1. Stamates, S.J. The Miami Ocean Monitoring System (MOMS) site 1 study. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-46, 25 pp., doi:10.7289/V5/TR-OAR-AOML-46 2016

    Abstract:

    A suite of sensors was placed in 19 meters of water depth at a site offshore of Miami, Florida. These sensors made measurements of suspended sediment concentration, ambient currents, temperature, salinity, and waves. Meteorological data for the time period of the experiment were retrieved from the Fowey Rocks lighthouse station (FWYF1). The received signal strength intensity data from the acoustic Doppler current profilers deployed for this project were processed to provide data in units of volume scattering strength. This scattering strength data were then used to provide a second estimate of the suspended sediment concentrations. During the course of this experiment, several severe storms impacted this area. Suspended sediment concentration estimates are presented for average conditions and for the cases of these severe storms.

  2. Whitall, D., S. Bricker, J. Stamates, K. Gregg, J. Baez, and D. Cox. Southeast Florida reef tract water quality monitoring plan. NOAA-National Ocean Service/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, 22 pp., 2016

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  3. Carsey, T., J. Stamates, J.-Z. Zhang, F. Bloetscher, D. Meeroff, and C. Featherstone. Point source nutrient fluxes from an urban coast: The Boynton (Florida) Inlet. Environment and Natural Resources Research, 5(2):121-134, doi:10.5539/enrr.v5n2p121 2015

    Abstract:

    The Boynton Inlet (SE Florida, USA) is one of two tidal inlets connecting the Lake Worth Lagoon to the Atlantic Ocean. To quantitate the amount of anthropogenic materials reaching the South Florida coastal ocean and reef track, nutrient fluxes through the Boynton Inlet were measured during two 48-hour intensive studies conducted on June 4-6 and September 26-28, 2007. These studies combined analyses of water samples taken at regular intervals in the Boynton Inlet with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the flow through the inlet. Data collected include concentrations of nutrients (silicate [Si], orthophosphate [PO4], ammonium [NH4], nitrate+nitrite [N+N]), isotope ratios of nitrogen, and physical parameters that included pH, salinity, total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity. The study found a significant but highly variable flux of nutrients in the eight outgoing (ebb) tidal pulses sampled. Daily fluxes of nitrate+nitrite ranged from 16 to 565 kg N, silicate from 564 to 5197 kg Si, phosphate from 154 to 309 kg P, and ammonium from 34 to 354 kg N. These results are compared with other sources of nutrient inputs into the coastal environment. Inlets are a significant source of offshore nutrients.

  4. Carsey, T.P., S.J. Stamates, C.M. Featherstone, N. Amornthammarong, J.R. Bishop, C.J. Brown, A. Campbell, H.L. Casanova, M.L. Gidley, M. Kosenko, R.M. Kotkowski, J.V. Lopez, C.D. Sinagalliano, L.A. Visser, and J.-Z. Zhang. Broward County coastal ocean water quality study, 2010-2012. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-44, 217 pp., doi:10.7289/V5TD9VCC 2015

    Abstract:

    Researchers with the Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducted 12 monthly cruises in two separate track lines off of Broward County, Florida, from November 2010 through January 2012. The cruise tracks were designed to provide information on three categories of the coastal ocean: (1) the vicinity of the Broward and Hollywood treated-wastewater outfalls; (2) the vicinity of the Hillsboro and Port Everglades inlets; and (3) the interstitial areas in between. Sampling took place from aboard the NOAA R/V Hildebrand using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/rosette for water samples and water column profiles and appropriately located acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instruments for ocean current information. Measured discrete parameters included location, depth, salinity, temperature, pH, oxygen saturation (dissolved oxygen, DO), oxidation-reduction (redox) potential (ORP), chlorophyll-a, phaeopigments, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), ammonium (NH4), silicate (Si), orthophosphate (PO4), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), particulate carbon (PC), particulate phosphorus (PP), particulate nitrogen (PN), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). CTD profile data included depth, turbidity, ORP, DO, pH, chlorophyll-a, salinity, temperature, and density. A variety of microbiological entities were measured, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), selected waterborne pathogens, and molecular microbial source tracking (MST) markers. Community bacterial metagenomic profiles were also generated for selected sample sites. Quality controls of nutrient sample analyses were obtained following National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Conference (NELAC)-certified procedures. The data obtained present a view of the coastal ocean as having a low “background” concentration of most analytes, interrupted by elevated concentrations near the outfalls and inlets whose excess concentrations decreased rapidly away from the point sources. The waters were found to be oligotrophic, with no evidence of bloom events. A major upwelling event was observed on August 11, 2011, where a ~10°C temperature drop was observed near the southernmost portion of the sampled area.

  5. Stamates, S.J., and T.P. Carsey. Measuring chemical loadings through inlets: Hillsboro and Boca Raton inlets (Florida, USA). Proceedings, Eleventh Current, Waves, and Turbulence Measurement Workshop, St. Petersburg, FL, March 2-6, 2015. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 4 pp., doi:10.1109/CWTM.2015.7098118 2015

    Abstract:

    We describe a cost-effective methodology for obtaining loadings for the environmentally significant chemical species (silicate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and orthophosphate) through coastal inlets (Hillsboro and Boca Raton, Florida, USA). Loading were computed from field measurements obtained during an 18-month period, including four ebb tide intensive sampling efforts and biweekly water grab samples.

  6. Stamates, S.J., T.P. Carsey, and C. Brown. Measurements of chemical loadings through the Hillsboro and Boca Raton inlets (Florida, USA). NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-45, 38 pp., doi:10.7289/V51G0J8F 2015

    Abstract:

    We describe a cost-effective methodology for obtaining loadings for the environmentally significant chemical species of silicate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and orthophosphate through the Hillsboro and Boca Raton inlets (Florida, USA). Field measurements included “grab” water samples obtained from each inlet during an 18‑month period and four ebb tide sampling intensives conducted at both inlets. During sampling intensives, water currents were measured from a small boat using a downward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, and water samples were collected for analysis. Loadings were computed from the sampling intensives data and estimated for the entire period using flow estimates generated from tidal range data. These data are presented as monthly loadings from each inlet.

  7. Bloetscher, F., F.J. Pleitez, T. Romah, A. Albasri, C. Dickinson, H. El Sharif, K. Matthews, T.-D. Nguyen, L. Riche, F. Youngman, T.P. Carsey, J. Stamates, and J.R. Proni. The use of SF6 and GIS to study farfield modeling of ocean outfall plumes in Florida. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5(11):1037-1052, doi:10.4236/jep.2014.511103 2014

    Abstract:

    In June 2004 and February 2007, field tracer studies were conducted on the Hollywood and South Central outfalls using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer. The objective of these studies was to determine if the tracer could be detected in the farfield at significant distance and, if so, could this data be used to construct a model of the farfield plume. Prior models for farfield plume movement do not appear to comport well with the conditions in southeast Florida. Extensive research was conducted in southeast Florida on four outfalls, which led to the development of nearfield dilution equations for the same. However, farfield modeling of outfall plumes was difficult to accomplish because the tracers used were not detectable for significant distances. The SF6 resolved that problem and, as a result, the Hollywood outfall was used to construct a model. Two methods were investigated for modeling the plume: (1) the Eureqa formulation method; and (2) the Gamma-Curve method. The concentrations in the x-y plane were first found by using the Eureqa formulation to calculate the concentration at each grid point given its depth and the concentration of the centerline at the same latitude. The plume models were generated using MATLAB that matched with the results actually seen in the field.

  8. Amornthammarong, N., J.-Z. Zhang, P.B. Ortner, J. Stamates, M. Shoemaker, and M.W. Kindel. A portable analyzer for the measurement of ammonium in marine waters. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts, 15(3):579-584, doi:10.1039/C2EM30793F 2013

    Abstract: A portable ammonium analyzer was developed and used to measure in situ ammonium in the marine environment. The analyzer incorporates an improved LED photodiode-based fluorescence detector (LPFD). This system is more sensitive and considerably smaller than previous systems and incorporates a pre-filtering subsystem enabling measurements in turbid, sediment-laden waters. Over the typical range for ammonium in marine waters (0-10 µM), the response is linear (r2 = 0.9930) with a limit of detection (S/N ratio >3) of 10 nM. The working range for marine waters is 0.05-10 µM. Repeatability is 0.3% (n = 10) at an ammonium level of 2 µM. Results from automated operation in 15 min cycles over 16 days had good overall precision (RSD = 3%, n = 660). The system was field tested at three shallow South Florida sites. Diurnal cycles and possibly a tidal influence were expressed in the concentration variability observed.

  9. Stamates S.J., P.L. Blackwelder, C.J. Brown, T.P. Carsey, C.M. Featherstone, M.L. Gidley, C.R. Kelble, R.M. Kotkowski, and R.J. Roddy. Biscayne Bay turbidity study. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-41, 65 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  10. Stamates, S.J. The Boynton Inlet flow measurement study. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-43, 13 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    A 500 kHz side-looking Acoustic Doppler profiler was installed on the north seawall of the Boynton Inlet (26°32.744´N, 80°02.637´W) on February 20, 2007 and remained operational through August 2008. The system measured a profile of velocities across the inlet and also measured the water level above the instrument. Data from this system were calibrated by regressing the velocity data with data from an independent, down-looking acoustic Doppler profiler which was repeatedly transected across the channel during flood and ebb tidal phases. The down-looking Doppler system was also used to measure the bathymetric profile of the channel at the location of the measurement system. This information was used to generate estimates of the channel flux at 15-minute intervals. These flux measurements were integrated over flood and ebb tidal periods to estimate the tidal prism of the inlet. Comparisons of these tidal prism estimates with wind data collected at Lake Worth pier showed that the north component of the wind velocity was correlated with the Boynton Inlet tidal prism.

  11. Stamates, S.J., J.R. Bishop, T.P. Carsey, J.F. Craynock, M.L. Jankulak, C.A. Lauter, and M.M. Shoemaker. The Port Everglades flow measurement system. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-42, 22 pp., 2013

    Abstract:

    An acoustic Doppler current profiler was installed on the south side of the Port Everglades Inlet to measure the velocity of the water flow at levels starting near the surface and reaching down to near the channel bottom. The system was built using a commercial, horizontal-looking ADCP deployed in a hybrid manner to measure the vertical velocity structure. This system was calibrated so that its velocity measurements could estimate the mean channel velocity at specific depth layers by repeatedly transecting a vessel-mounted, down-looking ADCP across the channel at the location of the fixed system. The channel cross-sectional area at the location of the fixed system was measured, and a pressure sensor on the fixed system allowed the cross section of the channel to be estimated at the time of each velocity measurement. From the area and mean channel velocity measurements, an estimate of the volume transport per unit of time (Q) in a surface and deep layer was made. By integrating the Q measurements over a tidal phase, measurements of total volume transport per tidal phase in the surface and bottom layers were made. These volume estimates will be used to estimate the total seaward flux of certain substances measured by the Florida International University group during the study. Using an independent data set, the dispersion of materials advected seaward from the inlet into the coastal ocean was estimated.

  12. Bloetscher, F., J. Pire-Schmidt, D.E. Meeroff, T.P. Carsey, J. Stamates, K. Sullivan, and J.R. Proni. Farfield modeling of the Boynton Inlet plume. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 1(2):74-89, doi:10.5296/emsd.v1i2.2134 2012

    Abstract: In February, 2007, a tracer study was conducted on the Boynton Inlet, Florida, using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer. The objectives of this study were to determine if the data collected from the tracer study could be used to develop a farfield model of the plume exiting the Boynton Inlet using limited data to develop a useful predictive result. There are few studies of the farfield movement of inlet plumes in the coastal ocean. The plume was successfully modeled with a Gaussian plume model that appears to mimic the response. It was noted that the tracer concentrated in a series of boluses that migrated north of the inlet. Because the project injected the tracer for only 4 hours during the outgoing time, a long-term result that would hide the boluses was developed. The results showed velocities lower than predicted by the measured current data. The belief is that this is partially a result of tidal influences that affect outflow from the inlet.

  13. Carsey, T., and J. Stamates. The Florida Area Coastal Environmental program supports science-based water quality management. In Tropical Connections: South Florida's Marine Environment, W.L. Kruczynski and P.J. Fletcher (eds.). IAN Press, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, 152-153, 2012

    Abstract: No abstract.

  14. Carsey, T.P., S.J. Stamates, N. Amornthammarong, J.R. Bishop, F. Bloetscher, C.J. Brown, J.F. Craynock, S.R. Cummings, W.P. Dammann, J. Davis, C.M. Featherstone, C.J. Fischer, K.D. Goodwin, D.E. Meeroff, J.R. Proni, C.D. Sinigalliano, P.K. Swart, and J.-Z. Zhang. Boynton Inlet 48-hour sampling intensives: June and September 2007. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-40, 43 pp., 2012

    Abstract:

    Researchers with the Ocean Chemistry Division of NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory performed two 48-hour intensive studies of the water flowing through the Boynton Inlet at Boynton Beach, Florida, during June and September 2007. These studies were conducted in support of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program. Academic partners who also participated in the effort included colleagues with the University of Miami’s Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies and the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Florida Atlantic University’s Laboratories for Engineered Environmental Solutions, and the Applied Research Center of Florida International University. Sampling was performed from the southern boardwalk at Boynton Beach during the June intensive and the Boynton Beach Inlet Bridge during the September intensive. The sampling strategy was designed to collect water samples over four complete tidal cycles for each intensive; these data would be employed to quantify the total flux of nearshore-source entities into the coastal waters. The first sampling event was conducted on June 4-6, 2007, and the second was conducted on September 26-28, 2007. Data collected include nutrients (silicate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite+nitrate), isotope ratios of nitrogen, the presence or absence of selected biological indicators (Escherichia coli, enterococci, and total coliform), and physical parameters that included pH, salinity, total suspended solids, and turbidity. Critical to this study was the continuous in situ flow rate measurements obtained via an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on the north side of the inlet. This report presents the data gathered from the two sampling intensives. The data reported herein suggest that inlets are important contributors of nutrient and microbiological loads to the coastal zone. The overall view presented is that the lagoon input into Boynton Inlet may be substantial but is also highly variable.

  15. Carsey, T.P., C.M. Featherstone, K.D. Goodwin, C.D. Sinigalliano, S.J. Stamates, J.-Z. Zhang, J. Proni, J.R. Bishop, C.J. Brown, M. Adler, P.L. Blackwelder, and H. Alsayegh. The Boynton-Delray coastal water quality monitoring program. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-39, 177 pp., 2011

    Abstract:

    This report discusses a sequence of six cruises in the vicinity of the Boynton-Delray (South Central) treated-wastewater plant outfall plume (26°27'43"N, 80°2'32"W), the Boynton Inlet (26°32'43"N, 80°2'30"W), and the Lake Worth Lagoon, Palm Beach County, Florida. The sampling cruises took place on June 5-6, 2007; August 28-29, 2007; October 18-19, 2007; February 14 and 18, 2008; May 19-20, 2008; and July 11-13, 2008. Water was sampled at 18 locations at the surface, middle, and near the seafloor (where there was sufficient depth) for a total of 45 samples; these samples were analyzed for a variety of nutrients and related parameters. The water sampling unit contained a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instrument from which data were obtained at each sampling site. Synchronal ocean current data were measured by a nearby acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) instrument.

  16. Stamates, S.J. Using acoustic modeling to develop a hybrid H-ADCP configuration. Proceedings, Tenth Current, Waves, and Turbulence Measurement Workshop, Monterey, CA, March 20-23, 2011. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers/Oceanic Engineering Society, 273-276 (CFP11CWT-PRT; ISBN 978-1-4577-0022-4), 2011

    Abstract:

    The Port Everglades Shipping Channel (PESC) in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida is thought to be a pathway by which anthropogenic nutrients and pathogens reach the coastal ocean from inland waters. In an attempt to quantify this, a flow measurement system was installed on the south side of the PESC to measure the flow. The PESC is a coastal, tidal inlet and is often stratified. To quantify the flow from the near surface and from the lower layers of the channel, a hybrid deployment configuration was used. A TRDI 300 kHz H-ADCP was deployed near the surface with a 8.5 degree downward tilt so that the measurement cells nearest to the instrument would record data from the surface layer while bins further from the instrument would record data from deeper in the channel. To implement this design, sound speed profiles derived from CTD casts taken in the channel were used as input to an acoustic propagation model. This model simulated the ray paths from the instrument deployed at different angles. Analysis of these simulations enabled the selection of the optimal angle for deployment that allowed for the maximum profiling range while minimizing the effects of the stratified water on the acoustic path.

  17. Carsey, T.P., H. Casanova, C. Drayer, C. Featherstone, C. Fischer, K. Goodwin, J. Proni, A. Saied, C. Sinigalliano, J. Stamates, P. Swart, and J.-Z. Zhang. FACE outfalls survey cruise: October 6-19, 2006. NOAA Technical Report, OAR-AOML-38, 130 pp. (CD-ROM), 2010

    Abstract:

    In October 2006, a cruise of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program was conducted aboard the NOAA RV Nancy Foster. The cruise visited coastal sites in the vicinity of six treated wastewater boils in south Florida. The outfalls included in this study were those for the South Central, Boca Raton, Broward, Hollywood, Miami-Dade North, and Miami-Dade Central wastewater treatment plants. The boils and associated down-current plumes were studied to produce a data set of ocean currents, ocean chemistry, and microbiology. Seawater was analyzed for nitrate + nitrite, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, and silicate. Samples down-current of each boil were collected by a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) rosette at three depths--near-surface, mid-depth, and near-bottom--and from three transects--inshore of the boil, approximately in line with the boil, and further offshore of the boil. Overall, surface samples showed the highest nutrient concentrations versus samples taken at other depths; surface samples taken nearest the boil showed the highest nutrient concentrations in comparison to other samples collected in the vicinity of the outfall. The only exception was Si, which had a maximum observed concentration at an inlet sampling site. The outfall plume was found to be dynamic, irregular, and mainly in the upper 10 m of the water column. Samples were analyzed for a variety of microbes; the detection frequency was higher for the southern boils compared to the northern boils. The CTD data indicated a tendency toward better defined and deeper thermoclines at the 20-30 m depth in the deeper (more offshore) casts; the thermocline showed a tendency to shoal at 10-20 m and become less well defined in more inshore casts.

  18. Kimball, S.K., M.S. Mulekar, S. Cummings, and J. Stamates. The University of South Alabama Mesonet and coastal observing system: A technical and statistical overview. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 27(9):1417-1439, doi:10.1175/2010JTECHA1376.1 2010

    Abstract: The University of South Alabama Mesonet consists of 26 sites across the north-central Gulf of Mexico coast. Although the original purpose of the mesonet was monitoring landfalling tropical systems, meteorological data are collected and disseminated every 5 min year-round to serve a multitude of purposes, including weather forecasting, education, and research. In this paper a statistical analysis and like-sensor comparison demonstrates that variables, measured by different sensor types or by sensors at different heights, correlate well. The benefits of sensor redundancy are twofold, offering 1) backup sensors in the case of sensor failure during severe weather and 2) the ability to perform a large number of internal consistency checks for quality control purposes. An oceanographic compliment to the University of South Alabama Mesonet system, which was deployed by NOAAs Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) to measure surface waves and ocean currents in an area south of Mobile, Alabama, is described. A preliminary comparison of mesonet wind data and ocean wave data show good agreement, offering promising opportunities for future research.

  19. Carsey, T., K.D. Goodwin, J. Hendee, J.R. Proni, C. Sinigalliano, J. Stewart, J.-Z. Zhang, N. Amornthammarong, J. Craynock, S. Cummings, P. Dammann, C. Featherstone, J. Stamates, and K. Sullivan. A glimpse of the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) program. Proceedings, 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, July 7-11, 2008. International Society for Reef Studies, 559-563, 2009

    Abstract: The Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) research program gathers a variety of data related to water inputs into the coastal zone of southeast Florida. The water inputs studied include treated wastewater discharges, inlet flows, and upwelling events. Measurements include currents, nutrients, microbial contaminants, and stable isotopes. This report provides a glimpse of the data collected in this program. Data collected from the Boynton inlet point to the significance of this discharge as a source of nutrient and microbiological loads to coastal waters and demonstrate the importance of accounting for all major discharges in order to fully understand the impact of land use and water management decisions on coastal resources.

  20. Proni, J.R., S.J. Stamates, T.P. Carsey, J.-Z. Zhang, C.D. Sinigalliano, and K.F. Sullivan. Acoustic methods for water mass delineation in coastal marine ecosystems. Proceedings, Ninth European Conference on Underwater Acoustics (ECUA 2008), Paris, France, June 29-July 4, 2008. European Acoustics Association, Volume 1, 237-242, 2008

    Abstract: Acoustical methods play an important role in identifying sources of nutrient to coral reef ecosystems in the South Florida coastal waters. Nutrient fluxes into the coastal ocean are associated with distinct water masses such as inlet discharge plumes, wastewater outfall discharge plumes, and upwelling of deep oceanic water. Various nutrient-bearing water masses can be identified by water column acoustic backscatter profiles, obtained via either shipborne instrumentation or in-situ instrumentation. Such multidimensional images of water masses can be used to optimize the design of chemical and biological sampling efforts. Examples of water mass imaging will be presented, as well as the use of such images in the design of water quality sampling programs.

  21. McArthur, C.J., S.J. Stamates, and J.R. Proni. Review of the real-time current monitoring requirement for the Miami Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site. NOAA Technical Memorandum, OAR-AOML-95, 13 pp., 2006

    Abstract:

    The Environmental Protection Agency manages an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) offshore Miami, Florida. To protect coral reefs west of the ODMDS, use of the disposal site is restricted during periods of reef-directed currents. In 1995, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration developed a real-time current monitoring program for the Corps of Engineers for disposal of material from the Phase I Deepening Project at the Port of Miami. The program consists of a system for measuring and reporting currents at the ODMDS in real-time and a set of evaluation criteria for determining when disposal can occur. The initial system deployments resulted in three years of data from 1995 through 2000. This data is reviewed and analyzed to assess the impacts on dredging operations and the potential or disposal plume interaction with the nearby coral reefs.

  22. Proni, J.R., V. Fox-Norse, S.J. Stamates, and J.F. Craynock. Innovative applications of ocean acoustics and other technologies for marine water quality monitoring and assessment: Effluent plume studies of the MWRA Outfall. Proceedings, 14th Biennial Coastal Zone Conference, New Orleans, LA, July 17-21, 2005. NOAA Coastal Services Center, CD-ROM, 7 pp., 2005

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  23. Garrison, L.P., S.L. Swartz, A. Martinez, C. Burks, and S.J. Stamates. A marine mammal assessment survey of the southeast U.S. continental shelf: February-April 2002. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-SEFSC-492 (PB2003-103332), 70 pp., 2003

    Abstract:

    To augment information on the winter spatial distribution and abundance of marine mammals in the mid-Atlantic region, the NOAA Fisheries SEFSC conducted a population assessment survey covering continental shelf and inner slope waters from northern Florida to Delaware Bay during February-April 2002 that included both visual and passive hydroacoustic surveys. The survey was conducted under an agency agreement between NOAA Fisheries and the U.S. Navy that recognizes the need of both agencies for accurate information on the abundance and seasonal spatial distribution of marine mammal stocks. The primary objectives of the winter 2002 survey were to: (1) conduct a visual line transect survey of the mid-Atlantic continental shelf and inner slope waters from northern Florida to Delaware Bay to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of marine mammals; (2) continue the development and application of passive hydroacoustic methods to detect marine mammals and augment visual observations; and (3) opportunistically collect skin biopsy samples with particular focus on Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.

  24. Stamates, S.J. Predicting total suspended material concentration in the Chesapeake Bay estuary using a calibrated acoustic Doppler current profiler. M.S. thesis, University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Studies, 54 pp., 2002

    Abstract:

    Techniques recently published Deines (1999) indicate that the RD instruments broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler received signal strength data can be calibrated in units of scattering volume (Sv). This calibration procedure is performed and described. Data collected from a field study conducted in Chesapeake Bay are used to develop several models relating total suspended materials as measured by calibrated optical devices to scattering volume as measured by a calibrated ADCP. The models are optimized using statistical methods and their performance is evaluated.

  25. Swartz, S.L., A. Martinez, J. Stamates, C. Burks, and A.A. Mignucci-Giannoni. Acoustic and visual survey of cetaceans in the waters of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands: February-March 2001. NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-SEFSC-463 (PB2002-104701), 62 pp., 2002

    Abstract:

    A visual and acoustic survey for humpback whales and other cetaceans was conducted from 12 February to 8 March 2001 in the waters to the east of the Bahamas and around Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The survey utilized passive acoustic techniques (directional sonobuoys and a towed hydrophone array) to augment traditional visual surveys for cetaceans. Several previously unreported areas of humpback whale aggregation were discovered around Puerto Rico, off the east coast of the Dominican Republic, and east and southeast of the Virgin Islands. Samples of humpback whale song were obtained for stock analysis. Additional recordings from sperm whales, other cetaceans, and Atlantic thump trains were obtained. Lists of the species encountered and their distributions, and sounds recorded are presented in 4 tables and 24 figures that accompany the text.

  26. Nelsen, T.A., S.J. Stamates, B.J. Elkind, W.P. Dammann, and J.R. Proni. Field evaluation of the temporal and spatial variations in total suspended matter and current fields at Chesapeake Bay Site 104 and contiguous areas. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Final Report, MIPR No. W81W3@00604995, 47 pp., 2000

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  27. Dammann, W.P., J.M. Bufkin, U. Rivero, S.J. Stamates, and J.R. Proni. Near real-time observations of offshore current profiles and their application to dredge material disposal activities. Proceedings, Eco-Informa '96: Global Networks for Environmental Information, Lake Buena Vista, FL, November 4-7, 1996. Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, 11:563-568, 1996

    Abstract:

    An acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) is presently located approximately 7 km east of the Miami Harbor entrance at approximately 130 m depth. This device measures profiles of the current speed and direction in the upper 50 m of the water column directly above the instrument and transmits its data to a computer on shore. These data, sent at 20-minute intervals, are utilized to determine suitability of conditions for disposal of dredge materials. The computer performs a running one-hour average of the current vectors over the 50 m interval and transmits the east- west component to a watchstander hourly via telephone pager. If the westerly component of the current vector exceeds 12 cm per second, disposal operations are suspended. As of the date of this presentation, processed profiles of the data will be available via connection to the world wide web.

  28. Proni, J.R., S.J. Stamates, and J.F. Craynock. Massachusetts Bay water column particulate horizons study. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Contract Report, DW13940107-01-0, 33 pp., 1996

    Abstract:

    No abstract.

  29. Proni, J.R., W.P. Dammann, J.F. Craynock, S.J. Stamates, D. Commons, R. Fergen, H. Huang, R. Ferry, B. Goldenberg, J. Mandrup-Poulson, J. Monson, and R. Williams. Worst case effluent discharge conditions and adaptive processing of effluents for southeast Florida outfalls. Proceedings, 68th Annual Conference, WEFTEC '95, Miami Beach, FL, October 21-25, 1995. Water Environment Federation, 147-158, 1996

    Abstract:

    Of substantial interest to entities regulating coastal ocean effluent discharges are so-called "worst case" conditions. In general, "worst case" conditions refer to conditions of poorest dilution as determined by criteria involving ambient current speed distributions. A unique feature of the coastal waters off southeast Florida is the proximity of the Florida Current or Gulf Stream, one of the most powerful oceanic currents on earth with an average daily transport through the Straits of Florida of approximately 32 × 106 m3/sec. An extensive study called the Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment (SEFLOE) was carried out between 1988 and 1994 on the effluent discharges from four major southeast Florida coastal ocean outfalls. All four of these outfalls are located within the western boundary regime of the Florida Current and, therefore, pose unique challenges in determining "worst case" conditions. All four outfall sites are located in water of 30 m depth and are alternately "within" and "external to" the Florida Current. As a consequence of their locations, each of the outfalls is subject to three different ambient current and, hence, dilution regimes. These regimes are (1) site occupied by the Florida Current, (2) site external to the Florida Current but occupied by a relatively large scale, e.g., kilometers, current eddy, or (3) site external to the Florida Current but occupied by short-period, e.g., 3-12 hour current variations, possibly being linear and non-linear tides. "Worst case" dilution conditions in the sense of poorest initial and/or subsequent dilution are observed during the occurrence of regime (3) above. During this regime very small mean currents are observed.

  30. Stamates, S.J., J.F. Craynock, J.R. Proni, V. Fox-Norse, and D.A. Tomey. Acoustic reflector of opportunity distribution as a surrogate for inferring effluent distribution in a survey of Massachusetts Bay. Proceedings, Ocean 96 MTS/IEEE, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, September 23-26, 1996. Marine Technological Society, Vol. 1, 313-320, 1996

    Abstract:

    In 1998, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) expects to complete the construction of a new oceanic wastewater outfall system which will have the capacity to release as much as 1.2 × 109 (gal) of treated wastewater per day. The design of the system is such that during summer months the effluent plume should be trapped beneath the seasonal thermocline. It is proposed that the spatio-temporal distribution of acoustic reflectors (probablybiological) present in the seasonal thermocline is a reasonable surrogate for inferring the spatio-temporal distribution of acoustic reflectors that will result from the release of wastewater effluent. In September 1995, a joint U.S. EPA, MWRA, NOAA survey of Massachusetts Bay was conducted. The primary data sets gathered were acoustic backscatter profiles at 20 kHz and 200 kHz made every 0.5 (sec) with 0.5 (m) vertical resolution. Also, CTD casts and water bottle samples were taken at selected locations. Oceanographic phenomena, such as internal waves and tidal surges in conjunction with topographic features, cause the surrogate scattering layers to be vertically modulated with possible mixing of materials normally trapped within layer boundaries. Analysis of acoustic backscatter measurements provide visualizations of such events and allow for the estimation of the surrogate scattering layer distributions in the vertical and horizontal planes. Quantitative comparison of acoustic backscatter strength with CTD derived density and transmissometry measurements give an indication of the relationship of the surrogate scattering layers to the water density structure at selected sites in the study (and an indication of the reliability of the surrogate). In addition to its role as a surrogate for wastewater, the relationship of the surrogate scattering material layers with respect to the isopycnal surfaces is also considered for the purpose of evaluating the exposure of biota to future wastewater discharge.

  31. McLeish, W.L., J.R. Proni, S.J. Stamates, J.F. Craynock, and W.P. Dammann. Nearshore current measurements for the SEFLOE II project, 1991-1992. NOAA Technical Memorandum, ERL-AOML-75 (PB93-227676), 111 pp., 1993

    Abstract:

    The 1989 Southeast Florida Outfall Experiment (SEFLOE) was performed to evaluate the dispersion and advection of wastewater from ocean outfalls along the southeast Florida coast. The results showed that more comprehensive current measurements were needed to interpret the wastewater dilution measurements, and SEFLOE II was scheduled to include the additional data collection. Continuous series of current measurements were obtained at four outfalls both to support other measurements being collected during intensive survey periods and to compile long-term statistics of the different characters of ocean currents at the outfalls. Current meters were installed at two depths on each mooring.