1. Takahashi, T., F. Millero, R. Key, D. Chipman, E. Peltola, S. Rubin, C. Sweeney, and S. Sutherland. Determination of carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer cruise in the southern Indian Ocean (WOCE section SO4I, 3 May-4 July 1996). Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Technical Report, ORNL/CDIAC-150, 50 pp., 2006

    Abstract:

    This report discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) at hydrographic stations during the cruise of research vessel (R/V) Nathaniel B. Palmer in the Southern Indian Ocean on the S04I section as a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)/World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). The carbon-related measurements were sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The expedition started in Cape Town, South Africa, on May 3, 1996, and ended in Hobart, Australia, on July 4, 1996. Instructions for accessing the data are provided. The TCO2 was measured in discrete water samples using the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) coulomteric system with an overall precision of ±1.7 µmol/kg. TALK was determined by potentiometric titration with an overall precision of ±1.7 µmol/kg. During the S04I cruise pCO2 was also measured using the LDEO equilibrator-gas chromatograph system with a precision of 0.5% (including the station-to-station reproducibility) at a constant temperature of 4.0°C. The R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer S04I data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  2. Peltola, E., R. Wanninkhof, R. Feely, R. Castle, D. Greeley, J.-Z. Zhang, F. Millero, N. Gruber, J. Bullister, and T. Graham. Inorganic carbon, nutrient, and oxygen data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown repeat hydrography cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 section A16N_2003a (4 June-11 August 2003). Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Technical Report, ORNL/CDIAC-149, 36 pp., 2005

    Abstract:

    This report presents methods and analytical and quality control procedures for nutrient, oxygen, and inorganic carbon system parameters performed during the A16N_2003a cruise, which took place from June 4 to August 11, 2003 aboard NOAA Ship R/V Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The first hydrographic leg (June 19-July 10) was from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Funchal, Madeira, Portugal along the 20°W meridian, and the second leg (July 15-August 11) continued operations from Funchal, Portugal to Natal, Brazil, on a track southward and ending at 6°S, 25°W. The research was the first in a decadal series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from up to 34 depths at 150 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), phosphate (PO4), silicate (SiO4), and dissolved oxygen (O2). The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16N_2003a data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  3. Wanninkhof, R.H., S.C. Doney, E. Peltola, R.D. Castle, F.J. Millero, J.L. Bullister, D.A. Hansell, M.J. Warner, C. Langdon, G.C. Johnson, and C.W. Mordy. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown repeat hydrography cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 section A16S_2005 (11 January-24 February 2005). Oak Ridge National Laboratory/Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge, Technical Report, ORNL/CDIAC-151, 38 pp., 2005

    Abstract:

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/Repeat Hydrography/Tracer Program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  4. Peltola, E., K. Lee, R.H. Wanninkhof, R. Feely, M. Roberts, D. Greeley, M.O. Baringer, G. Johnson, J. Bullister, C. Mordy, J.-Z. Zhang, P. Quay, F. Millero, D. Hansell, and P. Minnett. Chemical and hydrographic measurements on a Climate and Global Change Cruise along 24°N in the Atlantic Ocean WOCE Section A5R (repeat) during January-February 1998. NOAA Data Report, OAR-AOML-41 (PB2001-107645), 210 pp., 2001

    Abstract:

    This document contains data and metadata from a zonal cruise along nominally 24.5°N in the Atlantic Ocean from Las Palmas, Canary Islands in Spain to Miami, Florida. The cruise took place from January 23 to February 24, 1998 aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown under auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This report presents the analytical and quality control procedures performed during the cruise and bottle data from the cruise. The research was sponsored by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program under: (i) The Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES); and (ii) the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) repeat hydrography program. Samples were taken from up to 36 depths at 130 stations. The data presented in this report includes the analyses of water samples for: salinity, nutrients, total dissolved inorganic carbon dioxide (DIC), fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2), total alkalinity (TA), pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chlorofluorocarbons, and stable carbon isotopic ratio of DIC (13C/12C). Basic hydrographic parameters, pressure, CTD salinity, temperature and the calculated potential temperature, and potential density are included as well.

  5. Millero, F.J., D.G. Purkerson, P. Steinberg, E. Peltola, K. Lee, C. Edwards, J. Goen, and M.P. Roche. The carbon dioxide system in the Ross Sea during the JGOFS Southern Ocean Process Study. University of Miami-Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Technical Report, RSMAS-98-001, 159 pp., 1998

    Abstract:

    In the austral summer of 1996 and austral fall of 1997, we participated in the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the Southern Ocean aboard the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer. The first cruise was a survey across the Antarctic Convergence Zone from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand to the Ross Sea and back. The Process 1 and 3 cruises were in the Ross Sea. The first process cruise originated in Port Lyttelton, New Zealand and ended in McMurdo Station, Antarctica. The third process cruise originated and ended in Port Lyttelton, New Zealand. This report gives the results of our pH, total alkalinity (TA), and total inorganic carbon dioxide (TCO2) measurements made during these cruises. The pH, TCO2, and TA results were obtained by potentiometric titration of seawater samples with hydrochloric acid (HCl), while the TCO2 was determined by coulometry. Spectroscopic pH measurements were also made. Measurements of pH, TA, and TCO2 were made on certified reference material (CRM) throughout the cruises to assess the quality of the measurements. The reproducibility of these CRM measurements by potentiometric titration were ±1.6 µmol kg-1 in TA, ±2.2 µmol kg-1 in TCO2, and ±0.005 in pH. The reproducibility in TCO2 by coulometry were ±1 µmol kg-1 and ±0.001 in the spectroscopic values of pH. The at sea measurements agreed with the assigned values of ±2 µmol kg-1 in TA, ±5 µmol kg-1 in TCO2, and ±0.002 in pH. All the measurements done at sea were adjusted for these differences. The values of pH, TA, and TCO2 for the measurements in the Ross Sea are examined for the process studies along with surface nutrients and pCO2.

  6. Peltola, E., R. Wanninkhof, R. Molinari, B.E. Huss, R. Feely, J. Bullister, J.-Z. Zhang, F. Chavez, A. Dickson, A. Ffield, D. Hansell, F. Millero, P. Quay, R. Castle, G. Thomas, R. Roddy, T. Landry, M. Roberts, H. Chen, D. Greeley, K. Lee, M. Roche, J.A. Goen, F. Millero, K. Buck, M. Kelly, F. Menzia, A. Huston, T. Waterhouse, S. Becker, and C. Mordy. Chemical and hydrographic measurements during the Indian Ocean I8 repeat cruise (IR8N) in September and October 1995. NOAA Data Report, ERL-AOML-34 (PB99-126948), 176 pp., 1998

    Abstract:

    This document contains data and metadata from the I8 repeat cruise in the Indian Ocean cruise in 1995 from Fremantle, Australia to Male in the Maldives. From September 22 to October 25, 1995, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sponsored an oceanographic research cruise conducted aboard the NOAA Ship Malcolm Baldrige. This report presents the analytical and quality control procedures and data from the cruise that was conducted for the Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study (OACES). Samples were taken at 101 stations. The data presented in this report includes hydrography, nutrients, total dissolved inorganic carbon dioxide (DIC), fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2), total alkalinity (TA), pH, total organic carbon and nitrogen data (TOC/TON), chlorofluorocarbons, 13C, and biological parameters.

  7. O'Sullivan, D.W., F.J. Millero, C. Goyet, E. Peltola, E.A. Degler, B. Adams, R.G.J. Bellerby, G. Eischeid, and S.J. McCue. Carbon dioxide system measurements on Arabian Sea waters. University of Miami-Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Technical Report, RSMAS 97-005, 283 pp., 1997

    Abstract:

    In 1995, we participated on a number of research cruises in the Arabian Sea as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF). This report gives the results of our total inorganic carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TA), and potentiometric pH measurements made on Arabian Sea water samples during these cruises. The MIAMI titration system was used to determine pH, TA and TCO2 for the waters studied. More reliable TCO2 results were obtained using the WHOI coulometric system and these results are reported in the JGOFS data base. Measurements made on Certified Reference Material (CRM) for two different batches of CRM were used to monitor the performance of the potentiometric and coulometric CO2 measurements. The reproducibility of the coulometry measurements of TCO2 was to ± 1.2 µmol kg-1 (N = 115). The potentiometric measurements on CRM gave a reproducibility of ± 2.7 µmol kg-1 in TCO2, ± 3.2 µmol kg-1 in TA, and ± 0.007 in pH (N = 177). The surface measurements of pH and normalized TA were quite uniform throughout the year (pH = 8.084 ± 0.016, NTA = 2288 ± 5 µmol kg-1); normalized TCO2 was more variable (NTCO2 = 1949 ± 20 µmol kg-1). The depth profiles of pH, TA, and TCO2 were similar to those in the Indian Ocean.

  8. Millero, F.J., J.-Z. Zhang, E. Peltola, M. Roche, S. Olivella, M. De Alessi, and B. Vargas. Total alkalinity measurements in the South Pacific. University of Miami Technical Report, RSMAS-94-003, 207 pp., 1994

    Abstract:

    In spring 1994, we participated in one CO2 cruise in the South Pacific during the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This report gives the results of our pH, total alkalinity (TA), and total inorganic carbon dioxide (TCO2) measurements made in the South Pacific during the cruise. The results were obtained by a potentiometric titration of seawater samples with HCl. Measurements on 116 samples of Certified Reference Material with the three cells at sea indicate that the systems have a reproducibility of ± 3.3 µmol kg-1 in TA. The resulting pH, TA, and TCO2 are thought to be precise to ± 0.01 in pH, ± 3 µmol/kg in TA, and ± 3 µmol/kg in TCO2. Our titration results will be combined with the NOAA measurements of TCO2 and fCO2 to characterize the CO2 system in this region.