Hurricanes at Landfall
One of HRD's goals is to "Enahance the ability to diagnose and predict the impact of tropical cyclones (TC) on life and property through wind, rain, waves, and storm surge". The prime impact will be felt at landfall. The TC decays as it moves inland, but this aspect of intensity change (another HRD goal) is not well understood. An accurate description of the tropical cyclone windfield near and after landfall, derived from airborne and surface observations, is essential for documenting intensity change, as well as damage to life and property. Data trnsmitted to the Tropical Pediction Center (TPC) in real time can be used in warning, preparedness and recovery.
When a hurricane is forecast to make landfall in the continental US, the collaborating sceientists are contacted to plan for coordinated deployment of mobile observing platforms along the coast and inland. At the same time flight patterns are designed to enable the collection of fine-scale radar, sonde and surface data along the coast. Modules are also planned for inalnd flights to measure inland decay, safety permitting. These plans are continually updated and refined as the storm approaches land.
During the landfall one or two WP-3D aircraft fly patterns designed to collect data near the mobile sites in both onsore and offshore flow regimes. After the experiment each group is resposnsible for data collection, calibration and verification.
John Gamache's radar wind synthesis algorithms will be applied to Doppler radar data from all available platforms to generate landfall windfields. Then these analyses will be combined with data from GPS sondes and surface platforms to generate boundary layer profiles in onshore and offshore flow regimes.
Comprehensive data sets were collected in Hurricane Lili as it crossed the Louisiana coast on 3 October, 2002, and in Hurricane Isabel on 18 September 2003, when it crossed the North Carolina coast near Morehead City. These experiments included mobile deployments of several Doppler radars and wind towers and NOAA research flights. The P3's collected Doppler radar and GPS sonde data near the surface stations: In Isabel, the radar teams obtained the first direct three-dimensional evidence of boundary-layer features (perhaps rolls), supported by wind tower data.
The 2004 Hurricane Season was remarkable for the number of hurricanes that struck Florida. The mobile tower and radar teams deployed in Hurricanes Charley (FCMP), Frances (FCMP, TTU, OU, CSWR), Ivan (FCMP, TTU, OU, CSWR, University of Southern Alabama), and Jeanne (FCMP). NOAA 43 flew tasked landfall missions in Hurricanes Frances, Ivan and Jeanne; HRD scientists were on board to coordinate additional sonde drops along the coast near the deployed ground teams and to quality-control the sonde and radar data. Analysis of thelandfall data are underway to better define the boundary layer wind features observed in these storms.
In July 2005 HRD flew two missions in Hurricane Dennis as it made landfall in Alabama. The second flight was notable because it was a post landfall flight designed to observe decay after landfall. The second flight was almost entirely over land, and some radiosondes were dropped over uninhabited areas inland. The combination of sonde and radar data should supply PBL winds to compare against the Kaplan-DeMaria deca y model, On 29 August 2005 NOAA 43 flew a mission in Hurrine Katrina as it made its destructive landfall first on the delta and then in New Orleans. A key featyre of this flight was the ise of new UBLOX sondes that should after post processing provide detailed wind profiles at the coast as well as inland. These data will also be used to validate SFMT surface wind estimates. Mobile tower teams were deployed in both storms as well.
Mission descriptions of these and earlier storms can be found in the storm data section of the HRD web page (www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd); these documents include maps with flight tracks and mobile platform locations, lists of sondes deployed and sample radar images.
Powell, M. D., P. Dodge, and Michael L. Black, 1991: The landfall of Hurricane Hugo in the Carolinas: Surface wind distribution. Wea. Forecast., 6, 379-399.
Dodge, P.P., S.H. Houston, W.-C. Lee, J.F. Gamache, and F.D. Marks, 1999. Windfields in Hurricane Danny (1997) at landfall from combined WSR-88D and airborne Doppler radar data. Preprints, 23rd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 61-62
Dodge, P.P., J.F. Gamache, S.H. Houston, and F.D. Marks, Jr. 1999. Windfields in Landfalling Hurricanes from Multiple Doppler Radar Data: the 1998 Hurricane Season. Preprints, 29th International Conference on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. American Meteorological Society, Boston, 273 -275
Dodge, P.P., S.M. Spratt, F.D. Marks, D.W. Sharp, and J.F. Gamache, 2000. Dual-Doppler analyses of mesovortices in a hurricane rainband. Preprints, 24th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 302-303
Dodge, P.P., S.T. Murillo, F.D. Marks, W.-C. Lee, P. Harasti, and C. MacAdie, 2001. Comparison of winds derived from single-radar GBVTD and dual-Doppler analyses in Hurricane Bret (1999) at landfall. Minutes, 55th Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, Orlando, FL, Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, Washington, D.C., BP27-BP28
Marks, F.D., P.P. Dodge, and C. Sandin, 1999. WSR-88D observations of hurricane atmospheric boundary layer structure at landfall. Preprints, 23rd Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Dallas, TX, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1051-1054
Mayrinck, C.E., P.P. Dodge, F.D. Marks, S.H. Houston, and J.F. Gamache, 2002. Evolution of the coastal windfield during the landfall of Hurricane Floyd (1999). Preprints, 25th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Diego, CA, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 337-338
Harasti, P. R., C. J. McAdie, P. P. Dodge, W. C. Lee, J. Tuttle, S. T. Murillo, F. D. Marks, Jr, 2003: Real-time implementation of single-Doppler analysis methods for tropical cyclones: algorithm improvements and use with WSR-88D display data. Weather and Forecasting
Landsea, C. W., J. L. Franklin, C. J. McAdie, J. L. Beven II, J. M. Gross, B. R. Jarvinen, R. J. Pasch, E. N. Rappaport, J. P. Dunion, and P. P. Dodge 2004: A Re-analysis of Hurricane Andrew's (1992) Intensity. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Soc iety.
Dodge, P. P., J. Gamache, E. Uhlhorn, D. Estaban and P. Chang, 2004: Onshore and Offshore wind flow regimes at the landfall of Hurricane Isabel (2003) Preprints, 26th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, Miami Beach, FL, American Meteorologi cal Society, Boston, 564-565.
Dodge, P.P., M.L. Black, J.L. Franklin, J.F. Gamache, and F.D. Marks. 2002: High-resolution observations of the eyewall in an intense hurricane: Bret on 21-22 August 1999. Preprints, 25th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, San Diego, CA, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 607-608
Howard, R., P. Dodge, A. Doggett, J. Finney, K. Gurley, M. Levitan , T. Reinhold, J. Schroeder, G. Stone, 2003: The Landfall of Hurricane Lili in Louisiana: A Summary of Cooperative Data Collection Efforts, International Conference on Wind Engineering, Lu bbock, Texas
Last modified: 9/12/2005
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