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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

Dr. Claudia Schmid


4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (305) 361-4313

Research Interests

  • Ocean heat storage and atmosphere ocean interactions.
  • Ocean circulation and water masses.
  • Analysis of Lagrangian and Hydrographic observations.
  • Analysis of model results.
  • Ocean observing systems.

Current Work

  • Managing the US Argo Data Assembly Center.
  • Analysis of the mixed-layer budgets in the tropical Atlantic using data from PIRATA, Argo and surface drifters.
  • Analysis if the three-dimensional flow in the South and North Atlantic using data from Argo and AVISO.
  • Estimate the transport in the upper branch of the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and study its variability.
  • Collaborate in a project simulating the Argo array in a numerical model.
  • Member of the Executive Committee of the International Argo Data Management Team.
  • Co-Principal Investigator of the US Argo Project.
  • Co-Principal Investigator of the PIRATA Northeast Extension Project.
  • Collaborator in the project "Development and Demonstration of a Relocatable Ocean OSSE System: Optimizing Ocean Observations for Hurricane Forecast Improvement and Broader Applications".


Fotz, G.R., C. Schmid, and R. Lumpkin 2015: Transport of surface freshwater from the equatorial to the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Physical Oceanography, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-114-0189.1, in press.

Garzoli, S.L., S. Dong, R. Fine, C. Meinen, R.C. Perez, C. Schmid, E. van Sebille, and Q. Yao 2015:. The fate of the Deep Western Boundary Current in the South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research, Part I. Submitted.

Boyer, T., J. Antonov, J. Reagan, C. Schmid, and R. Locarnin, 2014: [Global Oceans] Subsurface salinity, [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95(7), 62 -65. [pdf]

Schmid, Claudia, 2014: Mean vertical and horizontal structure of the subtropical circulation in the South Atlantic from three-dimensional observed velocity fields. Deep-Sea Res.I , 91 (9), 50-71, doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2014.04.015. [pdf]

Boyer T., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, J. Reagan, C. Schmid, and R. Locarnini, 2012: State of the Ocean in 2011: Subsurface salinity. Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 93(7):S72-S75. [pdf]

Kamenkovich I.V., W. Cheng, C. Schmid and D. Harrison 2011: Effects of eddies on an ocean observing system with profiling floats: Idealized simulations of the Argo array. J. Geophys. Res., 116:C06003, doi:10.1029/2010JC006910. [pdf]

Levitus, S., J. Antonov, T. Boyer, J. Reagan, and C. Schmid, 2011: Global oceans: Subsurface salinity. In "State of the Climate in 2010", J. Blunden, D.S. Arndt, and M.O. Baringer (eds.). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92(6):S88-S92 [pdf]

Brandt, P., V. Hormann, A. Kortzinger, M. Visbeck, G. Krahmann, L. Stramma, R. Lumpkin, and C. Schmid, 2010: Changes in the ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone of the tropical North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 40(8):1784-1801. [pdf]

Pouliquen, C. Schmid, A. Wong, S. Guinehut, M. Belbeoch, and Argo Data Management Team, 2010: Argo Data Management. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Testor, P., G. Meyers, C. Pattriaratchi, R. Bachmayer, D. Hayes, S. Pouliquen, L Petit de la Villeon, T. Carval, A. Ganachaud, L. Gourdeau, L. Mortier, H. Claustre, V. Taillandier, P. Lherminier, T. Terre, M. Visbeck, J. Karstensen, G. Krahmann, A. Alvarez, M. Rixen, P-M. Poulain, S. Osterhus, J. Tintore, S. Ruiz, B. Garau, D. Smeed, G. Griffiths, L. Merckelbach, T. Sherwin, C. Schmid, J.A. Barth. O. Schofield, S. Glenn, J. Kohut, M.J. Perry, C. Eriksen, U. Send, R. Davis, D. Rudnick, J. Sherman, C. Jones, D. Webb, C. Lee, and B. Owens, 2010: Gliders as a component of future observing systems. In Proceedings of the "Ocean'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Johnson G. C., J. M. Lyman, J. K. Willis, S. Levitus, T. Boyer, J. Antonov, C. Schmid and G. J. Goni, 2009: Ocean Heat Content. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., S49-S54. [pdf]

Roemmich, D., G. C. Johnson, S. Riser, R. Davis, J. Gilson, W.B. Owens, S. Garzoli, C. Schmid, M. Ignaszewski, 2009: The Argo Program: Observing the Global Oceans with Profiling Floats. Oceanography Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2009. Special Issue on the Tenth Anniversary of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. [pdf]

Schmid, C. and S.L. Garzoli, 2009: Spreading and Variability of the Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Atlantic. J. Mar. Res., 67(6):815-843. [pdf]

Schmid, C., 2005: On the impact of combining temperature profiles from different instruments on an analysis of mixed layer properties. J. Atmos. Oceanic. Techn., 22(10):1571-1587. [pdf]

Schmid, C., B. Bourlés and Y. Gouriou, 2005: Impact of the deep equatorial jets on the zonal transport in the Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 52(3-4):409-428. [pdf]

Boebel, O., J. R. E. Lutjeharms, C. Schmid, W. Zenk, T. Rossby, and C. Barron, 2003: The Cape Cauldron: A regime of turbulent interocean exchange. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 50(1):57-86. [pdf]

Schmid, C., O. Boebel, W. Zenk, J. R. E. Lutjeharms, S. L. Garzoli, P. L. Richardson, and C. Barron, 2003: Early evolution of an Agulhas Ring. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 50(1):141-166 [pdf]

Schmid, C., Z. D. Garraffo, E. Johns, and S. L. Garzoli, 2003: Pathways and Variability at intermediate depths in the tropical Atlantic. ed. by G. J. Goni and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. EOS,, 68:233-268. [pdf]

Schmid, C., R.L. Molinari, and S.L. Garzoli, 2001: New observations of the intermediate depth circulation in the tropical Atlantic. J. Mar. Res., 59(2):281-312. [pdf]

Schmid, C., G.W. Siedler, and W. Zenk, 2000: Dynamics of Intermediate Water Circulation in the Subtropical South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30:3191-3211. [pdf]

Boebel, O., C. Schmid,and W. Zenk, 1999: Kinematic elements of Antarctic Intermediate Water in the western South Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 46(1-2):355-392. [pdf]

Boebel O., C. Schmid, G. Podesta, and W. Zenk, 1999: Intermediate water in the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence Zone: A Lagrangian view. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C9):21,063-21,082 [pdf]

Boebel, O., R.E. Davis, M. Ollitrault, R.G. Peterson, P.L. Richardson, C. Schmid, and W. Zenk, 1999: The intermediate depth circulation of the Western South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(21):3329-3332. [pdf]