AOML
NOAA

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

Physical Oceanography Division

BARINGER, Molly O., Dr.

Oceanographer

NOAA/AOML/PHOD
4301 Rickenbacker Causeway,
Miami, FL 33149, USA
Phone: (3050) 361-4345
Molly.Baringer@noaa.gov


Research Interests

  • Meso- to large scale ocean circulation associated with the global meridional overturning circulation

Current Work

  • High resolution XBT lines in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Western Boundary Time Series Program near 27 N in the North Atlantic Ocean.
  • Measurements of the Meridional Overtuning Circulation in the North Atlantic (Rapid-MOC program, RSMAS MOCHA page, RAPID-MOC at NOC).
  • Evaluating the strength and variability of the Atlantic meridional heat transport in the ocean.
  • Global observational program to quantify the carbon, hydrographic and tracer measurements in the ocean (Clivar CO2/Repeat Hydrography Program).

Refereed Publications

Accepted/In Press

Goni, G., J. Sprintall, D. Roemmich, A. Gronell Thresher, R. Couley, and M. Baringer, 2013: The global network of XBT temperature sections in support of Oceanographic and climate studies. Chapter 5: Oceans and Society: Blue Planet, ed. Samuel Djavidnie, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, in press.

Macdonald, A., and M. Baringer 2013. Observed Ocean Transport of Heat. Chapter 6.3 of "Ocean Circulation and Climate (Second edition)", ed. G. Siedler, J. Church, J. Gould and S. Griffies, Academic Press (Elsevier), in press.

Published

Smeed, D. A., McCarthy, G. D., Cunningham, S. A., Frajka-Williams, E., Rayner, D., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Baringer, M. O., Moat, B. I., Duchez, A., and Bryden, H. L., 2014. Observed decline of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation 2004-2012, Ocean Sci., 10, 29-38, doi:10.5194/os-10-29-2014, 2014.

Abraham, J.P., M. Baringer, N.L. Bindoff, T. Boyer, L.J. Cheng, J.A. Church, J.L. Conroy, C.M. Domingues, J.T. Fasullo, J. Gilson, G. Goni, S.A. Good, J. M. Gorman, V. Gouretski, M. Ishii, G.C. Johnson, S. Kizu, J.M. Lyman, A. M. Macdonald, W.J. Minkowycz, S.E. Moffitt, M.D. Palmer, A.R. Piola, F. Reseghetti, K. Schuckmann,K.E. Trenberth, I. Velicogna, J.K. Willis, A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change, Rev. Geophys., 51, 450-483, doi: 10.1002/rog.20022.

Meinen, C. S., S. Speich, R. C. Perez, S. Dong, A. R. Piola, S. L. Garzoli, M. Baringer, S. Gladyshev, and E. Campos, 2013: Temporal variability of the meridional overturning circulation at 34.5S: Results from two pilot boundary arrays in the South Atlantic. J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1-18, doi:10.1002/2013JC009228.

FY2013

Baringer, M. O., W. E. Johns, G. McCarthy, J. Willis, S. Garzoli, M. Lankhorst, C. S. Meinen, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, D. A. Smeed, T. O. Kanzow, P. Heimback, E. Frajka-Williams, A. Macdonald, S. Dong, and J. Marotzke, 2013. Global oceans: Meridional overturning circulation and heat transport observations in the Atlantic, in State of the Climate in 2012, J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 94, S65-S68, 2013.

Srokosz, M., M. Baringer, H. Bryden, S. Cunningham, T. Delworth, S. Lozier, J. Marotzke and R. Sutton, 2012. Past, present and future change in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00151.1, Nov 2012.

Meinen, C. S., W. E. Johns, S. L. Garzoli, E. van Sebille, D. Rayner, T. Kanzow, and M. O. Baringer, 2012. Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current at 26.5?N during 2004-2009. Deep-Sea Res. II, 10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.07.036

Garzoli, S.L., M.O. Baringer, S. Dong, R.C. Perez, and Q. Yao, 2012. South Atlantic meridional fluxes. Deep-Sea Res. II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2012.09.003, Nov, 2012.

McCarthy, G., E. Frajka-Williams, W. E. Johns, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, H. L. Bryden, D. Rayner, A. Duchez, C. Roberts, and S. A. Cunningham, 2012. Observed Interannual Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L19609, doi:10.1029/2012GL052933, 2012.

FY2012

Baringer, M. O., S. A. Cunningham, C. S. Meinen, S. Garzoli1, J. Willis, M. Lankhorst, A. Macdonald, U. Send, W. R. Hobbs, E. Frajka-Williams, T. O. Kanzow, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, and J. Marotzke, 2012. [Global Oceans] Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heat Transport Observations in the Atlantic Ocean [in State of the Climate in 2011], Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 93 (7), S78-81.

van Sebille, Erik, Molly O. Baringer, William E. Johns, Christopher S. Meinen, Lisa M. Beal, M. Femke de Jong, and Hendrik M. van Aken, 2011. Propagation pathways of classical Labrador Sea Water from its source region to 26deg N, Journal of Geophysical Research Oceans, 116, C12027, doi:10.1029/2011JC007171.

FY2011

Dong, S., M. Baringer, G. Goni and S. Garzoli, 2011. Importance of the assimilation of Argo Float Measurements on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the South Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L18603, doi:10.1029/2011GL048982. (Sep 17, 2011)

Lee S.-K., W. Park, E. van Sebille, M. O. Baringer, C. Wang, D. B. Enfield, S. Yeager, and B. P. Kirtman, 2011. What Caused the Significant Increase in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content Since the mid-20th Century? Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL048856. (Sep 8, 2011)

Dong, S. S. Garzoli and M. Baringer, 2011. The Role of inter-ocean exchanges on decadal variations of the northward heat transport in the South Atlantic, J. Phys. Oceano., 41(8):1498-1511.

Lee, S.-K., D. B. Enfield, W. Park, E. van Sebille, C. Wang, S. Yeager, B. Kirtman, and M. O. Baringer, 2011: Secular and multidecadal warming of the Atlantic Ocean since the mid-20th century. U.S. CLIVAR Variations, 9 (2), 13-15.

Baringer, M. O., T. O. Kanzow, C. S. Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, Eleanor Faika-Williams, J. J-M. Hirschi, M. P. Chidichimo, L. M. Beal and J. Marotzke, 2011. Meridional Overturning Circulation Observations in the Subtropical North Atlantic, in State of the Climate in 2010, Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 92, S95-S98. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, 2011: State of the Climate in 2010. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, S1-S236. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Blunden, J., D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, 2011: Abstract and Introduction, in State of the Climate in 2010. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, S16-S19. doi: 10.1175/1520-0477-92.6.S1

Johns, W. E., M. O. Baringer, L. M. Beal, S. A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, H. L. Bryden, J. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, C. Meinen, B. Shaw, and R. Curry, 2011. Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5N. J. Clim., 24(10):2429-2449.

Longworth, H. R., H. L. Bryden, M. O. Baringer, 2011. Historical Variability in Atlantic meridional baroclinic transport at 26.5N from boundary dynamic height observations. Deep-Sea Research Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography, Volume 58:1754-1767, ISSN 0967-0645, DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.057.

Rayner, D., J. J.-M. Hirschi, T. Kanzow, W. E. Johns, S. A. Cuningham, P. G. Wright, E. Frajka-Williams, H. L. Bryden, C. S. Meinen, M. O. Baringer, J. Marotzke and L. M. Beal, 2011. Monitoring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, Deep-Sea Res., Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography, Volume 58;1744-1753, ISSN 0967-0645, DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.056.

Kanzow. T., S.A. Cunningham, W.E. Johns, J. J-M. Hirschi, J. Marotzke, M. O. Baringer, C.S. Meinen, M. P. Chidichimo, C. Atkinson, L. M. Beal, H. L. Bryden, J. Collins, 2010. Seasonal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5oN. Journal of Climate, 23, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3389.1171.

FY2010

Arndt, D. S., M. O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson, Eds., 2010: State of the Climate in 2009. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91 (7), S1-S224.

Baringer, M. O., D. S. Arndt and M. R. Johnson, Eds., 2010: State of the Climate in 2009. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91 (7), S1-S224.

Baringer, M. O., T. O. Kanzow, C. S. Meinen, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, J. J-M. Hirschi, L. M. Beal and J. Marotzke, 2010. The Meridional Overturning Circulation. in State of the Climate in 2009, D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson (eds.), Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 91(6), 66-69.

Meinen, C. S., M. O. Baringer, and R. F. Garcia, 2010. Florida Current Transport Variability: An Analysis of Annual and Longer-Periods, Deep Sea Res. I, 57 (7), doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.04.001, 835-846.

Baringer, M. O., D. S. Arndt and M. R. Johnson, 2010: Abstract [in .State of the Climate in 2009.]. D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson (eds.), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91 (7), S12-S13.

Baringer, M. O., D. S. Arndt, 2010: Introduction [in .State of the Climate in 2009.]. D. S. Arndt, M. O. Baringer, and M. R. Johnson (eds.), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 91 (7), S14-S17.

Cunningham, S., M. Baringer, W. Johns, J. Toole, S. Osterhaus, J. Fischer, A. Piola, E. McDonagah, S. Lozier, U. Send, T. Kanzow, J. Marotzke, M. Rhein, S. Garzoli, S. Rintoul, S. Speich, S. Wijffels, L. Talley, J. Baehr, C. Meinen, A-M. Treguier and P. Lhernminier, 2010. The present and future system for measuring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and heat transport, In OceanObs 09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Volume 2), J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer (eds.). European Space Agency Publication, WPP-306, 16 pp. (2010).

FY2009

Goni, G., D. Roemmich, R. Molinari, G. Meyers, T. Rossby, C. Sun, T. Boyer, M. Baringer, S. Garzoli, G. Vissa, S. Swart, R. Keeley, C. Maes, 2010. The Ship of Opportunity Program. In OceanObs 09: Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (Volume 2), J. Hall, D.E. Harrison, and D. Stammer (eds.). European Space Agency Publication, WPP-306, 19 pp. (2010). Dong. S. Silvia L. Garzoli, and Molly Baringer, 2009. An Assessment of the Seasonal Mixed-Layer Salinity Budget in the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 114(C12):C12001, doi:10.1029/2008JC005258, Dec 1, 2009.

Dong, S. S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer, C. S. Meinen, and G. J. Goni, 2009. Interannual variation in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and its relationship with the net northward heat transport in the South Atlantic. Geophysical Research Letters, 36(20):L20606, doi:10.1029/2009GL039356, Oct 23, 2009.

Peterson, T. and M. Baringer, Eds., 2009. State of the Climate 2008, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 90, S1-S196. Baringer, M. O., and T. Peterson, 2009. Abstract and Introduction, in State of the Climate in 2008, T. Peterson and M. Baringer (eds.), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, S12-S15.

Baringer, M. O., C. S. Meinen, G. C. Johnson, T. O. Kanzow, S. A. Cunningham, W. E. Johns, L. M. Beal, J. J.-M. Hirschi, D. Rayner, H. R. Longworth, H. L. Bryden, and J. Marotzke, 2009. The meridional overturning circulation, in State of the Climate in 2008, T. Peterson and M. Baringer (eds.), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 90, S59-S62.

DiNezio, P. N., L. J. Gramer, W. E. Johns, C. S. Meinen and M. O. Baringer, 2009. Observed interannual variability of the Florida Current: wind forcing and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 39, 3, pp. 721-736, DOI: 10.1175/2008JPO4001.1.

Meinen, C. S., D. S. Luther and M. O. Baringer, 2009. Structure, transport and potential vorticity of the Gulf Stream at 68W: Revisiting older data sets with new techniques. Deep Sea Research, 56 (1), 41-60, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.07.010.

FY2008

Baringer, M. O., and C. S. Meinen, 2008. The Meridional Overturning Circulation, in State of the Climate in 2007, D. H. Levinson and J. H. Lawrimore (eds.), Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89(7), s49-s51, doi:10.1175/BAMS-89-7-StateoftheClimate.

Johns, W. E., L. M. Beal, M. O. Baringer, J. R. Molina, S. A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, and D. Rayner, 2008. Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004-2005: Results from the 26N RAPID-MOC array. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 38, 605-623 [DOI: 10.1175/2007JPO3791.1].

Kanzow, T., J. J-M. Hirschi, C. Meinen, D. Rayner, S. A. Cunningham, J. Marotzke, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, L. Beal and M. O. Baringer, 2008. A prototype system for observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation scientific basis, measurement and risk mitigation strategies, and first results. Journal of Operational Oceanography, 1, 1, 19-28.

FY2007

Kanzow, T, S. A. Cunningham, D. Rayner, J. J-M. Hirschi, W.E. Johns, M. O. Baringer, H. L. Bryden, L. M. Beal, C. S. Meinen, J. Marotzke, 2007. Observed flow compensation associated with the meridional overturning circulation near 26.5N in the Atlantic. Science, 17 August 2007 317: 938-941 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1141293].

Cunningham, S. A., T. Kanzow, D. Rayner, M. O. Baringer, W. E. Johns, J. Marotzke, H. R. Longworth, E. M. Grant, J. J-M. Hirschi, L. M. Beal, C. S. Meinen and H. L. Bryden, 2007. Temporal Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26.5N. Science, 17 August 2007 312: 335-938 [DOI: 10.1126/science.1141304].

Baringer, M. O. and S. L. Garzoli, 2007. Meridional Heat Transport using Expendable Bathythermographs. Part I: Error Estimates from model and hydrographic data, Deep Sea Research, (Part 1), DOI information doi:10.1016/j/dsr.2007.03.011

Garzoli, S. L. and M. O. Baringer, 2007. Meridional Heat Transport using Expandable Bathythermographs Part II: South Atlantic Transport. Deep Sea Research (Part 1), DOI information doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.04.013.

Baringer, M. O. and C. S. Meinen, 2007. Thermohaline Circulation in Supplement to State of the Climate in 2006, A.Arguez, ed., Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society: Vol. 88, No. 6, pp. s1-s135, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-88-6-StateoftheClimate. Meinen, C. S., M. O. Baringer and S. L. Garzoli, 2006. Variability in Deep Western Boundary Current transports: Preliminary results from 26.5N in the Atlantic, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L17610, doi:10.1029/2006GL026965, 2006.

FY2006

Baringer, M. O. and C. S. Meinen, 2006. Thermohaline Circulation in State of the Climate in 2005, K. A. Shein, ed., Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society: 87, No. 6, pp. s1-s102, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-6-shein.

FY2005
Shein, K. A. (and long list of authors), 2005. State of the Climate in 2005, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society: 87, No. 6, pp. s6-s102, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-87-6-shein.

Shoosmith, D. R., M. O. Baringer and W. E. Johns, 2005. A continuous record of Florida Current heat transport at 27oN, Geophysical Research Letters., 32, L23603, doi:10.1029/2005GL024075.

Mooers, Christopher N. K., Christopher S. Meinen, Molly O. Baringer, Inkweon Bang, Robert Rhodes, Charlie N. Barron, and Frank Bub, 2005. Florida Current Response to Cold Front Passages: Comparison of NOAA Cable and Navy Model Volume Transports, EOS, 86(29), pgs 269, 272-273.

FY2004
Meinen, Christopher S., Silvia L. Garzoli, William E. Johns, and Molly O. Baringer, 2004. Transport Variability of the Deep Western Boundary Current and the Antilles Current off Abaco Island, Bahamas, Deep Sea Research, I, 51(11), 1397-1415.

Hansell, Dennis A., H. W. Ducklow, A. M. Macdonald and M. O. Baringer, 2004. Metabolic poise in the North Atlantic Ocean diagnosed from organic matter transports. Limnology and Oceanography, 49, 1084-1094.

FY2003

Mayer, D. A., M. O. Baringer, and Gustavo J. Goni, 2003. Comparison of hydrographic and altimetric estimates of sea level height variability in the Atlantic Ocean. Interhemispheric Water Exchange in the Atlantic Ocean, Elsevier Oceanographic Series, G. Goni and P. Rizzoli, Eds., pp 23-48.

Macdonald, A. M., M. O. Baringer, K. Lee, D. Wallace and R. Wanninkhof, 2003. A 1998-1992 comparison of inorganic carbon and its transport across 24.5oN in the Atlantic. Deep Sea Research II, 50, 3041-3064.

FY2002

Goni, G. J. and M. O. Baringer, 2002. Ocean surface currents in the tropical Atlantic across high density XBT line AX08. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, doi=101029/2002GL015873.

FY2001
Mayer, D. A., R. L. Molinari, M. O. Baringer, and G. J. Goni, 2001. Transition regions and their role in the relationship between sea surface height and subsurface temperature structure in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 20, 3943-3946.

Baringer, M. O. and J. Larsen, 2001 Sixteen Years of Florida Current Transport at 27N. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 16, 3179-3182.

Macdonald, A. M., M. O. Baringer and A. Ganachaud, 2001. Heat Transport and Climate. Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, J H Steele, S A Thorpe and K K Turekian (eds), London, UK, Academic Press, 2, 1195--1206.

FY1999

Baringer, M. O'Neil, and R. Molinari 1999. Atlantic Ocean baroclinic heat flux at 24 to 26N. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3, 353--356.

Baringer, M. O'Neil and J. F. Price, 1999. A Review of the Physical Oceanography of the Mediterranean Outflow. Marine Geology, 155, 1-2, 63-82.

FY1997

Talley, L. D. and M. O. Baringer, 1997. Preliminary results from WHP sections I8N/I5E in the Central Indian Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2789-2792.

McCarthy, M. C., Lynne D. Talley and Molly Baringer, 1997. Deep Upwelling and Diffusivity in the Southern Central Indian Basin. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2801-2804.

Gordon, A. L., Shubin Ma, Donald B. Olson, Peter Hacker, Amy Ffield, Lynne D. Talley, Douglas Wilson and Molly Baringer, 1997. Advection and Diffusion of Indonesian Throughflow within the Indian Ocean South Equatorial Current. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 21, 2573-2576.

Baringer, M. O'Neil and J. F. Price, 1997. Mixing and spreading of the Mediterranean outflow. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 8, 1654-1677.

Baringer, M. O'Neil and J. F. Price, 1997. Momentum and energy balance of the Mediterranean outflow. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 27, 8, 1678-1692.

FY1994

Price, J.F. and M.O. Baringer, 1994. Overflows and deep water production by marginal seas. Progress in Oceanography, 33, 161-200.

Johnson, G.C., T.B. Sanford, and M. O'Neil Baringer, 1994. Stress on the Mediterranean Outflow Plume: Part 1. Velocity and Water Property Measurements. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 24, 2072-2083.

Baringer, Molly O'Neil, 1994. Mixing and Dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow. PhD Thesis, Mass. Inst. of Technol./Woods Hole Oceanogr. Inst. Joint Program, Cambridge, Mass., WHOI-93-52, 244 pp.

FY1993

Price, J.F, M. O'Neil Baringer, R.G. Lueck, G.C. Johnson, I.Ambar, G.Parrilla, A. Cantos, M.A. Kennelly, and T.B. Sanford, 1993. The Mediterranean Outflow Mixing and Dynamics. Science, 259, 1277-1282.

FY1990

Baringer, M. O. and J. F. Price, 1990. A simple model of the descending Mediterranean outflow plume. NATO Advanced Research Institute on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, Kluwer Academic Publishers, ed. L. J. Pratt, pp. 298-308.

Non-Refereed Publications

Goni, G., J. Sprintall, D. Roemmich, M. Baringer, and A. Gronell Thresher, 2012. The Global XBT Network. IOOS Summit Proceedings, Community White Papers, https://docs.google.com/a/noaa.gov/file/d/0BwW7dLnWT2C0cUo3cUVJYlBwcUE/edit.

Lumpkin, R. K. Dohan, M. Baringer, L. Centurioni, M. Cronin, G. Goni, G. Lagerloef, D. Lee and N. Maximenko, 2012. Observing the global ocean surface Circulation. IOOS Summit Proceedings, Community White Papers, https://docs.google.com/a/noaa.gov/file/d/0BwW7dLnWT2C0ZVRIRThyNWRxaXM/edit.

Baringer, M., S. A. Cunningham, W. Johns, J. Toole, S. Osterhus, J. Fischer, A. Piola, E. McDonagah, S. Lozier, U. Send, T. Kanzow, J. Marotzke, M. Rhein, S. Garzoli, S. Rintoul, Bernadette Sloyan, S. Speich, S. Wijffels, S. Talley, J. Baehr, C. Meinen, A-M. Treguier and P. Lhernminier, A. Macdonald, R. Lumpkin, G. Goni, 2012. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and heat transport. , IOOS Summit Proceedings, Community White Papers, https://docs.google.com/a/noaa.gov/file/d/0BwW7dLnWT2C0ZWFNamVycms1N2s/edit

Mata, Mauricio M., Mauro Cirano, Mathias R. van Caspel, Caio S. Fonteles, Gustavo Goni and Molly Baringer, 2012. Observations of Brazil Current baroclinic transport near 22S: variability from the AX97 XBT transect. Clivar Exchanges, 58, 17, 1, 5-10.

Meinen, Christopher S., and Molly O. Baringer, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation shows significant changes in early data from international monitoring systems at 26.5_N, U.S. CLIVAR Variations, 6(1), 1-3, 2008.

U.S. CLIVAR AMOC Planning Team, 2007. Implementation Strategy for a JSOST Near-Term Priority Assessing Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability: Implications for Rapid Climate Change, U.S. CLIVAR Report No 2007-02, U.S. CLIVAR Office, Washington, DC, 20006, 23pp.

Baringer, M. O., C. S. Meinen and S. Garzoli, 2006. The Meridional Overturning Circulation and Oceanic Heat Transport, in Annual Report On The State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System for Climate: Fiscal Year 2005, J. Levy, Ed., Office of Climate Observation, Climate Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 68-73.

Baringer, M. O., C. S. Meinen and S. Garzoli, 2006. Western Boundary Time Series in the Atlantic Ocean, in Annual Report On The State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System for Climate: Fiscal Year 2005, J. Levy, Ed., Office of Climate Observation, Climate Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 150-158.

Baringer, M. O., G. J. Goni, S. L. Garzoli, 2006. Atlantic High Density XBT Lines, in Annual Report On The State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System for Climate: Fiscal Year 2005, J. Levy, Ed., Office of Climate Observation, Climate Program Office, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 181-182.

Baringer M., S. Garzoli, G. J. Goni, C. Thacker and R. Lumpkin, 2006. Quarterly Reports on the State of the Ocean: Meridional Heat transport Variability in the Atlantic Ocean. In Annual Report on the State of the Ocean and the Ocean Observing System for Climate: Fiscal Year 2005, J.M. Levy, D.M. Stanitski, and P. Arkin (eds.). NOAA Office of Climate Observation, Silver Spring, MD, 265-268.

Molinari, R. L. , R. Lusic, S. L. Garzoli, M. O. Baringer and G. Goni, 2003. Benchmarks for Atlantic Ocean circulation. CLIVAR Exchanges, 7, No. 3/4, September 2002.

Macdonald, A.M., M.O. Baringer, K. Lee, D.W. Wallace, and R.H. Wanninkhof, 2002. Subtropical Atlantic carbon transport. International WOCE Newsletter, 42, pp 4-19.

Macdonald, A.M., R.H. Wanninkhof, M.O. Baringer, P.E. Robbins, and D.W. Wallace, 2002. Oceanic biogeochemical fluxes: A summary of the JGOFS portion of the WOCE/JGOFS Transport Workshop, Southampton, June 25-29, 2001. International WOCE Newsletter, 42, pp 20-21.

WOCE International Project Office 2001 Report on the WOCE/JGOFS Ocean Transport Workshop, Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. 25-29 June 2001. WOCE International Project Office, WOCE Report No. 174/2001, 60 pp.

Baringer, M., 1996. Heat flux at 24o to 26o N revisted. in The Atlantic Climate Change Program Proceedings from the principal investigators meeting May, 1996, Anne-Marie Wilburn, ed, UCAR, Boulder Colorado.

Talley, L. and M. Baringer, 1995. Preliminary results from a WHP section in the Central Indian Ocean. WOCE Newsletter, 21, 35-38.

Baringer, M. O'Neil and Rana A. Fine, 1994. Deep Circulation in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic from Trident. in The Atlantic Climate Change Program Proceedings from the principal investigators meeting may 9-11, 1992, Anne-Marie Wilburn, ed, UCAR, Boulder Colorado.

McCartney, M.S. and M.O. Baringer, 1993. Notes on the S. Pacific hydrographic section near 32oS -- WHP P6. WOCE NOTES, V5, N2.

Ambar, I., L. Armi, M.O. Baringer, A. Bower, P. Davies, A. Fuiza, G.C. Johnson, R. Kase, M. Kennelly, E. Kunze, P. Lundberg, C.G. Martins, M.D. Prater, J. Price, M. Rhein, T. Sanford, K. Tokos, J. Verrall, and W. Zenk, 1992: Outflows and overflows in the Atlantic and their role in the eastern boundary current system, Proceedings of the International Workshop, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Published Technical Reports

Hooper, J.A., and M.O. Baringer. Hydrographic measurements collected aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown, 15 February-5 March 2012: Western boundary time series cruise RB-12-01 (AB1202). NOAA Data Report, OAR-AOML-43, 267 pp., 2013

Rayner, D. and M. Baringer, 2012. RV Ronald H. Brown Cruise RB1201, 15 Feb - 05 Mar 2012. RAPID moorings cruise report. Southampton, UK: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, 90pp. (National Oceanography Centre Cruise Report, No. 19).

Fonseca, C. and M. Baringer, 2009. Hydrographic Measurements Collected Aboard The R.V. Oceanus, April-May 2001: Western Boundary Time Series Cruise 1 (Abaco 2001). NOAA Data Report, OAR AOML-42.

Baringer, M. and T. Kanzow, 2008. RV Ronald H. Brown Cruise RB0701, 21 Mar-10 Apr 2007. RAPID mooring cruise report. Natl. Oceanogr. Cent. Southampt. Cruise Rep. Vol. 29, 60 pp.

Peltola, E., K. Lee, R. Wanninkhof, R. Feely, M. Roberts, D. Greely, M. O. Baringer, G. Johnson, J. Bullister, C. Mordy, J.-Z. Zhang, P. Quay, F. Millero, D. Hansell and P. Minnett, 2001. Chemical and hydrographic measurements on a Climate and Global Change Cruise along 24oN in the Atlantic Ocean WOCE Section AR5 (repeat) during January-February 1998. NOAA Data Report, OAR AOML-41, 199 pp.

Fleurant, C. I., M. O. Baringer, R. H. Smith, W. D. Wilson and R. L. Molinari, 1999. CTD, LADCP, XBT, PALACE float measurements collected on an Atlantic Circulation and Climate Experiment (ACCE) cruise along 6N, 6S, and the equator during June-August 1997. NOAA Technical Report.

McTaggart, K. E., G. C. Johnson, C. I. Fleurant and M. O. Baringer, 1999. CTD/O2 Measurements collected on a Climate and Global Change Cruise along 24N in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A6) During January-February 1998. NOAA Technical Report PMEL-68, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle Washington, 358 pp.

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