AOML
NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

Christopher ("Chris") Meinen

Oceanographer

NOAA/AOML/PhOD
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (305) 361-4355
Christopher.Meinen at noaa.gov


Research Interests

  • The Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), in particular the western boundary components of the global MOC cell in the subtropical North Atlantic at 26.5°N and in the South Atlantic at 34.5°S. For more information see the links at left for the Southwest Atlantic MOC project and the Western Boundary Time Series project. 
  • The structure and variability of strong ocean currents, including the Florida Current, the North Atlantic Current, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, the Gulf Stream, and the Deep Western Boundary Current. For more information about our Florida Current work, see the link at left for the Florida Current time series. 
  • Finding innovative ways to combine different types of instruments to measure important ocean quantities. 
  • How ocean circulation patterns change and how they relate to the global climate system. 

Publications

Meinen, C. S., and S. L. Garzoli, Attribution of Deep Western Boundary Current variability at 26.5°N, Deep Sea Research I, (submitted), 2014.

Garcia, R. F., and C. S. Meinen, Accuracy of Florida Current volume transport measurements at 27°N using multiple observational techniques, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., (in press), 10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00148.1, 2014.

Smeed, D. A., G. McCarthy, S. A. Cunningham, E. Frajka-Williams, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, M. O. Baringer, B. I. Moat, A. Duchez, and H. L. Bryden, Observed decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 2004 to 2012, Ocean Sci., (in press), 2013.

Meinen, C. S., S. Speich, R. C. Perez, S. Dong, A. R. Piola, S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, S. Gladyshev, and E. J. D. Campos, Temporal variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 34.5°S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 118 (12), 6461-6478, doi:10.1002/2013JC009228, 2013.

Szuts, Z. B., and C. Meinen, Salinity transport in the Florida Straits, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 30, 971-983, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00133.1, 2013.

Frajka-Williams, E., W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, L. M. Beal, and S. A. Cunningham, Eddy impacts on the Florida Current, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40 (2), 349-353, 2013.

Meinen, C. S., W. E. Johns, S. L. Garzoli, E. van Sebille, D. Rayner, T. Kanzow, and M. O. Baringer, Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5°N during 2004-2009, Deep Sea Res. II, 85, 154-168, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.036, 2013.

Meinen, C. S., A. R. Piola, R. C. Perez, and S. L. Garzoli, Deep Western Boundary Current transport variability in the South Atlantic: Preliminary results from a pilot array at 34.5°S, Ocean Sci., 8, 1041-1054, doi:10.5194/os-8-1041-2012, 2012.

McCarthy, G. D., E. Frajka-Williams, W. Johns, M. Baringer, C. Meinen, H. Bryden, D. Rayner, A. Duchez, C. Roberts, and S. Cunningham, Observed Interannual Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19609, doi:10.1029/2012GL052933, 2012.

van Sebille, E., M. O. Baringer, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, L. M. Beal, M. F. de Jong, and H. M. van Aken, Propagation Pathways of Classical Labrador Sea Water from its Source Region to 26°N, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C12027, doi:10.1029/2011JC007171, 2011.

Perez, R. C., S. L. Garzoli, C. S. Meinen, and R. P. Matano, Observing Methods for the Meridional Overturning Circulation and Meridional Heat Transport in the South Atlantic, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 28, 1504-1521, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00058.1, 2011.

Turk, D., C. S. Meinen, D. Antoine, M. J. McPhaden, and M. R. Lewis, Implications of changing El Nino patterns for biological dynamics in the equatorial Paciļ¬c ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L23603, doi:10.1029/2011GL049674, 2011.

Johns, W. E., M. O. Baringer, L. M. Beal, S. A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, H. L. Bryden, J. J.-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, C. S. Meinen, B. Shaw, and R. Curry, Continuous Array-Based Estimates of Atlantic Ocean Heat Transport at 26.5°N, J. Clim., 24(5), 2429-2449, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3997.1, 2011.

Rayner, D., J. J-M. Hirschi, T. Kanzow, W. E. Johns, S. A. Cunningham, P. G. Wright, E. Frajka-Williams, H. L. Bryden, C. S. Meinen, M. O. Baringer, J. Marotzke, and L. M. Beal, Monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Deep Sea Res. I, 48, 1744-1753, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.056, 2011.

Baringer, M. O., T. O. Kanzow, C. S. Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, E. Frajka-Williams, J. J-M. Hirschi, M. P. Chidichimo, L. M. Beal and J. Marotzke, Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic, in State of the Climate in 2010, Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92, S95-S98. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1, 2011.

Turk, D., C. J. Zappa, C. S. Meinen, J. R. Christian, D. T. Ho, A. G. Dickson, and W. R. McGillis, Rain Impacts on CO2 Exchange in the Western Equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L23610, doi:10.1029/2010GL045520, 2010.

Baringer, M. O., T. O. Kanzow, C. S. Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, J. J-M. Hirschi, L. M. Beal, and J. Marotzke, The Meridional Overturning Circulation, in State of the Climate in 2009, D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 91(6), 66-69, 2010.

Kanzow, T., S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, J. J-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, M. P. Chidichimo, C. Atkinson, L. M. Beal, H. L. Bryden, and J. Collins, "Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N", J. Clim., 23(21), 5678-5698, 2010.

Meinen, C. S., M. O. Baringer, and R. F. Garcia, "Florida Current Transport Variability: An Analysis of Annual and Longer-Period Signals", Deep Sea Res. I, 57 (7), 835-846, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.04.001, 2010.

Dong, S., S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, and G. J. Goni, "Interannual Variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and its Relationship with the Net Northward Heat Transport in the South Atlantic", Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20606, doi:10.1029/2009GL039356, 2009.

Baringer, M. O., C. S. Meinen, G. C. Johnson, T. O. Kanzow, S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, L. M. Beal, J. J.-M. Hirschi, D. Rayner, H. R. Longworth, H. L. Bryden, and J. Marotzke, "The Meridional Overturning Circulation", in "State of the Climate in 2008", T. Peterson and M. Baringer (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90, S59-S62, 2009.

DiNezio, P. N., L. J. Gramer, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen, and M. O. Baringer, "Observed Interannual Variability of the Florida Current: Wind Forcing and the North Atlantic Oscillation", J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39(3), 721-736, doi: 10.1175/2008JPO4001.1, 2009.

Meinen, C. S., D. S. Luther, and M. O. Baringer, "Structure, transport and potential vorticity of the Gulf Stream at 68°W: Revisiting older data sets with new techniques", Deep Sea Res. I, 56(1), 41-60, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.07.010, 2009.

Peng, G., Z. Garra, G. R. Halliwell, O. M. Smedstad, C. S. Meinen, V. Kourafalou, and P. Hogan, "Temporal variability of the Florida Current transport at 27°N", in "Ocean Circulation and El Nino: New Research", J.A. Long and D.S. Wells (ed.), Nova Science Publishers, New York, 119-137, 2009.

Meinen, C. S., "Accuracy in mooring motion temperature corrections", J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 25(12), 2293-2303, doi:10.1175/2008JTECHO555.1, 2008.

Baringer, M. O., and C. S. Meinen, "The Meridional Overturning Circulation", in "State of the Climate in 2007", D. H. Levinson and J. H. Lawrimore (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 89(7), s49-s51, doi:10.1175/BAMS-89-7-StateoftheClimate, 2008.

Kanzow, T., J. J-M. Hirschi, C. S. Meinen, D. Rayner, S. A. Cunningham, J. Marotzke, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, L. M. Beal, M. O. Baringer, "A prototype system of observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation - scientific basis, measurement and risk mitigation strategies, and first results", J. Operational Oceanogr., 1, 19 - 28, 2008.

Cunningham, S. A., T. Kanzow, D. Rayner, M. O. Baringer, W. E. Johns, J. Marotzke, H. R. Longworth, E. M. Grant, J. J-M. Hirschi, L. M. Beal, C. S. Meinen, and H. L. Bryden, "Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5°N", Science, 317, 935, DOI: 10.1126/science.1141304, 2007.

Kanzow, T., S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, J. J-M. Hirshi, W. E. Johns, M. O. Baringer, H. L. Bryden, L. M. Beal, C. S. Meinen, and J. Marotzke, "Observed flow compensation associated with the Meridional Overturning at 26.5°N in the Atlantic", Science, 317, 938, DOI: 10.1126/science.1141293, 2007.

Baringer, M. O. and C. S. Meinen, "The Meridional Overturning Circulation and Oceanic Heat Transport", in "Supplement to State of the Climate in 2006", A. Arguez, ed., Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 88(6), s1-s135, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-6-StateoftheClimate, 2007.

Meinen, C. S., M. O. Baringer, and S. L. Garzoli, "Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5°N in the Atlantic", Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17610, doi:10.1029/2006GL026965, 2006.

Tracey, K. L., D. R. Watts, C. S. Meinen, and D. S. Luther, "Synoptic maps of temperature and velocity within the Subantarctic Front south of Australia", J. Geophys. Res., 111, C10016, doi:10.1029/2005JC002905, 2006.

Baringer, M. O. and C. S. Meinen, "Thermohaline Circulation", in "State of the Climate in 2005", K. A. Shein, ed., Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 87(6), s1-s102, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-6-shein, 2006.

Mooers, C. N. K., C. S. Meinen, M. O. Baringer, I. Bang, R. Rhodes, C. N. Barron, and F. Bub, "Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems", EOS, 86(29), 269, 272-273, 2005.

Meinen, C. S., "Temporal Sampling: How Many Sections are Needed to Quantify the Mean Transport and Structure of a Meandering Current?", J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 22(4), 476-489, 2005.

Meinen, C. S., "Meridional Extent and Interannual Variability of the Pacific Ocean Tropical-Subtropical Warm Water Exchange", J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35(3), 323-335, 2005.

Meinen, C. S., S. L. Garzoli, W. E. Johns, and M. O. Baringer, "Transport Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current and the Antilles Current off Abaco Island, Bahamas", Deep Sea Res. I, 51(11), 1397-1415, 2004.

Chave, A. D., D. S. Luther, and C. S. Meinen, "Correction of Motional Electric Field Measurements for Galvanic Distortion", J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 21(2), 317-330, 2004.

Meinen, C. S., D. S. Luther, D. R. Watts, A. D. Chave, and K. L. Tracey, "Mean Stream-coordinates Structure of the Subantarctic Front: Temperature, Salinity, and Absolute Velocity", J. Geophys. Res., 108(C8), 3263, doi:10.1029/2002JC001545, 2003.

Meinen, C. S. and D. S. Luther, "Comparison of Methods of Estimating Mean Synoptic Current Structure in "Stream Coordinates" Reference Frames with an Example from The Antarctic Circumpolar Current", Deep Sea Res. I, 50(2), 201-220, 2003.

Hendry, R. M., D. R. Watts, and C. S. Meinen, "Newfoundland Basin sea level variability from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and inverted echo sounder/bottom pressure measurements", Canadian J. Remote Sensing, 28(4), 544-555, 2002.

Meinen, C. S., D. S. Luther, D. R. Watts, K. L. Tracey, A. D. Chave, and J. Richman, "Combining Inverted Echo Sounder and Horizontal Electric Field Recorder Measurements to Obtain Absolute Velocity Profiles", J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19(10), 1653-1664, 2002.

Meinen, C. S., and D. S. Luther, "Mooring Motion when the Pressure Sensors Fail: A Method Employing Inverted Echo Sounders", J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19(9), 1451-1460, 2002.

Meinen, C. S., M. J. McPhaden, and G. C. Johnson, "Vertical Velocities and Transports in the Equatorial Pacific during 1993-1999", J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(11), 3230-3248, 2001.

Meinen, C. S., and M. J. McPhaden, "Interannual Variability in Warm Water Volume Transports in the Equatorial Pacific During 1993-1999", J. Phys. Oceanogr., 31(5), 1324-1345, 2001.

Meinen, C. S. , "Structure of the North Atlantic Current in stream-coordinates and the Circulation in the Newfoundland Basin", Deep Sea Res., 48(7), 1553-1580, 2001.

Meinen, C. S., and M. J. McPhaden, "Observations of Warm Water Volume Changes in the Equatorial Pacific and their Relationship to El Nino and La Nina", J. Clim., 13(20), 3551-3559, 2000.

Meinen, C. S. and D. R. Watts, "Vertical Structure and Transport on a Transect across the North Atlantic Current near 42°N: Time series and Mean", J. Geophys. Res., 105(C9), 21869-21891, 2000.

Meinen, C. S., D. R. Watts, and R. A. Clarke, "Absolutely referenced geostrophic velocity and transport on a section across the North Atlantic Current," Deep Sea Res., 47(2), 309-322, 2000.

Meinen, C. S. and D. R. Watts, "Calibrating Inverted Echo Sounders equipped with Pressure Sensors," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 15(6), 1339-1345, 1998.

Meinen, C. S. and D. R. Watts, "Further evidence that the sound speed algorithm of Del Grosso is more accurate than that of Chen and Millero," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 102 (4), 2058-2062, 1997.

Kellogg, R. L. and C. Meinen, "A Gravity Investigation of the Fayette Structural Zone and Surrounding Area, Northeast Iowa", J. Iowa Acad. Sci., 100(3), 72-77, 1993.

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