National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

Silvia Garzoli


Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies
University of Miami
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (305) 361-4338

Research Interests

  • Study of the oceanic circulation and its role in climate.
  • The importance of the South Atlantic in modulating the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.
  • Observational studies of western boundary currents.
  • Observation and analysis of the Atlantic meridional heat transport.

Current Work

Dr. Silvia L. Garzoli's main field of interest is the dynamics of the ocean and its relation to climate. As a sea going oceanographer, her main field of expertise is in the use of long-term moored instrumentation to study the oceanic circulation. For a large part of her career, she conducted and directed national and international research programs in several regions of the world Ocean. This includes the tropical Atlantic, the Brazil Malvinas Confluence in the South Western Atlantic, the study of the Indonesian throughflow at the Strait of Makassar, the Benguela Current system west of South Africa, and the North Brazil Current north of Brazil. Dr. Garzoli is one of the main developers of the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (SAMOC) program, an international initiative whose primary goal is to understand and explain the role of the South Atlantic in the Meridional Overturning Circulation through the collection of sustained observations and model analysis. As one of the key investigators leading the international Argo profiling float program, she has been in charge of the deployment of floats in the Atlantic Ocean for the past decade. In addition to the analysis of the observations that she collected during her research expeditions, Dr. Garzoli has also worked with the products of numerical models to advance our understanding of the physics of the oceans.

Dr. Garzoli retired from her position at AOML on December 2012 where she served as the Director of the Physical Oceanography Division (October 1997 to May 2009) and as the AOML Chief Scientist (May 2009 to December 2012). She currently holds a science position at CIMAS, a joint Institute between the University of Miami and NOAA, where she continues to conduct scientific research. Previous positions include among others Senior Scientist at the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University in the city of New York, and Program Manager at the Division of Ocean Sciences at the National Science Foundation.


Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns, G. McCarthy, J. Willis, S. Garzoli, M. Lankhorst, C.S. Meinen, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, D. A. Smeed, T. O. Kanzow, P. Heimbach, E. Frajka-Williams, A. Macdonald, S. Dong and J. Marotzke, Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean. [Global Oceans] Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2011], Bull. Am. Met. Soc.,94 (8) S65-68. 2013.

Garzoli, S.,M.O. Baringer, S. Dong, R. Perez, and Q. Yao, 2012: South Atlantic meridional fluxes. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 71:21 -32, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.09.003. [pdf]

Garzoli, S., P. Abrahamsen, I. Ansorge, A. Biastoch, E. Campos, M. Mata, C. Meinen, J. Pelegri, R. Perez, A. Piola, C. Reason, M. Roberts, S. Speich, J. Sprintall, R. Watts, and all of the SAMOC IV participants, 2012: South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (SAMOC) - Fourth Workshop. CLIVAR Exchanges, 58:2-4 [pdf]

Meinen, C.S., W.E. Johns, S.L. Garzoli, E. Van Sebille, D. Rayner, T. Kanzow, and M.O. Baringer, 2012: Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5N during 2004-2009. Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 85:154-168, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.036. [pdf]

Meinen, C.S., A. Piola, R.C. Perez, and S.L. Garzoli, 2012: Deep Western Boundary Current transport variability in the South Atlantic: Preliminary results from a pilot array at 34.5S. Ocean Sci., 8:1041-1054, doi:10.5194/os-8-1041-2012. [pdf]

Meinen, C. S., S. Speich, R. C. Perez, S. Dong, A. R. Piola, S. L. Garzoli, M. O.Baringer, S. Gladyshev, and E. J. D. Campos (2013), Temporal variability of the meridional overturning circulation at34.5S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 6461-6478, doi:10.1002/2013JC009228.

Baringer, M.O., S.A. Cunningham, C.S. Meinen, S. Garzoli, J. Willis, M.Lankhorst, A. Macdonald, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, T. O. Kanzow, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, and J. Marotzke,: State of the Ocean in 2011:Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt (eds.), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93(7):S78-S81. 2012.

Dong, S., M. Baringer, G. Goni, and S. Garzoli, 2011: Importance of the assimilation of Argo Float Measurements on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18603, doi:10.1029/2011GL048982. [pdf]

Lumpkin, R. and S. L. Garzoli, 2011: Interannual to Decadal Variability in the Southwestern Atlantic's Surface Circulation. . J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 116, C01014, doi:10.1029/2010JC006285. [pdf]

Perez, R.C., S.L. Garzoli, C.S. Meinen, and R.P. Matano, 2011: Geostrophic Velocity Measurement Techniques for the Meridional Overturning Circulation and Meridional Heat Transport in the South Atlantic. J. Atmos. Ocean. Techn., 28:1504-1521. [pdf]

Cunningham, S., M. Baringer, B. Johns, J. Toole, S. Osterhaus, J. Fischer, A. Piola, E. McDonagah, S. Lozier, U. Send, T. Kanzow, J. Marotzke, M. Rhein, S. Garzoli, S. Rintoul, B. Sloyan, S. Speich, L. Talley, J. Baehr, C. Meinen, A-M. Treguier and P. Lherminier, 2010: The present and future system for measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and heat transport. in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Freeland H., D. Roemmich, S. Garzoli, PY. Le Traon, M. Ravichandran, S. Riser, V. Thierry, S. Wijffels, M. Belbeoch, J. Gould, F. Grant, M. Ignazewski, B. King, B. Klein, K.A. Mork, B. Owens, S. Pouliquen, A. Sterl, T. Suga, MS. Suk, P. Sutton, A. Troisi, P.J. Velez-Belchi, and J. Xu. , 2010: ARGO -A Decade of Progress. in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Garzoli S., O. Boebel, H. Bryden, R.A. Fine, M. Fukasawa, S. Gladysev, G. Johnson, M. Johnson, A. MacDonald, C. Meinen, H. Mercier, A. Orsi, A. Piola, S. Rintoul, S. Speich, M. Visbeck, and R. Wanninkhof, 2010: Progressing towards global sustained deep ocean observations. in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Goni G.J., D. Roemmich, R. Molinari, G. Meyers, C. Sun, T. Boyer, M. Baringer, V. Gouretski, P. DiNezio, F. Reseghetti, G. Vissa, S. Swart, R. Keeley, S. Garzoli, T. Rossby, C. Maes, and G. Reverdin, 2010: The Ship Of Opportunity Program. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306. [pdf]

Dong, S. S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, and G. J. Goni, 2009: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and its Northward Heat Transport in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20606, doi:10.1029/2009GL039356. [pdf]

Dong, S., S. L. Garzoli, and M. O. Baringer, 2009: An Assessment of the Seasonal Mixed-Layer Salinity Budget in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C12001, doi:10.1029/2008JC005258. [pdf]

Roemmich, D., M. Belbeoch, H. Freeland, S.L. Garzoli, W.J. Gould, F. Grant, M. Ignaszewski, B. King, B. Klein, P.-Y. Le Traon, K.A. Mork, W.B. Owens, S. Pouliquen, M. Ravichandran, S. Riser, A. Sterl, T. Suga, M.-S. Suk, P. Sutton, V. Thierry, P.J. Velez-Belchi, S. Wijffels, and J. Xu, 2009: Argo: The challenge of continuing 10 years of progress. Oceanogr., 22(3):46-55. [pdf]

Roemmich, D., G. C. Johnson, S. Riser, R. Davis, J. Gilson, W.B. Owens, S. Garzoli, C. Schmid, M. Ignaszewski, 2009: The Argo Program: Observing the Global Oceans with Profiling Floats. Oceanography Vol. 22, No. 2, June 2009. Special Issue on the Tenth Anniversary of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program. [pdf]

Schmid, C. and S.L. Garzoli, 2009: Spreading and Variability of the Antarctic Intermediate Water in the Atlantic. J. Mar. Res., 67(6):815-843. [pdf] Baringer, M.O., and S.L. Garzoli, 2007: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part I: Error estimates from model and hydrographic data. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 54(8):1390-1401. [pdf]

Garzoli, S.L., and M.O. Baringer, 2007: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part II: South Atlantic transport. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 54(8):1402-1420. [pdf]

Meinen, C.S., M.O. Baringer, and S.L. Garzoli, 2006: Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5N in the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(17):L17610, doi:10.1029/2006GL026965. [pdf]

Ansorge I., S. Speich, J. Lutjeharms, G. Goni, C. Rautenback, P. Froneman and S. Garzoli, 2005: Monitoring the oceanic flow between Africa and Antarctica: Report of the first Good Hope cruise. South African. J. Sci., 101(3-4):29-35. [pdf]

Legeais, J.-F., S. Speich, M. Arhan, I. Ansorge, E. Fahrbach, S.L. Garzoli, and A. Klepikov, 2005: The baroclinic transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of Africa. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(24):L24602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023271. [PDF]

Lumpkin, R. and S.L. Garzoli, 2005: Near-surface circulation in the Tropical Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 52:495-18. [pdf]

Garzoli, S.L., A. Ffield, W.E. Johns, and Q. Yao, 2004: North Brazil Current retroflection and transports. J. Geophys. Res., 109(C1):1013, doi:10.1029/ 2003JC001775. [PDF]

Meinen, C.S., S.L. Garzoli, W.E. Johns, and M.O. Baringer., 2004: Transport variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current and the Antilles Current off Abaco Island, Bahamas. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 51(11):1397-1415. [PDF]

Garzoli, S.L., A. Ffield, and Q. Yao, 2003: North Brazil Current rings and the variability in the latitude of the retroflection. In: Interhemispheric Water Exchange in the Atlantic Ocean, G. J. Goni and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli (eds.). EOS, 68 (ISBN 0444512675), 357-373. [PDF]

Garzoli, S.L., J. Servain, 2003: CLIVAR workshop on tropical Atlantic variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5):8001, doi:10.1029/2002GL016823 [PDF]

Richardson, P.L. and S.L. Garzoli, 2003: Characteristics of intermediate water flow in the Benguela current as measured with RAFOS floats. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 50(1): 87-118. [PDF]

Schmid, C., O. Boebel, W. Zenk, J. R. E. Lutjeharms, S. L. Garzoli, P. L. Richardson, and C. Barron, 2003: Early evolution of an Agulhas Ring. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 50(1):141-166. [PDF]

Schmid, C., Z. D. Garraffo, E. Johns, and S. L. Garzoli, 2003: Pathways and Variability at intermediate depths in the tropical Atlantic. ed. by G. J. Goni and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli. EOS,, 68:233-268. [PDF]

Wilson, D.W., W.E. Johns, and S.L. Garzoli, 2002: Velocity structure of North Brazil Current rings. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(8):10.1029/2001GL013869. [PDF]

Campos, E., A. Busalacchi, S.L. Garzoli, J. Lutjeharms, R. Matano, P. Nobre, D.B. Olson, A. Piola, C. Tanajura, and I. Wainer, 2002: Important aspects of the South Atlantic to the understanding of the global climate. In Observing the Oceans in the 21st Century: A Strategy for Global Ocean Observations, C.J. Koblinsky and N.R. Smith (eds.). GODAE Project Office, 20 pp. [PDF]

Garzoli, S.L. and R.L. Molinari, 2001: Ageostrophic transport in the upper layers of the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:4619-4622. [PDF]

Schmid, C., R.L. Molinari, and S.L. Garzoli, 2001: New observations of the intermediate depth circulation in the tropical Atlantic. J. Mar. Res., 59(2):281-312. [PDF]

Waworuntu J.W., S.L. Garzoli and D. Olson. Dynamics of the Makassar Strait, J. Mar. Res., 59:313-325. [PDF]

Ffield, A., K. Vranes, A.L. Gordon, R.D. Susanto, and S.L. Garzoli, 2000: Temperature variability within the Makassar Strait. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27:237-240. [PDF]

Garzoli, S.L., and G.J. Goni, 2000: Combining altimeter observations and oceanographic data for ocean circulation and climate studies. In Satellites, Oceanography, and Society, D. Halpern (ed.). Elsevier Oceanographic Series, 63 (ISBN 0-444-50501-6),79-95. [Link]

Garzoli, S.L., P.L. Richardson, C.M. Duncombe Rae, D.M. Fratantoni, G.J. Goni, and A.J. Roubicek,1999: Three Agulhas rings observed during the Benguela Current Experiment. J. Geophys. Res., 104(C9):20,971-20,986. [PDF]

Molinari, R.L., S.L. Garzoli, and R.W. Schmitt, 1999: Equatorial currents at 1000 m in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(3):361-364 [PDF]