National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

Dr. David Enfield


Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies
University of Miami
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (305) 361-4430

Research Interests

  • Large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions.
  • Global climate variability.
  • Global warming and climate change.
  • Intra-Americas Sea climate processes

Current Work

  • Extreme weather and fisheries related to the Intra-Americas Sea.
  • Atlantic Ocean and multidecadal climate variabilit.
  • Working with SE Florida counties for climate change mitigation and adaptation.


Lee S.-K., R. Atlas, D.B. Enfield, C. Wang and H. Liu, 2013. Is There An Optimal ENSO Pattern That Enhances Large-scale Atmospheric Processes Conducive to Major Tornado Outbreaks in the U.S.? J. Clim., 26(5):1626-1642, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00128.1. [pdf]

Liu, H., C. Wang, S.-K. Lee, and D.B. Enfield, 2013: Atlantic warm pool variability in the CMIP5 simulations. J. Clim., 26: 5315-5336. [pdf]

Gimeno, L., V. Magana, and D.B. Enfield, 2011: Introduction to special section on the role of the Atlantic warm pool in the climate of the Western Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res.,116:D00Q01, doi:10.1029/2011JD016699. [pdf]

Larson, S., S.-K. Lee, C. Wang, E.-S. Chung, and D. Enfield, 2012. Impacts of Non-canonical El Nino Patterns on Atlantic Hurricane Activity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L14706, doi:10.1029/2012GL052595. [pdf]

Liu, H.,C. Wang, S.-K. Lee, and D.B. Enfield, 2012: Atlantic warm pool variability in the IPCC-AR4 CGCM simulations. J. Clim., 25:5612-5628. [pdf]

Liu, Y., S.-K. Lee, B. Muhling, J. T. Lamkin, and D.B. Enfield, 2012: Significant reduction of the loop current in the 21st century and its impact on the Gulf of Mexico.J. Geophys. Res., 117, C05039, doi:10.1029/2011JC007555 [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M.O. Baringer, C. Wang, D.B. Enfield, S. Yeager, and B.P.. Kirtman, 2011: What caused the significant increase in Atlantic ocean heat content since the mid-20th century? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17607, doi:10.1029/2011GL048856. [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., D.B. Enfield, and C. Wang, 2011: Future Impact of Differential Inter-Basin Ocean Warming on Atlantic Hurricanes. J. Clim., 24(4):1264-1275. [pdf]

Munoz, E., and D. Enfield, 2011: The boreal spring variability of the Intra-Americas low-level jet and its relation with precipitation and tornadoes in the eastern United States. Clim. Dynam., DOI 10.1007/s00382-009-0688-3. [pdf]

Rauscher, S. A., F. Kucharski, and D.B. Enfield, 2011: The role of regional SST warming variations in the drying of Meso-America in future climate projections, J. Clim., 24:2003-2016, doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3536.1. [pdf]

Enfield, D. B., and L. Cid-Serrano, 2010: Secular and multidecadal warmings in the North Atlantic and their relationships with major hurricane activity. Int. J. Clim., 30:174-184, doi:10.1002/joc.1881. [pdf]

Jury, M.R., and D. B. Enfield, 2010: Environmental patterns associated with active and inactive Caribbean hurricane seasons. J. Clim., 23(8):2146-2160. [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., C. Wang, and D. B. Enfield, 2010: On the Impacts of Central Pacific Warming events on Atlantic Tropical Storm Activity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L17702, doi:10.1029/2010GL044459. [pdf]

Munoz, E., and D. Enfield, 2010: The boreal springtime variability of the Intra-Americas low-level jet and its relation with precipitation and tornadoes in the eastern United States. Clim. Dynam., 36:247-259, DOI 10.107/s00382-009-0688-3. [pdf]

Munoz, E., C. Wang, and D. Enfield, 2010: The Intra-Americas Sea springtime surface temperature anomaly dipole as fingerprint of remote influences. J. Clim., 23:43-56. [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., D.B. Enfield, and C. Wang, 2008: Why do some El Ninos have no impact on tropical North Atlantic SST? Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L16705, doi:10.1029/2008GL034734. [pdf]

Wang, C., S.-K. Lee, and D.B. Enfield, 2008: Atlantic warm pool acting as a link between Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 9:Q05V03,doi:10.1029/2007GC001809. (In the special issue of "Interactions between climate and tropical cyclones on all timescales".) [pdf]

Wang, C., S.-K. Lee, and D.B. Enfield, 2008: Climate response to anomalously large and small Atlantic warm pools during the summer. J. Clim., 21:2437-2450. [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., D.B. Enfield, and C. Wang, 2007: What drives seasonal onset and decay of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool?. J. Clim., 20(10):2133-2146. [pdf]

Mestas-Nunez, A.M., D.B. Enfield, and C. Zhang, 2007: Water vapor fluxes over the Intra-Americas Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability and associations with rainfall. J. Clim., 20(9):1910-1922. [pdf]

Wang, C., S.-K. Lee, and D. B. Enfield, 2007: Impact of the Atlantic warm pool on the summer climate of the Western Hemisphere. J. Clim., 20:5021-5040. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., and L. Cid-Serrano, 2006: Projecting the risk of future climate shifts. Int. J. Climatol., 26(7):885-895. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B, S.-K. Lee, and C. Wang, 2006: How are large Western Hemisphere Warm Pools formed? Prog. Oceanogr., 70(2-4):346-365 [pdf]

Wang, C., D.B. Enfield, S.-K. Lee, and C.W. Landsea, 2006: Influences of the Atlantic warm pool on Western Hemisphere summer rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. J. Clim., 19:3011-3028. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B, and S.-K. Lee, 2005: The Heat Balance of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. J. Clim., 18:2662-2681. [pdf]

Lee, S.-K., D.B. Enfield, and C. Wang, 2005: Ocean general circulation model sensitivity experiments on the annual cycle of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool. J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09004, doi:10.1029/2004JC002640. [pdf]

Mestas-Nunez, A.M., C. Zhang and D.B. Enfield, 2005: Uncertainties in Estimating Moisture Fluxes in the Intra-Americas Sea. J. Hydrometeorol., 6:696-709. [pdf]

Brenes, C.L., J.E. Coen, D.B. Chelton, D.B. Enfield, S. Leon, and D. Ballestero, 2003: Small scale wind driven upwelling in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. Intl. J. of Rem. Sens., 24:1127-1133. [pdf]

Wang, C. and D.B. Enfield, 2003: A further study of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool. J. Clim., 16:1476-1493. [pdf]

Jury, M.R., D.B. Enfield, and J.-L. Melice, 2002: Tropical monsoons around Africa: Stability of El Nino-Southern Oscillation associations and links with continental climate. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10), 3151, doi:10.1029/2000JC000507 [pdf]

Nogues-Paegle, J., C.R. Mechoso, R. Fu, E.H. Berbery, W.C. Chao, T.-C. Chen, K. Cook, A.F. Diaz, D.B. Enfield, R. Ferreira, A.M. Grimm, V. Kousky, B. Liebmann, J. Marengo, K. Mo, J.D. Neelin, J. Paegle, A.W. Robertson, A. Seth, C.S. Vera, and J. Zhou, 2002: Progress in Pan American CLIVAR research: Understanding the South American monsoon. Meteorologica, 27(1-2):3-32. [pdf]

Taylor, M.A., D.B. Enfield, and A.A. Chen, 2002: The influence of the tropical Atlantic vs. the tropical Pacific on Caribbean Rainfall. J. Geophys. Res., 107(c9)10.1029/2001JC001097. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 2001: Evolution and historical perspective of the 1997-1998 El Nino- Southern Oscillation event. Bull. Marine Science, 69(1): 7-25. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and A.M. Mestas-Nunez, 2001: Interannual-to-multidecadal climate variability and its relationship to global sea surface temperatures. In: Inter-Hemispheric Climate Linkages, V.Markgraf (ed.), Academic Press, 17-29. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., A.M. Mestas-Nunez, and P.J. Trimble, 2001: The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and its relationship to rainfall and river flows in the continental U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28: 2077-2080 [pdf]

Mestas-Nunez, A.M and D.B. Enfield, 2001: Eastern Equatorial Pacific SST Variability: ENSO and Non-ENSO Components and their Climatic Associations. J. Clim., 14:391-402. [pdf]

Wang, C. and D.B. Enfield, 2001: The tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:1635-1638. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and A.M. Mestas-Nunez, 2000: Global modes of ENSO and non-ENSO SST variability and their associations with climate. In: El Nino and the Southern Oscillation: Multiscale Variability and Global and Regional Impacts, H.F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, eds, Cambridge University Press, 89-112. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and E.J. Alfaro, 1999: The Dependence of Caribbean Rainfall on the Interaction of the Tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. J. Clim., 12:2093-2103. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and A.M. Mestas-Nunez, 1999: Multiscale variabilities in global sea surface temperatures and their relationships with tropospheric climate patterns. J. Clim., 12:2719-2733. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., A.M. Mestas-Nunez, D.A. Mayer, and L. Cid-Serrano, 1999: How ubiquitous is the dipole relationship in tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures? J. Geophys. Res., 104:7841-7848. [pdf]

Mestas-Nunez, A.M. and D.B. Enfield, 1999:Rotated global modes of non-ENSO sea surface temperature variability J. Climate 12, 2734-2746. [pdf]

Rodbell, D.T., G.O. Seltzer, D.M. Anderson, M.B. Abbott, D.B. Enfield, and J.H. Newman, 1999: A high-resolution ~15,000 year record of El Nino driven alluviation in southwestern Ecuador. Science, 283:516-520. [pdf]

Swart, P., K.S. White, D.B. Enfield, P. Milne, R.E. Dodge, 1998: Stable Oxygen Isotopic Composition of Corals from the Gulf of Guinea as Indicators of Periods of Extreme Precipitation Conditions in the sub-Sahara, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 27,885-27,891. [pdf]

Alfaro, E.L., L. Cid-Serrano and D.B. Enfield, 1998: Relaciones entre la entrada de la estacion lluviosa en Centroamerica y los Oceanos Pacifico y Atlantico tropical. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas, 26, 59-69. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and D.A. Mayer, 1997: Tropical Atlantic SST variability and its relation to El Nino-Southern Oscillation, J. Geophys. Res. 102, 929-945. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1996: Relationships of inter-American rainfall to tropical Atlantic and Pacific SST variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3505-3508. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and J.E. Harris, 1995: A Comparative Study of Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Height Variability: Tide Gauges vs. the NMC Data-Assimilating OGCM, 1982-1992, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8661-8675. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1992: Historical and prehistorical overview of El Nino/Southern Oscillation, In: El Nino: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, Diaz, H. and V. Markgraf, eds. Cambridge University Press, pp. 95-117 .

Enfield, D.B. and L. Cid-Serrano, 1991: Low-frequency changes in El Nino/Southern Oscillation, J. Climate, 4, 1137-1146. [pdf]

Enfield,D.B., 1989: El Nino, past and present, Reviews of Geophysics, 27 (1), 159-187. [pdf]

McCreary, J.P. Jr., H.S. Lee and D.B. Enfield, 1989: The response of the coastal ocean to strong offshore winds: With application to circulations in the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Papagayo, Journal of Marine Research, 47, 81-109. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1988: Is El Nino becoming more common?, Oceanography Mag., 1(2), 23-27.

Enfield, D.B., 1987: Progress in understanding El Nino, Endeavor, 11, 197-208. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., M.P. Cornejo-Rodriguez, R.L. Smith and P.M. Newberger, 1987: The equatorial source of propagating variability along the Peru coast during the 1982-1983 El Nino, J.Geophys. Res., 92, 14,335-14,346. [pdf]

Cornejo-Rodriguez, M.P. and D.B. Enfield, 1987: Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14,323-14,334. [pdf]

D.B. Enfield, 1987: The intraseasonal oscillation in eastern Pacific sea levels: How is it forced?, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1860-1876. [pdf]

Spillane, M.C., D.B. Enfield and J.S. Allen, 1987: Intraseasonal oscillations in sea level along the west coast of the Americas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 313-325. [pdf]

Komar, P.D. and D.B. Enfield, 1987: Short-term sea-level changes and coastal erosion, In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Sea Level Change and Coastal Evolution, Dag Nummedal et al., Eds., Spec. Pub. #41 of the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1986: Zonal and seasonal variability of the equatorial Pacific heat balance, J.Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1038-1054. [pdf]

Chelton, D.B. and D.B. Enfield, 1986: Ocean signals in tide gauge records, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 9081-9098. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B. and J.S. Allen, 1983: The generation and propagation of energetic sea level events along the Pacific coast of Mexico. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 13, 1012-1033. doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(1983). [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1981: Annual and nonseasonal variability of monthly low-level wind fields over the southeastern tropical Pacific. Monthly Weather Review, 109, 2177-2190. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1981: Thermally driven wind variability in the planetary boundary layer above Lima, Peru. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2005-2016. [pdf]

Enfield, D.B., 1981: El Nino: The Pacific eastern boundary response to interannual forcing. In: Fisheries Management and Environmental Uncertainties: El Nino and the Anchoveta, M. Glantz and D. Thompson, eds., pp. 213-254, New York, Wiley, Interscience.

Enfield, D.B. and J.S. Allen, 1980: On the structure and dynamics of monthly mean sea level anomalies along the Pacific coast of North and South America. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 557-578. [pdf]

Burt, W.V., D.B. Enfield, R.L. Smith and H. Crew, 1973: The surface wind over an upwelling area near Pisco, Peru. Boundary Layer Met., 3, 385-391.

Smith, R.L., D.B. Enfield, T.S. Hopkins and R.D. Pillsbury, 1971: The circulation in an upwelling ecosystem: The Pisco Cruise. Investigacion Pesquera, 35 (1):9-24, Barcelona

Smith, R.L., C.N.K. Mooers and D.B. Enfield, 1971: Mesoscale studies of the physical oceanography in two coastal upwelling regions: Oregon and Peru. In: Fertility of the Sea, Vol. 2, ed. by J.D. Costlow, Gordon and Breach Science Publ., N.Y.