AOML
NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

BARINGER, Molly O., Dr.

Oceanographer

NOAA/AOML/PHOD
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (3050) 361-4345
Molly.Baringer@noaa.gov


Research Interests

  • Meso- to large scale ocean circulation associated with the global meridional overturning circulation

Current Work

  • High resolution XBT lines in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Western Boundary Time Series Program near 27 N in the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Measurements of the Meridional Overtuning Circulation in the North Atlantic (Rapid-MOC program, RSMAS MOCHA page, RAPID-MOC at NOC).
  • Evaluating the strength and variability of the Atlantic meridional heat transport in the ocean.
  • Global observational program to quantify the carbon, hydrographic and tracer measurements in the ocean (Clivar CO2/Repeat Hydrography Program).

Publications

[2015]

Goes, M., M. Baringer, and G. Goni . The impact of historical biases on the XBT-derived meridional overturning circulation estimates at 34°S. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2014GL061802, in press ,2015.

McCarthy, G.D., D. A. Smeed, W. E. Johns, E. Frajka-Williams, B. I. Moat, Darren Rayner, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, H. L. Bryden, 2014. Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26ºN. Progress in Oceanography, doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.10.006, 130:91-111.

Perez, R. C., M. O. Baringer, S. Dong, S. L. Garzoli, M. Goes, G. J. Goni, R. Lumpkin, C. S. Meinen , R. Msadek, and U. Rivero , 2015: Measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Mar. Tech. Soc. Journal, in press, 2015.

Wanninkhof, R., L. Barbero, R. Byrne, W.-J. Cai, W.-J. Huang, J.-Z. Zhang, M. Baringer, and C. Langdon. Ocean acidification along the gulf coast and east coast of the USA. Continental Shelf Research, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2015.02.008, in press 2015.

[2014]

Ansorge I., M. Baringer , E. Campos, S. Dong , Rana A. Fine, S. Garzoli , G. Goni , C. Meinen , R. Perez , Alberto Piola, Michael Roberts, Sabrina Speich, Janet Sprintall, Thierry Terre, and Marcel Van den Berg, 2014: "Basin - Wide Oceanographic Array Bridges the South Atlanitc". EOS , Transactions, American Geophysical Union , 95(6):53-54, doi:10.1002/2014EOS.

Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns , S. Garzoli, S. Dong, D. Volkov, W. R. Hobbs, J. Willis, 2014: [Global Oceans] Meridional Oceanic Heat Transport in the Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95(7), 69.

Baringer, M. O., G. McCarthy, J. Willis, M. Lankhorst, D. A. Smeed, U. Send, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, C. S.Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, T. O. Kanzow, E. Frajka-Williams, and J. Marotzke, 2014: [Global Oceans] Meridional overturning circulation observations in the North Atlantic Ocean [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 95(7), 67 -69.

Dong, S. , M. O. Baringer , G. J. Goni , C. S. Meinen , and S. L. Garzoli, 2014: Seasonal variations in the South Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation from observations and numerical models , Geophys. Res. Lett ., 41 , 4611 - 4618 , doi: 10.1002/2014GL060428.

Goni, G ., J. Sprintall, D. Roemmich, A. Gronell Thresher, R. Couley, and M. Baringer , 2014: The global network of XBT temperature sections in support of Oceanographic and climate studies. Chapter 5: Oceans and Society: Blue Planet, ed. Samuel Djavidnie, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014. ISBN: 978-1-4438-5639-3.

McCarthy, G.D., D.A. Smeed, W.E. Johns, E. Frajka-Williams, B.I. Moat, D. Rayner, M.O. Baringer , C.S. Meinen , J. Collins, and H.L. Bryden. Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N. Progress in Oceanography ,130,91-111,doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2014.10.006.

Smeed, D. A., McCarthy, G. D., Cunningham, S. A., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Baringer, M. O., Moat, B. I., Duchez, A., and Bryden, H. L., 2014: Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation 2004-2012, Ocean Sci. , 10, 29-38, doi:10.5194/os-10-29-2014.

[2013]

Abraham J. P., M. O. Baringer , N.L. Bindoff, T. Boyer, L.J. Cheng, J.A. Church, J.L. Conroy, C.M. Domingues, J.T. Fasullo, J. Gilson, G. Goni , S.A. Good, J. M. Gorman, V. Gouretski, M. Ishii, G.C. Johnson, S. Kizu, J.M. Lyman, A. M. Macdonald, W.J. Minkowycz, S.E. Moffitt, M.D. Palmer, A. Piola, F. Reseghetti, K. Schuckmann, K.E. Trenberth, I. Velicogna, J.K. Willis (2013). Monitoring systems of global ocean heat content and the implications for climate change, a review. Rev Geophy, doi: 10.1002/rog.20022, Volume 51 , Issue 3 , pages 450-483 , 3rd Quarter 2013.

Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns, G. McCarthy, J. Willis, S. Garzoli, M. Lankhorst, C. S. Meinen, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, D. A. Smeed, T. O. Kanzow, P. Heimbach, E. Frajka-Williams, A. Macdonald, S. Dong and J. Marotzke, 2013. Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean. [Global Oceans] Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2011], Bull. Am. Met. Soc., doi: 10.1002/rog.20022, Volume 51 , Issue 3 , pages 450-483 , 3rd Quarter 2013.

Meinen, C, S., S. Speich, R. C. Perez, S. Dong, A. R. Piola, S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, S. Gladyshev, and E. J. D. Campos (2013). Temporal variability of the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 34.5S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 6461-6478, doi:10.1002/2013JC009228.

Macdonald, A., and M. Baringer 2013. Observed Ocean Transport of Heat. Chapter 6.3 of "Ocean Circulation and Climate (Second edition)", ed. G. Siedler, J. Church, J. Gould and S. Griffies, Academic Press (Elsevier), pp. 759 - 785, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-391851-2.000012-X.

Smeed, D. A., G. McCarthy, S. A. Cunningham, E. Frajka-Williams, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen , M. O. Baringe r, B. I. Moat, A. Duchez, and H. L. Bryden, 2013: Observed decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 2004 to 2012. Ocean Sci. Discuss., 10, 29-38, doi:10.5194/os-10-29-2014 .

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[2012]

Baringer, M.O., S.A. Cunningham, C.S. Meinen, S. Garzoli, J. Willis, M. Lankhorst, A. Macdonald, U. Send, W.R. Hobbs, T.O. Kanzow, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H.L. Bryden, and J. Marotzke, 2012: State of the Ocean in 2011: Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic. Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 93(7):S78-S81.

Garzoli, S.,M.O. Baringer, S. Dong, R. Perez, and Q. Yao, 2012: South Atlantic meridional fluxes. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 71:21-32, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.09.003.

Mata M.M., M. Cirano, M.R. van Caspe, C.S. Fonteles, G. Goni, and M. Baringer, 2012: Observations of Brazil Current baroclinic transport near 22S: variability from the AX97 XBT transect. CLIVAR Exchanges 58(17):5-10.

McCarthy, G.D., E. Frajka-Williams., W. Johns, M. Baringer, C. Meinen, H. Bryden, D. Rayner, A. Duchez, and S. Cunningham, 2012: Observed Interannual Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L19609, doi:10.1029/2012GL052933.

Meinen, C.S., W.E. Johns, S.L. Garzoli, E. Van Sebille, D. Rayner, T. Kanzow, and M.O. Baringer, 2012: Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5N during 2004-2009. Deep-Sea Res. Part II, 85:154-168, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.036.

Srokosz, M., M. Baringer, H. Bryden, S. Cunningham, T. Delworth, S. Lozier, J. Marotzke, and R. Sutton, 2012: Past, present, and future change in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00151.1.

van Sebille, Erik, M.O. Baringer, W.E. Johns, C.S. Meinen, L.M. Beal, M. Femke de Jong, and H.M. van Aken, 2012: Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea Water from its source region to 26N., J. Geophys. Res , Oceans, 116, C12027, doi:10.1029/2011JC007171.

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[2011]

Baringer, M.O., T.O. Kanzow, C.S. Meinen, S.A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W.E. Johns, H.L. Bryden, E. Faika-Williams, J. J-M. Hirschi, M.P. Chidichimo, L.M. Beal and J. Marotzke, 2011: Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic, in "State of the Climate in 2010"., Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92:S95-S98, doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Blunden, J., D.S. Arndt, M.O. Baringer, 2011: State of the Climate in 2010. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92:S1-S236. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Dong, S., M. Baringer, G. Goni, and S. Garzoli, 2011: Importance of the assimilation of Argo Float Measurements on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L18603, doi:10.1029/2011GL048982

Dong, S., S.L. Garzoli, and M.O. Baringer, 2011: The role of inter-ocean exchanges on decadal variations of the northward heat transport in the South Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41(8):1498-1511.

Johns, W.E., M.O. Baringer, L.M. Beal, S.A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, H.L. Bryden, J. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, C. Meinen, B. Shaw, and R. Curry, 2011: Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5N. J. Clim., 24(10):2429-2449.

Lee, S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M.O. Baringer, C. Wang, D.B. Enfield, S. Yeager, and B.P.. Kirtman, 2011: What caused the significant increase in Atlantic ocean heat content since the mid-20th century? Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17607, doi:10.1029/2011GL048856.

Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield, W. Park, E. van Sebille, C. Wang, S. Yeager, B. Kirtman, and M. O. Baringer, 2011: Secular and multidecadal warming of the Atlantic Ocean since the mid-20th century. U.S. CLIVAR Variations, 9 (2), 13-15.

Longworth, H.R., H.L. Bryden, M.O. Baringer, 2011: Historical Variability in Atlantic meridional baroclinic transport at 26.5N from boundary dynamic height observations. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanogr., 58:1754-1767, ISSN 0967-0645, DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.057.

Rayner, D., J.J-M. Hirschi, T. Kanzow, W.E. Johns, S.A. Cunningham, P.G. Wright, E. Frajka-Williams, H.L. Bryden, C.S. Meinen, M.O. Baringer, J. Marotzke, and L.M. Beal, 2011: Monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanogr., 58;1744-1753, ISSN 0967-0645, DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.056.

Van Sebille, E., M.O. Baringer, W.E. Johns, C.S. Meinen, L.M. Beal, M. Femke de Jong, and H.M. van Aken, 2011: Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea Water from its source region to 26N. , J. Geophys. Res. - Oceans, 116, C12027, doi:10.1029/2011JC007171.

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[2010]

Arndt, D.S., M.O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson (editors), 2010: State of the climate in 2009. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 91(6):S1-S222.

Baringer, M.O., T.O. Kanzow, C.S. Meinen, S.A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W.E. Johns, H.L. Bryden, J. J.-M. Hirschi, L.M. Beal, and J. Marotzke, 2010: The meridional overturning circulation. In "State of the Climate in 2009", D.S. Arndt. M.O. Baringer, and M.R. Johnson (eds.). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 91(6):66-69 (2010).

Cunningham, S., M. Baringer, B. Johns, J. Toole, S. Osterhaus, J. Fischer, A. Piola, E. McDonagah, S. Lozier, U. Send, T. Kanzow, J. Marotzke, M. Rhein, S. Garzoli, S. Rintoul, B. Sloyan, S. Speich, L. Talley, J. Baehr, C. Meinen, A-M. Treguier and P. Lherminier, 2010: The present and future system for measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and heat transport. in Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306

Goni G.J., D. Roemmich, R. Molinari, G. Meyers, C. Sun, T. Boyer, M. Baringer, V. Gouretski, P. DiNezio, F. Reseghetti, G. Vissa, S. Swart, R. Keeley, S. Garzoli, T. Rossby, C. Maes, and G. Reverdin, 2010: The Ship Of Opportunity Program. In Proceedings of the "OceanObs'09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society" Conference (Vol. 2), Venice, Italy, 21-25 September 2009, Hall, J., Harrison D.E. and Stammer, D., Eds., ESA Publication WPP-306.

Kanzow, T., S.A. Cunningham, W.E. Johns, J.J-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, M.O. Baringer, C.S. Meinen, M.P. Chidichimo, C. Atkinson, L.M. Beal, H.L. Bryden, and J. Collins, 2010: Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5N. J. Clim., 23:5678-5698, doi:10.1175/ 2010JCL13389.1.

Meinen, C.S., M.O. Baringer, and R.F. Garcia, 2010: Florida Current Transport Variability: An Analysis of Annual and Longer- Period Signals. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 57(7):835-846, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.04.001.

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[2009]

Baringer, M. O., and T. Peterson, 2009: Abstract and Introduction, in State of the Climate in 2008, T. Peterson and M. Baringer (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90:S12-S15.

Baringer, M. O., C. S. Meinen, G. C. Johnson, T. O. Kanzow, S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, L. M. Beal, J. J.-M. Hirschi, D. Rayner, H. R. Longworth, H. L. Bryden, and J. Marotzke, 2009: The meridional overturning circulation, in State of the Climate in 2008, T. Peterson and M. Baringer (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90:S59-S62.

Di Nezio, P.N., L.J. Gramer, W.E. Johns, C.S. Meinen, and M.O. Baringer, 2009: Observed interannual variability of the Florida Current: Wind forcing and the North Atlantic oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39(3):721-736.

Dong, S. S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, and G. J. Goni, 2009: The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and its Northward Heat Transport in the South Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L20606, doi:10.1029/2009GL039356.

Dong, S., S. L. Garzoli, and M. O. Baringer, 2009: An Assessment of the Seasonal Mixed-Layer Salinity Budget in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114, C12001, doi:10.1029/2008JC005258.

Meinen, C.S., D.S. Luther, and M.O. Baringer, 2009: Structure, transport, and potential vorticity of the Gulf Stream at 68W: Revisiting older data sets with new techniques. Deep-Sea Res, Part I, 56(1):41-60.

Peterson, T. and M. Baringer, Eds., 2009: State of the Climate 2008, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90:S1-S196.

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[2008]

Baringer, M.O., and C.S. Meinen, 2008: The meridional overturning circulation. In State of the Climate in 2007, D.H. Levinson and J.H. Lawrimore (eds.). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 88(7):S49-S51.

Johns , W.E., L.M. Beal, M.O. Baringer, J. Molina, S.A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, and D. Rayner, 2008: Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004-2005: First results from the 26N RAPID-MOC array. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38:605-623.

Kanzow, T., J. J.-M. Hirschi, C.S. Meinen, D. Rayner, S.A. Cunningham, J. Marotzke, W.E. Johns, H.L. Bryden, L.M. Beal, and M.O. Baringer, 2008: A prototype system of observing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: Scientific basis, measurement and risk mitigation strategies, and first results. J. Operation. Oceanogr., 1(1):19-28.

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[2007]

Baringer, M.O., and C.S. Meinen, 2007: Global oceans: The meridional overturning circulation and oceanic heat transport. In State of the Climate in 2006. A. Arguez, A.M. Waple, and A.M. Sanchez-Lugo (eds.). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 88(6):S38-S39.

Baringer, M.O., and S.L. Garzoli, 2007: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part I: Error estimates from model and hydrographic data. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 54(8):1390-1401.

Cunningham, S.A., T. Kanzow, D. Rayner, M.O. Baringer, W.E. Johns, J. Marotzke, H.R. Longworth, E.M. Grant, J.J-M. Hirschi, L.M. Beal, C.S. Meinen, and L.H. Bryden, 2007: Temporal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5N. Science, 317(5840):935-938.

Garzoli, S.L., and M.O. Baringer, 2007: Meridional heat transport determined with expendable bathythermographs, Part II: South Atlantic transport. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 54(8):1402-1420.

Kanzow, T., S.A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, J.J.-M. Hirschi, W.E. Johns, M.O. Baringer, H.L. Bryden, L.M. Beal, C.S. Meinen, and J. Marotzke, 2007: Observed flow compensation associated with the MOC at 26.5N in the Atlantic. Science, 317(5840):938-941.

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[2006]

Baringer, M.O., and C.S Meinen, 2006: Global oceans: Thermohaline circulation. In State of the Climate in 2005, K.A. Shein, A.M. Waple, H.J. Diamond, and J.M. Levy (eds.). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 87(6):S27-S28.

Meinen, C.S., M.O. Baringer, and S.L. Garzoli, 2006: Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5N in the Atlantic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33(17):L17610, doi:10.1029/2006GL026965.

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[2005]

Mooers C.N.K., C.S. Meinen, M.O. Baringer, I. Bang, R. Rhodes, C. N. Barron, and F. Bub., 2005: Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems. EOS, 86(29):269,272-273.

Shoosmith, D.R., M.O. Baringer, and W.E. Johns, 2005: A continuous record of Florida Current temperature transport at 27N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(23):L23603.

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[2004]

Hansell, D.A., H.W. Ducklow, A.M. Macdonald, and M.O. Baringer, 2004: Metabolic poise in the North Atlantic Ocean diagnosed from organic matter transports. Limnol. Oceanogr., 49(4):1084-1094.

Meinen, C.S., S.L. Garzoli, W.E. Johns, and M.O. Baringer., 2004: Transport variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current and the Antilles Current off Abaco Island, Bahamas. Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 51(11):1397-1415.

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[2003]

Macdonald, A.M., M.O. Baringer, R. Wanninkhof, K. Lee, and D.W.R. Wallace, 2003: A 1998-1992 comparison of inorganic carbon and its transport across 24.5 N in the Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res., Part II, 50(22-26):3041-3064.

Mayer, D.A., M.O. Baringer, and G.J. Goni, 2003: Comparison of hydrographic and altimeter based estimates of sea level height variability in the Atlantic Ocean. In: Interhemispheric Water Exchange in the Atlantic Ocean, G.J. Goni and P. Malanotte-Rizzoli (eds.). EOS, 68 (ISBN 0444512675), 23-48.

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[2002]

Goni, G.J., and M.O. Baringer, 2002: Surface currents in the tropical Atlantic across high density XBT line AX08. Geophys. Res. Lett., 9(24):2218 ,doi:10.1029/2002GL015873

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[2001]

Baringer, M. O. and J. Larsen, 2001: Sixteen Years of Florida Current Transport at 27N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 16, 3179-3182.

Macdonald, A. M., M. O. Baringer and A. Ganachaud, 2001: Heat Transport and Climate. In: Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, J. H. Steele, S. A. Thorpe and K. K. Turekian (eds), London, UK, Academic Press, 2, 1195-1206.

Mayer, D.A., R.L. Molinari, M.O. Baringer, and G.J. Goni, 2001: Transition regions and their role in the relationship between sea surface height and subsurface temperature structure in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28:3943-3946.

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[1999]

Baringer, M.O., and J.F. Price, 1999: A review of the physical oceanography of the Mediterranean Outflow. Marine Geol., 155(1-2):63-82.

Baringer, M.O., and R.L. Molinari, 1999: Atlantic Ocean baroclinic heat flux at 24-26N. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(3):353-356.

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[1997]

Baringer, M. O'Neil and J. F. Price, 1997. Mixing and spreading of the Mediterranean outflow. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 8, 1654-1677.

Baringer, M. O'Neil and J. F. Price, 1997. Momentum and energy balance of the Mediterranean outflow. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 8, 1678-1692.

Gordon, A. L., Shubin Ma, Donald B. Olson, Peter Hacker, Amy Ffield, Lynne D.Talley, Douglas Wilson and Molly Baringer, 1997. Advection and Diffusion of Indonesian Throughflow within the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2573-2576.

McCarthy, M. C., Lynne D. Talley and Molly Baringer, 1997. Deep Upwelling and Diffusivity in the Southern Central Indian Basin. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2801-2804.

Talley, L. D. and M. O. Baringer, 1997. Preliminary results from WHP sections I8N/I5E in the Central Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2789-2792.

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[1994]

Baringer, Molly O'Neil, 1994. Mixing and Dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow.PhD Thesis, Mass. Inst. of Technol./Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst. Joint Program, Cambridge, Mass., WHOI-93-52, 244 pp.

Johnson, G.C., T.B. Sanford, and M. O'Neil Baringer, 1994. Stress on the Mediterranean Outflow Plume: Part 1. Velocity and Water Property Measurements. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 2072-2083.

Price, J.F. and M.O. Baringer, 1994. Overflows and deep water production by marginal seas. Progress in Oceanography, 33, 161-200.

author, co-author(1),co-author(N), YYYY: Manuscript title. Journal, nolume,number, pages [pdf]

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