluation of the degree of paleo-flushing from Shark River Slough that not only correlated well with existing flow and rainfall records but suggests validity as a flushing proxy for pre-record eras. Analysis of regional pollen indicated taxa associations that allowed discrimination of pollen zonations from coastal mangrove to upland slough environments. This, in turn, allowed reconstruction in the sediment record of historical periods of major to minor flushing from Shark River Slough.