1941 Storm 1

31510 09/11/1941 M= 6  1 SNBR= 695 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                     
31510 09/11/1941 M= 6  1 SNBR= 695 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                                                    *

31515 09/11*  0   0   0    0*270 872  35    0*275 877  35    0*277 879  35    0*
31515 09/11*271 867  25    0*274 872  30    0*277 877  35    0*280 881  35    0*
            *** ***  **      ***      **      ***              *** ***

31520 09/12*279 882  35    0*280 884  35    0*280 888  35    0*279 895  35    0*
31520 09/12*283 885  40    0*283 888  40 1001*281 891  45    0*280 893  50    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  ** **** *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31525 09/13*279 904  40 1003*280 912  40    0*281 918  40    0*283 922  40    0*
31525 09/13*279 896  50    0*280 899  45    0*281 902  45 1001*283 908  40    0*   
                ***  **          ***  **          ***  ** ****     ***  

31530 09/14*286 925  40    0*289 928  40    0*292 932  40    0*294 935  40    0*
31530 09/14*285 916  40    0*287 925  40 1002*291 932  35 1004*294 936  30    0*
            *** ***          *** ***     **** ***      ** ****     ***  **

31535 09/15*296 938  40    0*297 940  35    0*298 943  35    0*299 949  35    0*
31535 09/15*296 940  30 1006*297 943  30 1007*298 945  25 1007*299 949  25 1007*
                ***  ** ****     ***  ** ****     ***  ** ****          ** ****

31540 09/16*300 957  25    0*300 964  20    0*299 972  15    0*296 979  15    0*
31540 09/16*298 956  25 1007*298 963  20    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***     **** *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31545 TS                    

US tropical storm impact:
9/13/1941 - 35 kt winds analyzed on coast of Louisiana between the mouth of 
the Mississippi River and the mouth of the Atchafalaya River.  (Cyclone 
weakened to a depression by the time of landfall.)

Minor track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this 
tropical storm.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical 
Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, 
USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps, the Original Monthly Records 
from NCDC, the USWB operational advisories (advisories), Dunn and Miller 
(1960), and Connor (1956).

September 10: HWM analyzes a spot low (no closed isobars) near 25.5N, 89W.  
HURDAT does not yet list a system on this day.  The MWR tracks of lows first 
shows a position near 26.5N, 86W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z does not analyze any 
features of interest.  No gales or low pressures.

September 11: HWM indicates a tropical storm of at most 1010 mb near 27N, 
89W.  HURDAT lists this as a tropical storm with 35 kt winds at 27.5N, 87.7W 
at 12Z.  The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 27N, 86W (am) with a 
pressure of 1012mb and at 28N, 87W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed 
low of at most 1011 mb centered near 28.1N, 87.7W.  Ship highlights: No gales 
or low pressures. Station highlights: 33 kt around ~19Z at Port Eads, LA 
(29.0N, 89.2W) (advisories).  "The first tropical disturbance of the 1941 
hurricane season appeared in the northern Gulf of Mexico on the evening of 
September 11" (MWR).  "A Gulf disturbance of slight intensity appeared on the 
morning of September 11, and was centered at 7 am (times mentioned are in EST 
unless otherwise indicated) about 120 miles southeast of Port Eads, La. The 
center moved very slowly in a west-northwesterly direction toward the north 
Texas coast and moved inland, between Galveston and Port Arthur, the night of 
September 14-15, resulting in a series of squalls at Port Arthur" (MWR).  
"Date...Sept. 11-15.  Place where first reported...About 120 miles southeast of 
Port Eads, La." (MWR).

September 12: HWM indicates a tropical storm with a pressure of at most 1005 
mb near 26.6N, 88.8W.  HURDAT lists this as a tropical storm with 35 kt winds 
at 28N, 88.8W at 12Z.  The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 27N, 88W 
(am).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 mb near 28.2N, 
88.9W.  Ship highlights: 30 kt SSW with 1005 mb at 0000Z at 28.6N, 88.5W 
(COA); 15 kt S with 1003 mb at 06Z at 28.5N, 88.9W (COA); 52 kt E with a 
pressure of 1005 mb at 28.3N, 88.5W at 1830Z (USWB).  Station highlights: 30 
kt NE with 1007 mb at 06Z at Burrwood, LA (29.0N, 89.4W).

September 13: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1005 mb 
near 27.8N, 90.4W.  HURDAT lists this as a tropical storm with 40 kt winds at 
28.1N, 91.8W at 12Z.  The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 27N, 90W (am) 
and at 27N, 91W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 1002 
mb centered near 28.1N, 90.0W.  Ship highlights: 35 kt E with a pressure of 
1003 mb at 28.4N, 88.7W at 00Z (COA); 45kt ESE with a pressure of 1003 mb at 
28.2N, 88W at 0030Z (USWB); 20 kt N with 1003 mb at 12Z at 28.1N, 90.3W (ship 
experienced max wind of 35 kt ENE) (MWR).  Station highlights: 30 kt E with 
1005 mb at 06Z at Burrwood, LA (USWB); 35 kt SE at 1830Z at Grand Isle, LA 
(29.3N, 90.0W) (USWB).  "The lowest barometer reported during the short 5-day 
course of this storm, 1002.7mb accompanied by a force 8 wind (Beaufort 
scale), came from a ship near 2806'N, 9018'W, on September 13" (MWR).  "The 
storm was sufficiently threatening on the 13th for warnings to be issued to 
people in low-lying areas; but during the last 24 hours before it crossed the 
coast it decreased greatly in intensity and no property damage or injuries 
were reported" (MWR). "Maximum wind velocity reported...Force 8 ENE, a ship.  
Lowest barometer reported...1002.7 mb.  Coast lines crossed...Texas.  Place of 
dissipation...East Texas coast.  Intensity...Not of hurricane intensity.  
Remarks...No property damage or injuries reported" (MWR).

September 14: HWM indicates a tropical storm of at most 1010 mb centered near 
28.5N, 94.1W.  HURDAT lists this as a tropical storm with 40 kt winds at 
29.2N, 93.2W at 12Z.  The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 28N, 92W (am) 
and at 29N, 94W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 1005 
mb near 28.9N, 93.0W.  Ship highlights: 30 kt N with 1008 mb at 00Z at 28.4N, 
92.4W (COA); 15 kt S with a pressure of 1003 mb at 28.4N, 92.2W at 0630Z 
(USWB).  Station highlights: 29 kt NE (max w/1-min) at Port Arthur (29.9N, 
93.9W) at 1430Z (OMR); 1008 mb (min p) at 2230Z at Port Arthur (OMR).  "On 
the coast the highest wind velocity registered was 31 miles per hour from the 
east at Port Arthur and the lowest barometer 1007.5mb at 4:30pm (CST) on the 
14th at the same station.  Rainfall for the 2-day period (14-15) at Port 
Arthur was 1.52 inches" (MWR). 

September 15: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1010 mb 
near 29.2N, 94.6W.  HURDAT lists this as a tropical storm with 35 kt winds at 
29.8N, 94.3W at 12Z.  The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29.5N, 94.5W 
(am) with a pressure of 1007 mb.  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of 
at most 1008 mb centered near 29.4N, 94.4W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low 
pressures.  Station highlights: 28 kt E (1-min) at Port Arthur at 0930Z 
(MWR/OMR).

September 16: HWM suggests a weak open trough near 29.5N, 96.5W.  HURDAT 
lists this as a 15 kt tropical depression at 29.9N, 97.2W.  Microfilm at 12Z 
analyzes a thunderstorm symbol (but not a closed low) near 29.5N, 96.5W at 
12Z.  No gales or low pressures.

A tropical cyclone is analyzed to have formed in the eastern Gulf of Mexico 
around 00Z on 11 September (genesis six hours earlier than originally).  A 25 
kt intensity is analyzed at that time.  The cyclone moved west-northwestward 
until it reached 28.3N, 88.5W at 00Z on the 12th.  Then it moved due westward, 
reaching 28.3N, 90.8W at 18Z on the 13th.  On the 11th and 12th, all track 
changes are half a degree or less.  The cyclone is analyzed to have attained 
tropical storm intensity at 12Z on the 11th (6 hours later than originally).  
The USWB advisory on this tropical cyclone issued at 20Z on the 11th stated 
that Port Eads, LA had recently reported winds of 38 mph [33 kt].  At 00Z on 
the 12th, a ship recorded 30 kt with a simultaneous pressure of 1005 mb.  A 
peripheral pressure of 1005 mb suggests winds of greater than 34 kt according 
to the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  Another ship at 
00Z on the 12th recorded the first gale (35 kt).  A 40 kt intensity is 
analyzed for 00Z on the 12th (up from 35 kt originally).  A 1001 mb central 
pressure is added to HURDAT at 06Z on the 12th based on a ship observation of 
1003 mb with 15 kt winds inside the RMW.  This pressure equals 42 kt 
according to the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  At 1830Z on the 
12th, a ship on the microfilm map at 28.3N, 88.5W reported a wind speed of 52 
kt (60 mph).  Connor mentions 64 kt ships SE of the mouth of the Mississippi 
River and estimates a lowest lifetime pressure of 996 mb for this cyclone.  
Due to the good observational coverage in the area of that 52 kt ship and 
throughout the whole area around the storm, a peak lifetime intensity of 50 
kt is analyzed from 18Z on the 12th - 00Z on the 13th (raised from the original 
peak lifetime intensity of 40 kt from 00Z on the 13th - 00Z on the 15th).  
Given the reports that Connor mentioned, it is possible that the cyclone was 
stronger, but with no additional substantiation, the system is not upgraded 
to a hurricane.  The 1003 mb central pressure originally listed in HURDAT at 
00Z on the 13th is removed because a ship observed 1003 mb simultaneously with 
45 kt at that time.  The largest track change for the entire lifetime of the 
cyclone is implemented at 12Z on the 13th - a 1.6 degree eastward adjustment.  
Observations at that time indicate a position of 28.1N, 90.2W with a central 
pressure of 1001 mb, and this value is added to HURDAT at 12Z on the 13th.  A 
1001 mb central pressure equals 42 kt according to the north of 25N pressure-
wind relationship.  At 1830Z on the 13th, a 35 kt gale was recorded at Grand 
Isle, LA when the cyclone was located about 45 nm south of the coast of 
Louisiana.  A ship located just a couple nm off the coast at 29.0N, 90.7W 
also recorded 35 kt at 1830Z on the 13th.  Based on these observations, 
Louisiana is analyzed to have received a 35 kt tropical storm impact on 13 
September on the coastline between the mouth of the Mississippi River and the 
mouth of the Atchafalaya River.  The cyclone, however, did not make landfall 
in the Louisiana coast.  On the 14th, it moved west-northwestward and weakened 
over water over the northwest Gulf of Mexico.  In fact, no more gales were 
observed after 1830Z on the 13th.  The last 30 kt wind occurred at 00Z on the 
14th.  Central pressures of 1002 and 1004 mb are analyzed and added to HURDAT 
at 06 and 12Z on the 14th.  These values equal 39 and 35 kt, respectively, 
according to the weakening subset of the north of 25N pressure-wind 
relationship.  Intensities of 40 and 35 kt are chosen for 06 and 12Z on the 
14th.  After 06Z on the 14th, the largest track change is only 0.3 degrees.  
The cyclone is analyzed to have weakened to a 30 kt tropical depression at 
18Z on the 14th (30 hours earlier than originally - a major change).  The 
cyclone made landfall at 03Z on the 15th at 29.6N, 94.1W - it passed between 
Galveston and Port Arthur.  The highest wind recorded on land, after 
converting to 10m 1-min was 27 kt at Port Arthur.  The lowest pressure from a 
land station was 1007.5 mb at Port Arthur.  The analyzed landfall intensity 
is 30 kt and the analyzed landfall central pressure is approximately 1006 mb.  
From 00Z on the 15th through 00Z on the 16th, central pressures of 1006, 1007, 
1007, 1007, and 1007 mb are analyzed and added to HURDAT.  The 1006 mb 
central pressure at landfall equals 32 kt according to the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  After landfall, the cyclone moved due west and 
the center passed over Houston around 22Z on the 15th with a 25 kt intensity.  
Dissipation is analyzed after 06Z on the 16th (12 hours earlier than 
originally) at 29.8N, 96.3W as a 20 kt tropical depression.

*******************************************************************************

1941 Storm 2

31550 09/16/1941 M=10  2 SNBR= 696 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3                     
31550 09/17/1941 M=11  2 SNBR= 696 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=3
         **        **

The 16th is removed from HURDAT
31555 09/16*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*257 836  35    0*255 845  35    0*

31560 09/17*252 854  35    0*250 863  35    0*247 871  40    0*246 880  45    0*
31560 09/17*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*237 880  25    0*246 885  30    0*
            *** ***  **      ***      **      *** ***  **          ***  **

31565 09/18*248 889  50    0*254 895  60    0*259 896  65    0*260 893  70    0*
31565 09/18*253 890  30    0*257 895  35    0*259 896  35    0*260 893  40    0*
            *** ***  **      ***      **               **               **

31570 09/19*260 889  70    0*258 886  75    0*256 883  75    0*253 881  75    0*
31570 09/19*260 890  45    0*258 888  50    0*255 886  55    0*252 885  55    0*
                ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31575 09/20*249 880  80    0*245 878  80    0*241 876  80    0*234 876  80    0*
31575 09/20*248 884  55    0*245 882  60    0*241 880  60    0*236 877  60    0*
            *** ***  **          ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

31580 09/21*230 882  80    0*234 887  80    0*240 892  80    0*244 896  80    0*
31580 09/21*233 879  60    0*238 882  65    0*244 887  70    0*248 893  70    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31585 09/22*249 900  80    0*254 907  75    0*259 916  75    0*263 926  75    0*
31585 09/22*251 901  75    0*254 909  80    0*259 919  85    0*263 929  90    0*
            *** ***  **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

31590 09/23*266 937  75    0*271 946  70    0*277 953  70    0*283 955  70    0*
31590 09/23*267 939  95    0*272 948 100    0*277 953 105    0*283 955 110    0*
            *** ***  **      *** *** ***              ***              ***

31595 09/24*290 955  60  977*298 954  55    0*316 947  45    0E343 927  35    0*
31595 09/24*290 956  85    0*298 956  65    0*315 949  40    0*335 932  35    0*
                ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  

31600 09/25E369 909  35    0E395 882  35    0E422 855  30    0E445 828  30    0*
31600 09/25*360 911  35  989E388 887  35  988E424 859  40  985E449 826  50    0*
           **** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **

The 26th and 27th are new to HURDAT
31602 09/26E476 789  55    0E503 747  50    0E530 705  45    0E556 675  45    0*
31603 09/27E582 660  45    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*

31605 HRCTX3
31605 HRCTX3BTX2
            ****

U.S. Landfall: 9/23/1941 - 22Z - 28.8N, 95.6W - 100 kt - 958 mb - 1007 mb OCI 
- 250 nm ROCI - 20 nm RMW

Minor track changes and major intensity changes are analyzed for this 
hurricane that made landfall in Texas.  A major alteration is made with 
genesis, delayed for a day.  A major change is also made to the timing of 
dissipation, delayed for a day.  Evidence for these alterations comes from 
the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather 
Review, USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps, Original Monthly Records 
from NCDC, monthly climatological data summaries from NCDC, U.S. Weather 
Bureau operational advisories, Dunn and Miller (1960), Ellis (1988), Schwerdt 
et al. (1979), Ho et al. (1987), Jarrell et al. (1992) and Connor (1956).

September 16: HWM indicates a spot low near 24N, 86W. HURDAT lists this as a 
Tropical storm with 35kt winds at 25.7N, 83.6W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No 
gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 17: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 25N, 86W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical storm with 40kt winds at 
24.7N, 87.1W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

September 18: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1005mb near 24.9N, 89.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 
65kt winds at 25.9N, 89.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 
25.5N, 89W (am) with a pressure of 1006mb. Ship highlights: No gales or low 
pressures. Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. "This hurricane was 
first noted as a disturbance of slight intensity about 180 miles south of 
Port Eads, La., on September 18. For 48 hours the center drifted gradually 
southward toward the Yucatan coast with winds increasing to gale force" 
(MWR).  "Date...Sept. 18-26.  Place where first reported...About 180 miles south 
of Port Eads, La" (MWR).

September 19: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 25N, 88.9N. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 75kt winds 
at 25.6N, 88.3W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 25N, 88W 
(am) with a pressure of 1003mb. Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at 
mosr 999 mb centered near 25.5N, 89.0W. Ship highlights: 40kt SE with a 
pressure of 1003mb at 25.5N, 88W at 1230Z (USWB); 40 kt SE with 1000 mb at 
1830Z at 26.0N, 89.0W (USWB). Station highlights: No gales and low pressures. 

September 20: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 24N, 88.3W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 80kt winds 
at 24.1N, 87.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 24.5N, 
88.5W (am) and at 23N, 88W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of 
at most 1002 mb centered near 23.9N, 88.4W. Ship highlights: 35kt ENE with a 
pressure of 1002mb at 24.9N, 87.7W at 20Z with a max wind of 50 kt E (MWR). 
Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. "During the night of September 
20-21 the storm turned, and moving northward retraced its path until, on the 
evening observation of the 21st, it was again near the regions where first 
detected" (MWR).

September 21: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 990mb near 
24N, 89W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 80kt winds at 24N, 
89.2W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 23N, 90W (am) and at 
24N, 91W (pm). Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 1002 mb 
centered in the general vicinity of 23.8N, 88.9W.  Ship highlights: 993 mb at 
09Z at 24.2N, 88.4W and 70kt at or near 09Z at or near 24.2N, 88.4W (USWB); 
45kt E with a pressure of 999mb at 25.3N, 87W at 1230Z (USWB). Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures.  "Eastern Sun - (24.15-88.25) 4am - 
passed through center of storm - force 12 (no directions given) - barometer 
29.32 ([9]92[.]9mb)" (USWB).

September 22: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 990mb near 
25.5N, 92W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 75kt winds at 
25.9N, 91.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 25N, 92W (am) 
and at 26N, 94W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 993 
mb centered near 26.1N, 91.9W. Ship highlights: 30 kt NW with 991 mb at 21Z 
at 26.8N, 94.1W (MWR); 55kt W with a pressure of 999mb at 26.6N, 94.5W (no 
time given) (USWB); 70 kt NE before 2359Z in the vicinity of 27.1N, 93.7W 
(MWR). Station highlights: 22 kt NE with 1005 mb at 22Z at Corpus Christi NAS 
(27.7N, 97.3W) (OMR); 37 kt NE around ~2330Z at Port Arthur (29.9N, 93.9W) 
(OMR). "A ship near 2706' N, 9342' W, on September 22 reported a northeast 
wind, force 12, and a low barometer reading of 985.8mb. On the coast, Texas 
City reported the highest recorded wind velocity, 83 miles per hour. 
Estimated winds up to 100 miles per hour came from several points nearer the 
storm center" (MWR). 

September 23: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 985mb near 
27.1N, 95.3W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 70kt winds at 
27.7N, 95.3W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 28N, 95.5W 
(am) with a pressure of 985mb and at 29N, 95W (pm).  Microfilm at 12Z 
analyzes a closed low of at most 987 mb centered near 27.4N, 95.3W.  Ship 
highlights: 40 kt E with a pressure of 986mb at 27.1N, 93.7W at 00Z (MWR, 
USWB); 20kt WSW with a pressure of 986mb at 26.7N, 94.6W at 01Z (USWB); 70kt 
S with a pressure of 1000mb at 28.7N, 94W at 18Z (MWR). Station highlights: 
42 kt SE around ~1930Z at Galveston (OMR); 52 kt at Port Aransas (27.8N, 
97.1W) (Connor); 991 mb at Port Lavaca (28.6N, 96.6W) at 22Z (Connor); 977 mb 
at Matagorda (28.7N, 96.0W) at 2225Z (USWB). "It then took a northwestward 
course through the western Gulf of Mexico and moved inland on the Texas coast 
near Matagorda at 3:25pm (CST) on September 23" (MWR). "Recurving to the 
northeastward after crossing the Texas coast the storm center passed slightly 
west of Houston. The lowest pressure registered along the path of the 
hurricane, 970.5mb, was observed at Houston Airport at 11:08pm of the 23rd. 
The passage of the low pressure was accompanied by winds estimated at 75 
miles per hour; a recorded velocity becoming impossible because of power 
failure" (MWR).  "Tropical cyclones in Texas, Sept. 23, Matagorda, Minimal, 4 
killed, damage $6,000,000" (minimal is equivalent to winds of 74-100 mph and 
central pressure 983-996 mb - Dunn and Miller).  "Sept. 23 - Hurricane made 
landfall near Freeport with 90 mph winds, tide of 9.9', and barometer 28.31 
[958.7 mb].  Extremely high tides were reported along the entire coast from 
Matagorda to Galveston.  Four lives were lost, and property damage was 
estimated at $6.5 million" (Ellis).  "Sept. 23 - 1011 mb environmental 
pressure, 93 kt max sustained winds at landfall" (Schwerdt et al.).  "Sept. 
23 - 959 mb central pressure, 970 mb pressure at Houston, 21 nm RMW, 13 kt 
[speed] at landfall, landfall 28.8N, 95.6W" (Ho et. al).  "1941, Sep, TX 3N, 
958 mb central pressure" (Jarrell et al.).  "Sep. 23 - Center crossed coast 
near Matagorda.  Pressures: Houston 28.66" [971 mb], Galveston 29.26" [991 
mb], AOE 29.25" [991 mb], ship at 27N 97.3W 29.11" [986 mb], Port Aransas 
29.41" [996 mb], Corpus Christi 29.47" [998 mb], Port Lavaca 29.25" [991 mb].  
Estimated lowest 28.30" [958 mb].  Winds: Houston 75 mph [65 kt], Texas City 
83 mph [72 kt], ship 27N, 93.7W 75 mph [65 kt], NAS Corpus Christi NNW 58 mph 
[50 kt], Port Aransas 60 mph [52 kt], PAH SE 73 mph [63 kt], Grand Isle E 35-
40 mph [30-35 kt].  Tides: Matagorda 10.8 ft, Galveston 7.0 ft, Sargent 9.9 
ft, Port O'Connor 5.9 ft, Aransas Game Refuge 5.0 ft, Shell Island Reef 6.5 
ft, Frenier 5.6 ft, Cameron 5 ft, Sabine 5.7 ft, Anahuac 7.0 ft, LaPorte 8.0 
ft, Texas City 7.5 ft, Freeport 10.6 ft, Port La Vaca 6.4 ft, Ft. Point 5.6 
ft" (Connor).  "Maximum wind velocity reported...Force 12 NE., a ship, 83 miles 
per hour, Texas City, Tex.  Lowest barometer reported...970.5 mb, a ship.  
Coast lines crossed...Texas.  Place of dissipation...Southern Quebec Province.  
Intensity...Full hurricane.  Remarks...4 lives lost; $2,000,000 property damage; 
crop losses estimated in excess of $5,000,000" (MWR).  

September 24: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 990mb 
near 31.8N, 94.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical storm with 45kt winds at 
31.6N, 94.7W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 32N, 94W (am) 
with a pressure of 982.4mb and at 36N, 92W (pm). Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a 
closed low of at most 990 mb centered near 31.6N, 95.0W. Ship highlights: 
35kt SW with a pressure of 1001mb at 28.8n, 94W at 1230Z (USWB). Station 
highlights: 988 mb (min p) at Galveston Airport and 991 mb (min p) at 
Galveston WBO (29.3N, 94.8W) both at 04Z (OMR); 53 kt S (max w/1-min/35m) at 
Galveston at 0420Z (OMR); 72kt at Texas City (29.4N, 94.9W) likely around 
~04Z (MWR); 63 kt at Ellington Field (29.6N, 95.2W) (WB advisories); 52 kt E 
(max w/5-min/58 m) at ~0430Z and 970 mb (min p) at 0508Z at Houston (29.8N, 
95.4W) (MWR/OMR); 973 mb (min p) at 0510Z at Richmond (29.6N, 95.8W) 
(Connor); 975 mb at 0530Z at Alvin (29.6N, 95.3W) (Connor); 63 kt SE (fastest 
mile/41m) around ~0530Z and 996 mb (min p) at 0820Z at Port Arthur (OMR); 39 
kt S ( 5-min/41m) at Port Arthur around ~1130Z (OMR); 35 kt SE (max w/5-
min/69m) around ~1530Z and 990 mb (min p) at 1615Z at Shreveport (32.5N, 
93.8W) (OMR); 18 kt S with 992 mb at 1830Z at Shreveport; 991 mb (min p) at 
Little Rock, AR (34.7N, 92.3W) likely around 22Z or 23Z (climo). "The 
following excerpts from a report by G. P. Rusmisel, of the Galveston office, 
relate to conditions at that station during the approach and passage of the 
storm: By late afternoon of the 22nd the sky became completely overcast with 
low clouds of bad weather which predominated throughout the remainder of the 
storm. Tides became to rise on the 21st and more rapidly to a crest of 6.7 
feet at 8pm and 10pm CST on the 22nd, then falling to 5 feet at 1 pm of the 
23rd. Tides rose again thereafter to a crest of 7 feet at 9 and 10pm CST on 
the 23rd, after which they subsided rapidly. The sea was rather light at about 
10 swells per minute until the storm moved toward the Texas coast, after 
which an increase set in becoming very heavy and reaching 5 swells per minute 
at the height of the storm. Tidewater covered all of the Galveston Island 
beaches, much of the island beyond the seawall, and entered the lower 
residential and business sections as backwater from the bay. Tidewater also 
covered the municipal airport to a depth of approximately 1 to 3 ft and was 
about 6 inches deep on the floor of the airport administration building and 
in the C. A. A. communications station room, putting that office out of 
commission until after the water receded and power and telephone service was 
restored the evening of the 25th" (MWR). 

September 25: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 990mb 
centered just SW of Grand Rapids, MI near 43N, 86W with fronts running 
through the low. HURDAT lists this as an Extratropical cyclone with 30kt 
winds at 42.2N, 85.5W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 
42.5N, 86W (am) with a pressure of 987.3mb and a center at 48N 77W (pm). 
Microfilm at 12Z analyzes a closed low of at most 987 mb near the HWM 
position with fronts analyzed attached to the low.  Ship highlights: No gales 
or low pressures. Station highlights: 15 kt W with 993 mb at 0030Z at Little 
Rock, AR (USWB); 36 kt SW (max w) at Evansville, IN likely around ~12Z (MWR); 
986 mb (min p) at Grand Rapids, MI likely around ~13Z (MWR); 44 kt W (max w) 
at Fort Wayne, IN likely around ~14Z (MWR); 15 kt NW with 986 mb at 1830Z at 
Alpena, MI (USWB); 56 kt SW (max w) at Buffalo, NY likely around ~20Z [but 49 
kt max w after converting to 10m 1-min] (MWR).  "Progressive movement of the 
storm increased rapidly as the center moved up the Mississippi Valley and 
passed over the Canadian boundary in the Lake region. Available sources 
estimate property damage at well over $2,000,000. The rice crop in the region 
affected was ruined, and has been estimated as a loss of $4,000,000. About 25 
to 30 percent of the cotton crop had been picked in this section. Half of 
that remaining in the fields has been reported lost. It is noteworthy that, 
so far as is known, only four lives were lost, either directly or indirectly, 
as a result of this storm which traversed a low-lying region where without 
warning thousands would have been left to the mercy of wind and tide" (MWR). 

September 26: HWM analyzes a tropical storm of at most 985 mb centered near 
53N, 63.5W with fronts running through the cyclone.  HURDAT no longer lists a 
system on this day.  The MWR tracks of lows shows a position near 53N, 70.2W 
(am) and a position near 58N 66W (pm).  Station highlights: 30 kt W with 1004 
mb at Buffalo, NY at 0030Z (USWB); 25 kt W with 1002 mb at Toronto, Canada at 
0030Z (USWB); 15 kt SSE with 997 mb at Montreal, Canada at 0030Z (USWB); 15 
kt S with 1000 mb at Caribou, ME at 0630Z (USWB); 30 kt SW with 996 mb at 12Z 
at 48.4N, 68.6W (HWM); ~20 kt SE with 994 mb at 12Z at 53.7N, 57.1W (HWM).

September 27: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 975 mb centered near 65N, 
60.5W with an occluded front extending from near the low southeastward to a 
triple point near 60N, 49W.  HURDAT did not previously list a system on this 
day.  The MWR tracks of low shows a final position near 63N, 65W with a 988 
mb pressure (am).  Station highlights: 40 kt NW with 986 mb at 12Z at 61.4N, 
64.9W (HWM).

A tropical wave or trough slowly began to form into a more concentrated area 
of low pressure on 15-16 September near the western tip of Cuba moving slowly 
north-northwestward.  Good observational coverage on the 16th and early on the 
17th indicates that a well-defined, closed circulation was not yet present.  
HURDAT originally began the cyclone at 12Z on the 16th in the eastern Gulf of 
Mexico.  Observations from the microfilm map at 12Z on the 17th indicate a 
possibility that the low might have been closed by then.  Therefore, genesis 
is now shown at 12Z on the 17th (24 hours later than originally) in the 
central Gulf.  Sufficient observational coverage provides evidence that the 
intensity was only a tropical depression at 12Z the 17th and the 00Z the 18th 
microfilm maps.  Data on the 18th at 00Z suggests a central pressure of at 
most 1008 mb which yields of wind speed of at least 30 and 28 kt, 
respectively, according to the Brown et al. (2006) southern and north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationships.  A 30 kt intensity is selected for 00Z on the 
18th (down from 50 kt originally - a major change).  Although the first low 
pressure was not observed until 00Z on the 19th with the first 35 kt gale 
observed at 06Z the 19th, the cyclone is analyzed to have become a tropical 
storm at 06Z on the 18th (36 hours later than originally - a major change) 
because of the slightly sparser data coverage near the center of the 18th.  
For the track, the cyclone meandered slowly from the 18th - 21st in the south-
central Gulf of Mexico making a small clockwise loop on the 18th and 19th.  It 
was at 26N, 89W on the 19th at 00Z, and then it moved south to 23.3N, 87.9W by 
the 21st at 00Z.  From that point, it moved west-northwestward toward the 
Texas coast, where it made landfall late on the 23rd.  The largest track 
change for the entire existing portion of the track (17th-25th) is less than 1 
degree.  For the intensity in the Gulf of Mexico, major downward intensity 
adjustments of 20 to 30 kt are analyzed at all times from 00Z on the 18th - 
00Z on the 21st.  On the 19th at 00Z, a 1005 mb peripheral pressure suggests 
winds of greater than 37 and 34 kt for south and north of 25N, respectively; 
45 kt is analyzed (down from 70 kt originally).  At 12Z on the 19th, a 40 kt 
wind was observed.  Also at 12Z, a peripheral pressure of 1000 mb suggests 
winds greater than 47 and 44 kt for south and north of 25N.  This ship - 
which also measured 35 kt E - was about 30 nm northwest of the cyclone.  A 
second ship that observed 40 kt SE with 1003 mb at the same time was about 40 
nm east of the cyclone.  These observations are not consistent with a 75 kt 
hurricane as originally shown in HURDAT, but are consistent with around a 55 
kt tropical storm.  On the 21st, a 993 mb pressure was recorded around 09Z.  
It is uncertain whether this was a central pressure measurement.  The first 
hurricane force wind from a ship also occurred on the 21st sometime around 09Z 
(it is unclear whether the "force 12" report occurred at the same time as the 
993 mb pressure).  The cyclone is analyzed to have reached hurricane 
intensity at 06Z on the 21st (66 hours later than originally - a major 
change), based upon interpolation from the 55 kt at 12Z on the 19th and 
subsequent landfall as a 100 kt major hurricane two days later.  This is 
consistent with the available (but ambiguous) observations on the 21st.  On 
the 23rd at 00Z, with the cyclone 22 hours away from making landfall in Texas, 
a 986 mb peripheral pressure was recorded, suggesting winds of greater than 
65 kt according to the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.

The hurricane made landfall on the Texas coast between Matagorda Bay and 
Freeport at 28.8N, 95.6W on 23 September at 22Z.  The landfall point is also 
the recurvature point of this hurricane (95.6W was the farthest west the 
cyclone reached).  The city of Matagorda (28.7N, 96.0W) recorded a pressure 
of 977 mb at either 2125Z or 2225Z but there is no wind data available for 
Matagorda so it is uncertain whether the RMW was experienced there.  Ho et 
al. lists a landfall RMW of 21 nm, and Matagorda was located about 25 nm west 
of the analyzed center at closest approach.  A run of the Schloemer equation 
utilizing the assumption that Matagorda was located about 5 nm outside of the 
RMW yields a central pressure of 953 mb, while assuming that Matagorda was 
about 10 nm outside of the RMW (with an RMW of 15 nm) yields 939 mb.  Seven 
hours after landfall, Houston recorded a 970 mb pressure at 0508Z on the 24th.  
Wind data from Houston indicates that the center passed about 20 nm west of 
the station and that the 970 mb value was not a central pressure and likely 
not inside the RMW, as no lull occurred at the time of the lowest pressure.  
(This is not certain, however, as the wind record from Houston is provided in 
hourly averages with peak 5 min winds to have occurred within the hour.  A 
lull that lasted less than an hour could have occurred but not recorded.)  
Runs of the Schloemer equation indicate a central pressure at that time 
(seven hours after landfall) of 948 mb assuming that Houston was at the RMW. 
(The 948 mb calculation is independent of the RMW size when the RMW equals 
the radius from the center of the pressure measurement in the equation).  If 
the central pressure was indeed that low several hours after landfall, the 
landfall central pressure would have been significantly lower.  Ho et al.'s 
inland pressure decay model for the Gulf coast would suggest a value close to 
900 mb at landfall and even a value of 935 mb by using the Florida decay 
model (which fills slower and may be somewhat reasonable to use given that 
the hurricane would have been paralleling Galveston Bay somewhat).  
Therefore, somewhat conservatively, a 942 mb central pressure is chosen for 
landfall.  A 942 mb central pressure equals 113 kt according to the Brown et 
al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship and 118 kt for its intensifying 
subset.  Climatological RMW for this central pressure and landfall latitude 
is 17 nm, so this system is close to average assuming an RMW of 20 nm.  The 
outer closed isobar of 1007 mb is substantially lower than usual with a 
rather large radius of 250 nm, while the hurricane was moving at a near 
average 12 kt.  Thus a 110 kt intensity is selected for landfall (somewhat 
below the pressure-wind relationship), maintaining this as a high end 
Category 3 for north Texas.  The highest observed winds were 78 kt at 
Freeport and 72 kt at Texas City.  Major upward intensity adjustments of 20-
40 kt are implemented from 00Z on the 23rd - 00Z on the 24th.  A peak lifetime 
intensity of 110 kt is analyzed at 18Z on the 23rd through the 22Z landfall 
(original peak was 80 kt from 00Z/20th - 00Z/22nd).  A run of the parametric 
wind model suggests that 92 kt winds occurred on the coast at the border of 
Central Texas and North Texas (28.6N, 96.0W), which is very near where the 
left edge of the RMW passed.  Therefore, a Category 2 impact is added to 
HURDAT for Central Texas.  Runs of the Kaplan and DeMaria inland decay model 
yield 85, 63, 42 and 28 kt for 00, 06, 12 and 18Z on the 24th.  Highest 
observed winds within 2 hr of synoptic times are: 78 kt at 00Z, 72 kt at 06Z, 
37 kt at 12Z and 32 kt at 18Z.  Analyzed intensities are 85, 65, 40, and 35 
kt (originally 60, 55, 45, and 35 kt).  The center moved northeastward 
through northwestern Louisiana and Arkansas between 12Z on the 24th - 00Z on 
the 25th and it was accelerating.  The cyclone is analyzed to have become 
extratropical at 06Z on the 25th centered over southern Illinois.  A 35 kt is 
analyzed from 18Z on the 24th through 06Z on the 25th.  This cyclone produced 
tropical storm impacts in Louisiana and Arkansas.  Tropical storm impacts are 
not analyzed for Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, or Illinois 
because the strongest winds, located a short distance SSE of the center, were 
not experienced in any of those states while the system was still tropical.  
Maximum winds observed after converting to 10m 1-min were: 32 kt at 
Shreveport, 30 kt at Little Rock, 29 kt at Memphis, and 25 kt at Cairo, IL.  
After that, the cyclone reintensified as an extratropical system.  Damaging 
winds occurred across portions of the Upper Midwest and into western New 
York.  On the 25th, the following central pressure values are analyzed and 
added to HURDAT: 989, 988 and 985 mb at 00, 06 and 12Z.  A 986 mb pressure 
was recorded at Grand Rapids, MI.  After converting to 10m 1-min, the 
following winds were recorded on the 25th: 40 kt at Detroit; 44 kt at Fort 
Wayne, IN around 14Z; 42 kt at Dayton, OH; and 49 kt at Buffalo, NY around 
20Z.  The cyclone is analyzed to have reintensified to 50 kt by 18Z on the 
25th when the center was over Lake Huron reaching a peak of 55 kt at 00Z on 
the 26th.  HURDAT originally showed dissipation after 18Z on the 25th.  
Dissipation is delayed by 30 hours until after 00Z on the 27th - a major 
change, as the analyses from HWM indicate that the system continued moving 
northeastward.  This assessment is also consistent with the MWR Tracks of 
Lows analysis through 00Z on the 27th.  The final point at 00Z on the 27th is 
58.2N, 66.0W as a 45 kt extratropical cyclone as the cyclone was absorbed by 
a larger extratropical system after that time.  

*******************************************************************************

1941 Storm 3

31610 09/18/1941 M= 8  3 SNBR= 697 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
31615 09/18*  0   0   0    0*275 790  35    0*290 781  40    0*291 776  55    0*
31615 09/18*268 787  30    0*278 786  30    0*285 785  30    0*290 784  30    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31620 09/19*292 770  65    0*293 764  65    0*293 756  70    0*294 745  70    0*
31620 09/19*291 782  35    0*292 775  35    0*293 763  40    0*294 748  45  998*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **          ***  **  ***

31625 09/20*295 733  70    0*297 721  70    0*299 709  70    0*303 698  70    0*
31625 09/20*296 733  50    0*298 718  55    0*299 707  60  993*298 706  60    0*
            ***      **      *** ***  **          ***  **  *** *** ***  **

31630 09/21*299 694  70    0*297 700  70    0*302 708  70    0*306 714  70    0*
31630 09/21*297 706  60  995*295 707  60    0*294 708  60    0*295 714  60    0*
            *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **      ***      **      ***      **

31635 09/22*309 719  70    0*313 724  70    0*316 728  70    0*324 732  70    0*
31635 09/22*299 724  65    0*304 733  70    0*312 738  70    0*321 735  70    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

31640 09/23*335 736  60    0*344 734  60    0*353 728  60    0*361 719  55    0*
31640 09/23*331 736  70    0*341 734  65    0*350 728  65  990*359 717  65    0*
            ***      **      ***      **      ***      **  *** *** ***  **

31645 09/24*368 711  55    0*372 706  50    0*378 700  50    0*386 690  45    0*
31645 09/24*366 707  60    0*372 700  55    0*378 695  50    0*384 690  45    0*
            *** ***  **          ***  **          ***          *** 

31650 09/25*393 681  40    0*397 675  40    0*402 669  35    0*415 650  30    0*
31650 09/25*390 685  40    0E396 677  40    0E402 669  35    0E410 660  30    0*
            *** ***         **** ***         *                **** ***  

31655 HR     

Minor track changes and major intensity changes are analyzed for this 
hurricane that stayed east of the United States.  Evidence for these 
alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship 
database, Monthly Weather Review, USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps 
and Monthly Meteorological Summary.

September 17: HWM indicates that a spot low pressure system is located near 
25N, 74.5W. Micro shows a trough of low pressure over the NW Bahamas. No 
gales or low pressures. 

September 18: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1010mb near 28N, 77.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds 
at 29N, 78.1W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 79W (am) 
with a pressure of 1012mb (first position for system) and at 29N, 78W (pm). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1011mb near 28.5N, 78.5W 
at 12Z. No gales or low pressures. "On the morning of the 18th, disturbed 
conditions and squally weather were observed over the Atlantic east of 
Florida, with indications of a center of circulation about 150 miles east of 
Titusville. During the 18th this disturbance moved in a direction slightly 
north of east with highest wind, force 7, reported in squalls" (MWR). 
"Date...Sept. 18-26, Place where first report...Off east central Florida coast, 
Coast lines crossed...None, Maximum wind velocity reports...Force 12 ESE, a ship, 
Lowest barometer reported...995 mb, a ship, Place of dissipation...Near 38N, 63W, 
Intensity...Full hurricane, Remarks...Caused considerable delay in North Atlantic 
shipping" (MWR).

September 19: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1005mb near 29N, 76.8W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 70kt 
winds at 29.3N, 75.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 
75W (am) with a pressure of 1006mb and at 29N, 73W (pm). Micro shows a closed 
low pressure system of at most 1005mb near 29.5N, 75W at 12Z. Ship 
highlights: 20kt SSW with a pressure of 1000mb at 28.7N, 74.3W at 1830Z 
(USWB); 25kt SSW with a pressure of 1001mb at 28.2N, 74.5W at 1830Z (USWB); 
25kt NW with a pressure of 1005mb at 27N, 75.8W at 1830Z (USWB). Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

September 20: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1000mb near 28.9N, 71W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 70kt 
winds at 29.9N, 70.9W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 
72W. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 999mb near 29N, 71W 
at 12Z. Ship highlights: 40kt ENE with a pressure of 1006mb at 06Z (USWB); 
20kt SSW with a pressure of 995mb at 30.0N, 70.1W at 11Z (MWR); 60kt E at 
30.5N, 70.7W no time given (MWR) but likely before 12Z; 50kt ENE with a 
pressure of 998mb at 29.7N, 70.4W at 22Z (MWR). Station highlights: No gales 
or low pressures. "It then curved sharply to the eastward and by the morning 
observation of the 20th appeared as a very large elongated low pressure area 
extending from the Bahamas to Bermuda with center along latitude 2930'N, 
longitude 7100'W. During the night the center executed a right-hand loop and 
headed northwestward toward the North Carolina coast. Along the path of this 
storm from September 20 to the 23 several ships reported winds force 11, with 
the lowest barometer observed, during this period, 995.3mb at 3000'N, 
7010'W on September 20. A ship bound from Curacao to New York had two 
encounters with this storm; first near 3011'N, 7145'W. On the morning of 
September 20, when at 4am a low barometer of 1006.4mb was recorded, and again 
2 days later near 3413'N, 7509'W, with the barometer falling to 1004.7mb at 
8pm on September 22. During the interval between these observations the 
center of the storm, which during the first encounter had been moving 
eastward south of the vessel, turned its track and overtook the ship from the 
southeast. Force 8 winds were encountered on both occasions" (MWR). 

September 21: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 30N, 71W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 70kt winds at 
30.2N, 70.8W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 70W (am) 
and at 30.5N, 71W (pm). Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1005mb near 29.8N, 69.5W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 60kt ENE at 29.6N, 72W no 
time given (MWR); 15kt E with a pressure of 997mb at 29.5N, 70.7W at 00Z 
(COA); 50kt ENE with a pressure of 1002mb at 30.5N, 69.8W at 00Z (COA); 40kt 
ENE with a pressure of 1005mb at 31.7N, 70.9W at 18Z (COA). Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

September 22: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 31N, 74W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 70kt winds at 
31.6N, 72.8W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 32N, 72W (am) 
with a pressure of 1001mb and at 34N, 74.5W (pm). Micro shows a closed low 
pressure system of at most 996mb near 31.5N, 73.8W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 
40kt SW with 987 mb at 30.7N 74.6W at 0630Z (USWB); 50 kt S with a pressure 
of 1000mb near 32.8N, 72.5W at 1830Z (USWB); 50 kt N with 996 mb at 17Z and 
60 kt N at 35.1N 74.4W no time given (MWR - observation date incorrect - 
likely valid on 23rd). Station highlights: 30kt N wind at Cape Hatteras, NC 
(MMS). "Late on the 22nd the storm recurved to the northeastward in about 
3330'N, 7400'W, passing about 150 miles east of Hatteras, and dissipated in 
the western North Atlantic on the 26th" (MWR). 

September 23: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1000mb near 35.5N, 73W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 60kt winds 
at 35.3N, 72.8W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 35N, 73.5W 
(am) and at 36N, 71W (pm). Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at 
most 990mb near 35.5N, 73.2W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 45kt SSE with a 
pressure of 998mb at 32.9N, 72.7W at 00Z (MWR); 35kt SW with a pressure of 
1008mb at 34N, 70.8W at 00Z (USWB); 5kt Variable with a pressure of 990 mb at 
35.2N, 73.1W at 1330Z (USWB); 15kt NE with a pressure of 1001mb at 35.6N, 
73.7W at 19Z (COA). Station highlights: 1006 mb at Hatteras Cape Hatteras, NC 
(MMS).  

September 24: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1000mb near 37N, 69W with a frontal boundary just north of the cyclone. 
HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 50kt winds at 37.8N, 70W at 12Z. 
The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 37N, 69W (am) and at 38N, 68W (pm). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 996mb near 36.5N, 70W at 
00Z. Ship highlights: 35kt NNW with a pressure of 1012mb at 34.1N, 74.6W at 
00Z (COA). Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

September 25: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1005mb near 39.5N, 66.5W with a warm front just NE of the cyclone. HURDAT 
lists this as a Tropical Storm with 35kt winds at 40.2N, 66.9W at 12Z. The 
MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 39N, 66W (am) with a pressure of 1009mb 
(last position). Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. "This storm did not develop hurricane 
intensity but was attended by strong winds and gales which caused 
considerable delay in North Atlantic shipping. Timely small craft warnings 
kept small boats along the coast out of danger. No destructive winds occurred 
on land" (MWR).

September 26: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 985mb 
near 53.5N, 63W with a cold front running through the system. No gales or low 
pressures.

Genesis is begun six hours earlier - 00Z on the 18th - than originally shown 
in HURDAT.  Minor (less than 120 nm) alterations to the position of the 
cyclone were made for the duration of its lifetime, though the largest 
changes were made on the 19th and 21st.  The original genesis intensity was 35 
kt.  However, numerous ship observations indicate that the cyclone began as a 
tropical depression and likely reached tropical storm strength around 00Z on 
the 19th.  The first significant measurements were a 20 kt SSW wind/1000 mb 
pressure ship report at 1830Z on the 19th.  This indicates a central pressure 
of around 998 mb, which has been added to HURDAT.  998 mb central pressure 
suggests maximum winds of 47 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-
wind relationship.  A strong gradient existed north of the cyclone on the 19th 
through the 21st, but on the 19th the system was moving about 12 kt toward the 
east (implying strongest winds on the south side of the vortex).  With these 
two factors somewhat counteracting one another, the intensity at 18Z on the 
19th is set at 45 kt, which is a major reduction from the 70 kt shown 
originally.  Correspondingly, major downward changes are shown to the 
intensity from 18Z on the 18th through 00Z on the 20th.  It is also of note 
that the structure of the vortex was elongated ENE-WSW from the 18th through 
the 21st and the system may have been characterized as a subtropical cyclone 
if satellite imagery were available.  On the 20th, a ship with 20 kt SSW 
wind/995 mb pressure at 11Z suggests a central pressure of about 993 mb, 
which is added into HURDAT.  This central pressure indicates an intensity of 
around 55 kt.  A separate ship measured a peak wind of 60 kt E, sometime 
before 12Z on the 20th.  Given the strong pressure gradient north of the 
cyclone and the reduced forward speed of the system on the 20th, an intensity 
of 60 kt would be consistent with going above the pressure-wind relationship 
as well as consistent with the observed 60 kt wind.  This is a 10 kt 
reduction at 12Z on the 20th, compared to the original HURDAT.  At 00Z on the 
21st, a ship measured 15 kt E wind/997 mb pressure suggesting a central 
pressure of 995 mb.  This central pressure indicates an intensity near 52 kt.  
Given the continued strong pressure gradient north of the cyclone and now a 
near stationary movement, the intensity is kept at 60 kt from the day before, 
which is a 10 kt decrease from original HURDAT.  During the 20th and 21st, the 
cyclone transcribed a clockwise loop, which is similar to that shown in 
HURDAT, though it occurs around 29.5N 71W, while HURDAT had the loop centered 
around 30N 70W.  At 0630Z on the 22nd, a ship reported 40 kt SW with 987 mb, 
as depicted on the microfilm.  If valid (which is not certain, as this 
measurement was not mentioned in any of the post-storm write-ups), the 
pressure would suggest maximum winds of at least 64 kt from the north of 25N 
Brown et al. pressure-wind relationship.  This supports hurricane intensity 
on this date and the 70 kt in HURDAT originally is retained.  This is the 
peak intensity for the cyclone (unchanged from that in HURDAT originally). 
(It is of note that the conclusion published in the September Monthly Weather 
Review summary was that the cyclone did not reach hurricane intensity.  This 
was updated in the seasonal summary in December to reflect "Full Hurricane" 
based upon one "Force 12 ESE" ship report, though this observation did not 
specify when or where.)  On the 22nd, a ship reported a minimum pressure of 
996 mb with simultaneous 50 kt N wind at 17Z and a peak wind of 60 kt N (no 
time).  However, comparison of these observations with numerous ships and 
North Carolina coastal stations indicate that the measurements could not have 
been made on the 22nd.  Instead, it is likely that the date for these 
observations was actually the 23rd.  A separate ship measured 5 kt variable 
wind with 990 mb pressure at 1330Z on the 23rd.  This ship along with the 50 
kt/996 report do suggest a central pressure of around 990 mb on the 23rd, 
which is added into HURDAT at 12Z on the 23rd.  This central pressure suggest 
maximum winds of 59 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind 
relationship and maximum winds of 63 kt from the Landsea et al. north of 35N 
pressure-wind relationship.  Because of the improved symmetry of the cyclone 
on the 23rd and that there was an observed 60 kt N ship report on the weak 
side of the storm, the intensity on the 23rd is set at 65 kt, which is 5 kt 
higher than HURDAT from 00-12Z on the 23rd.  On the 23rd, the system began 
moving away from North Carolina.  Peak observed winds in the state were 30 kt 
N at Cape Hatteras on the 22nd.  The system is not analyzed to have been a 
tropical storm impact for the United States, but this is uncertain.  Steady 
weakening of the cyclone occurred on the 24th, as it moved at a relatively 
slow speed toward the northeast.  No changes to the intensity were made after 
06Z on the 24th.  However, the available observations become very sparse on 
the 24th and 25th.  An extratropical phase is added to the system beginning at 
06Z on the 25th.  The cyclone became absorbed by a large extratropical cyclone 
after 18Z on the 25th before the original cyclone reached Canada.  An 
alternative solution where the original cyclone is the dominant vortex that 
still remains on the 26th over eastern Canada as shown in the Historical 
Weather Map is likely not correct.  Thus the timing and general location of 
dissipation is unchanged from the original HURDAT.

*******************************************************************************

1941 Storm 4

31660 09/23/1941 M= 8  4 SNBR= 698 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                  
31665 09/23*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*140 593  40    0*
31665 09/23*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*137 603  30    0*
                                                               *** ***  **

31670 09/24*140 612  40    0*140 631  45    0*140 650  45    0*140 663  50    0*
31670 09/24*137 619  35    0*138 635  40    0*138 650  45    0*138 663  50    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***              ***  

31675 09/25*140 675  55    0*140 689  55    0*140 702  60    0*140 714  65    0*
31675 09/25*139 676  55    0*140 689  55    0*140 702  60    0*140 715  65    0*
            *** ***                                                ***  

31680 09/26*140 725  70    0*140 738  75    0*140 751  80    0*140 761  90    0*
31680 09/26*141 729  70    0*142 743  75    0*142 756  80    0*143 769  90    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

31685 09/27*140 772  95    0*140 787 100    0*141 804 105    0*145 824 105    0*
31685 09/27*143 782  95    0*144 796 105    0*145 810 115    0*147 825 115    0*
            *** ***          *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

31690 09/28*151 842 100    0*155 855  95    0*159 868  90  992*161 881  80    0*
31690 09/28*150 840  90    0*154 853  75    0*158 865  70    0*163 877  75    0*
            *** *** ***      *** ***  **      *** ***  **  *** *** ***  **

31695 09/29*163 892  60    0*168 905  50    0*175 920  40    0*179 929  35    0*
31695 09/29*167 891  60    0*171 906  50    0*175 920  40    0*180 930  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***                           *** ***  

31700 09/30*185 940  30    0*191 955  25    0*198 970  20    0*  0   0   0    0*
31700 09/30*186 938  30    0*193 945  30    0*200 950  25    0*208 953  25    0*
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31705 HR 

Major track changes and intensity changes are analyzed for this hurricane 
that struck Central America.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the 
Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather 
Review, USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps and the Mexican synoptic 
maps.
                   
September 21: HWM indicates a spot low pressure is located near 12.5N and 
50.5W. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No 
gales or low pressures.

September 22: HWM indicates a spot low pressure is located near 12N and 53W.
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No gales or 
low pressures.

September 23: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1010mb near 12N, 60.2W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds 
at 14N, 59.3W at 18Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1008mb near 13.5N, 60.5W at 18Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. "This storm was first noticed 
as a very slight disturbance about 75 miles northwest of Barbados in the 
early afternoon of September 23. Moving almost due west it passed slightly 
south of St. Lucia and into the Caribbean Sea, where it quickly developed 
hurricane intensity" (MWR). "Storm...IV, Date...Sept, 23-30, Place where first 
reported...Between Barbados and St. Lucia" (MWR).

September 24: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1005mb near 12N, 65W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 45kt winds 
at 14N, 65W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1011mb near 15N, 64.5W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

September 25: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 13.5N, 70.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 60kt winds at 
14N, 70.2W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1002mb 
near 14N, 71W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 45kt ESE at 15.1N, 69.2W at 12Z (COA); 
40kt ESE with a pressure of 1012mb at 14.1N, 69.2W at 12Z (HWM); 35kt S with 
a pressure of 1006mb at 13.9N, 69.6W at 12Z (HWM); 45kt SSE with a pressure 
of 1014mb at 13.8N, 69.7W at 18Z (COA, USWB). Station highlights: No gales or 
low pressures. "On the morning of the 25th the hurricane-buffeted freighter m. 
s. Ethel Skakel flashed a 'sinking' message from 125 miles north of Aruba, 
Dutch West Indies, and later went down with her cargo of steel rails near 
14N, 70W. Of the crew of 33 men, only 13 were reported rescued, the other 20 
being presumably lost. Two other vessels sent distress signals from locations 
near the path of the storm, one of which was later reported lost with her 
entire crew of 27 men" (MWR). 

September 26: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 14N, 76W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 80kt winds at 
14N, 75.1W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 999mb 
near 14.5N, 75.2W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 45kt E with a pressure of 1004mb 
at 15.5N, 76.1W at 16Z (USWB). 45kt E with a pressure of 1003mb at 15.4N, 
76.4W at 18Z (COA). 35kt ESE with a pressure of 1008mb at 16.0N, 76.2W at 23Z 
(USWB). Station highlights: No gales or low pressures.

September 27: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 995mb near 
15N, 81W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 3 Hurricane with 105kt winds at 
14.1N, 80.4W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
996mb near 15N, 81.2W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 957 mb at 20Z at 15.0N 83.4W 
(MWR); 50kt E with a pressure of 1001mb at 15.8N, 81.6W at 1830Z (USWB); 45kt 
ENE with a pressure of 1001mb at 15.8N, 81.6W at 14Z (COA). Station 
highlights: Eye passage between 22 and 23Z at Boom, Nicaragua (14.9N 83.6W) 
(MWR); 25kt N with a pressure of 1005mb at 12Z at Cape Gracias, Nicaragua 
(USWB); 25kt W with a pressure of 1004mb at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua at 18Z 
(USWB); 999mb at Cape Gracias, Nicaragua at 18Z (USWB); 45kt NW with a 
pressure of 982mb at 2215Z from rural location in Nicaragua at 14.7N 83.3W 
(USWB). "Taking a course slightly north of west the storm then moved across 
the western Caribbean and by the morning observation of the 27th was centered 
in the vicinity of Cape Gracias, Nicaragua. Through the courtesy of Jose 
Carlos Millas, Director of the National Observatory at Havana, Cuba, the 
following report has been received: Today (October 1), we have been able to 
establish contact with Cape Gracias. The town was destroyed and our station 
is practically lost. As I had advised the Governor that the hurricane would 
pass through that place the day before, all the people fled, except 11, of 
which 3 were drowned. The observer stayed until 9:45am (of the 27th), at which 
time he sent his last message. The observation building also came down. The 
sea flooded the town, reaching a height of about 2 meters, wrecking 
everything there. The inhabitants have come back to what is left of the 
place" (MWR). "Coast lines crossed...Nicaragua, British Honduras, and Mexico, 
Maximum wind velocity reported...100 miles per hour (estimated), a ship, Lowest 
barometer reported...993 mb, a ship, Place of dissipation...Eastern Mexico, 
Intensity...Full hurricane, Remarks...47 lives lost at sea; 3 drowned at Cape 
Gracias; heavy crop and property damage in Central America, A late special 
report received from Mr. Albert Krog, Radio Operator of the Standard Fruit & 
Steamship Co., Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua, states that on September 28, about 
20 miles up the Rio Coco from Cape Gracias, the barometer on the schooner 
Bravo fell to 28.25 inches [957 mb] (uncorrected), at about 3 p. m.  Farther 
inland from the Cape, at Boom, the central calm of the hurricane lasted from 
5 to 6 p. m." (MWR).

September 28: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb 
near 16N, 86W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 2 Hurricane with 90kt winds at 
15.9N, 86.8W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
993mb near 15.8N, 86.5W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 10kt E with a pressure of 
993mb at 16N, 86.8W at 13Z (USWB); 70kt NE at 16N, 86.8W no time given (MWR); 
60kt SE at 16N, 87.4W no time given (MWR). Station highlights: 30kt SSW with 
a pressure of 1004mb at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua at 00Z (USWB); 35kt NE with 
a pressure of 1010mb at Belize City, Belize at 12Z (USWB); 50kt N at Puerto 
Barrios, Guatemala at 14Z (USWB); 993mb at La Ceiba (15.7N, 86.9W) at 15Z 
(MWR). 40kt NE with a pressure of 1004mb at Belize City, Belize at 1715Z 
(USWB); "From Cape Gracias the hurricane moved with slightly increased speed 
across extreme northern Honduras, passing into the Gulf of Honduras, near La 
Ceiba, about 9 am (local time) of the 28th, with lowest barometer reported 
992.9mb, and still accompanied by winds of hurricane force. A vessel, located 
16 miles north of Ceiba, reported winds estimated at 100miles per hour, after 
passage of the center. The storm moved inland again over the coast of British 
Honduras, about 70 miles south of Belize, during the afternoon of the 28th, 
and 24 hours later emerged into the Bay of Campeche" (MWR). 

September 29: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 
1000mb near 17.5N, 92W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds 
at 17.5N, 92W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1005mb near 18N, 92.5W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 45kt W with a pressure of 
1000mb at 16N, 88.5W at 00Z (MWR). Station highlights: 40kt E with a pressure 
of 1006mb at Belize City, Belize at 00Z (USWB); 25kt ENE with a pressure of 
1005mb at Frontera, Mexico (18.6N, 92.7W) at 12Z (HWM); 35kt NE at Ciudad del 
Carmen, Mexico at 12Z (Mexico); 35 kt NE at Teapa, Mexico at 12Z (Mexico); 
35kt NW with a pressure of 1013mb at Veracruz, Mexico at 18Z (USWB). 
"Continuing to move west-northwestward the disturbance decreased rapidly in 
intensity as it approached the Mexican coast, and moved inland, for the third 
time, as a weak depression near Vera Cruz on September 30" (MWR).

September 30: HWM indicates a low near 19N, 94W. HURDAT lists this as a 
Tropical Depression with 20kt winds at 19.8N, 97W at 12Z. Micro shows a 
closed low pressure system of at most 1005mb near 21.8N, 97.2W at 12Z. Ship 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: 35kt NW with a 
pressure of 1007mb at Veracruz, Mexico at 0Z (USWB).

October 1: HWM indicates a spot low near 23N, 94W. No gales or low pressures.

October 2: HWM indicates a spot low near 28N, 92.5W. Micro shows a closed low 
pressure system of at most 1005mb near 28.7N, 91W. No gales or low pressures.

October 3: No organized low pressures are listed in HWM, Micro or MWR. No 
gales or low pressures.

No changes to the timing of genesis of this major hurricane.  While the 
Historical Weather Maps indicated a low east of the Lesser Antilles on the 
21st and 22nd, there are no supporting data for this possibility.  Track 
changes are introduced for every day of this system's lifetime.  The one 
major track alteration is at 12Z on the 30th, as the cyclone was weakening 
over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.  Observations late on the 23rd from the 
Lesser Antilles indicate that the cyclone was a tropical depression while 
moving across the islands.  Intensification to a tropical storm is delayed by 
six hours to 00Z on the 24th, after the system had moved into the Caribbean 
Sea.  The first observed gale, however, was not until 12Z on the 25th, when a 
45 kt ESE ship observation was taken.  There were reports on the 25th of two 
ships sinking and one other with distress signals, so the system may have 
become a hurricane earlier than the 18Z on the 25th as originally seen in 
HURDAT.  However, because of lack of observational confirmation, the 
intensities are kept as is on the 25th.  No observations were taken near the 
center of the hurricane on the 26th, so the HURDAT intensities - which appear 
reasonable - are retained on that date.  

By late on the 27th, the hurricane made landfall near the Honduras-Nicaragua 
border.  Around the time of landfall, a ship just inland in the Cocos River 
measured 957 mb around 20Z.  Between 22 and 23Z the eye was reported over 
Boom, Nicaragua (14.9N 83.6W).  A 982 mb with 45 kt NW report at 2215Z was 
from a radio operator in a rural part of Nicaragua near 14.7N 83.3W about 20 
nm south of Cabo Gracias.  (Notes on the microfilm indicate that "Radio 
operator stated:  leaving radio for safe place" after his 2215Z report.)  It 
is uncertain whether this was a minimum pressure report.  These three reports 
are not entirely consistent with one another and may be due to incorrect 
times of one or more of them.  Based upon all of this, landfall is estimated 
to have occurred at 14.8N 83.2W around 20Z just south of Cape Gracias.  The 
957 mb peripheral pressure (as the ship was north of the center by 10-15 nm) 
suggests maximum winds of at least 104 kt from the south of 25N Brown et al. 
pressure-wind relationship.  HURDAT originally had 105 kt before landfall.  
Based upon the pressure and the extreme destruction described in the town, 
the intensity at landfall is estimated to be 115 kt - making this a Category 
4 impact for both Honduras and Nicaragua.  The cyclone only remained over 
Honduras for 16 hours, while remaining close to the Caribbean Sea coastline.  
Runs of the Kaplan-DeMaria inland decay model suggested intensities of 81 kt 
at 00Z on the 28th, 60 kt at 06Z, and 54 kt at 12Z.  The intensities are 
analyzed to be 95 kt at 00Z (down from 100 kt originally), 75 kt at 06Z (a 
major downward change from 95 kt), and 70 kt at 12Z (another major downward 
change from 90 kt).  The values are higher than the Kaplan-DeMaria model due 
to the hurricane's center remaining very close to the Honduras coastline 
after landfall.  After emerging back over the Caribbean Sea around 12Z on the 
28th, the cyclone continued to produce hurricane force winds, as measured by a 
ship at 16N 86.8W (no time, but likely around 12Z).  Intensity in HURDAT 
reduced at 06Z on the 28th to 80 kt (down from 95 kt originally) and down to 
75 kt at 12Z (down from 90 kt).  A 992 mb central pressure listed in HURDAT 
at 12Z on the 28th is likely attributed to the 992.9 mb pressure observed in 
Ceiba, Honduras.  However, this was "still accompanied by winds of hurricane 
force" and thus was not a central pressure and is removed from HURDAT.

The hurricane then made a second landfall in Belize around 21Z on the 28th at 
16.5N 88.4W.  Landfall intensity is estimated at 75 kt, down slightly from 
the 80 kt in HURDAT, making this a Category 1 impact in Belize.  Runs of the 
Kaplan-DeMaria model give 58 kt at 00Z on the 29th, 43 kt at 06Z, 36 kt at 
12Z, and 36 kt at 18Z.  Peak observed winds were 45 kt at 00Z on the 29th, 35 
kt at 06Z, 35 kt at 12Z, and 40 kt at 18Z.  Additionally, an observation of 
1005 mb with ENE 25 kt at 12Z on the 29th suggests maximum winds of at least 
37 kt.  Intensities are reanalyzed to be 60 kt at 00Z on the 29th, 50 kt at 
06Z, 40 kt at 12Z, and 40 kt at 18Z (all unchanged except up from 35 kt at 
18Z).  The cyclone again emerged over water into the Gulf of Mexico around 
21Z on the 29th.  There were two NW gales at Veracruz, Mexico late on the 29th 
and early on the 30th, but this location is susceptible to coastal funneling 
due to the high topography and these winds may not be representative of the 
circulation of the cyclone.  The cyclone weakened below tropical storm 
strength around 00Z on the 30th, same as that originally indicated.  
Observations along the Mexican coast at 12 and 18Z on the 30th and 00Z on the 
1st also indicate the cyclone did not make a Mexican landfall (as originally 
suggested by HURDAT) as the coastal stations never switched to a southerly 
wind component.  Instead, the system remained in the southwestern Gulf of 
Mexico until dissipation after 18Z on the 30th, six hours after that 
originally indicated.  It is also noted that the HWM series had an 
alternative scenario for this system.  The HWM continued the cyclone 
northward in the western Gulf of Mexico on the 1st of October until landfall 
on the 2nd in Louisiana.  However, observations on the 1st are extremely sparse 
with no definitive evidence that the cyclone was intact on that date.  
Additionally, HWM, microfilm, and COADS observations on the 2nd suggest the 
system was an elongated east-west trough with no northerly wind component on 
the western side of the supposed low.  Thus the HWM solution - while explored 
- was not adopted.  It appears that this trough on the 2nd was the result of a 
tropical wave that moved from the western Caribbean on the 30th and across 
Central America on the 1st into the Gulf of Mexico.  This is also discussed in 
the Additional Notes section.

*******************************************************************************

1941 Storm 5

31710 10/03/1941 M=12  5 SNBR= 699 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=2 
31710 10/03/1941 M=11  5 SNBR= 699 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=2
                   **

31715 10/03*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*226 630  40    0*
31715 10/03*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*212 624  40    0*
                                                               *** ***

31720 10/04*229 644  50    0*231 658  55    0*234 672  65    0*236 689  70    0*
31720 10/04*222 640  50    0*228 656  55    0*234 672  65    0*236 689  75    0*
            *** ***          *** ***                                    **

31725 10/05*238 707  75    0*239 721  80    0*241 736  85    0*244 755  90    0*
31725 10/05*238 705  85    0*239 721  95    0*240 736 105    0*242 754 105  962*
                ***  **               **      ***     ***      *** *** ***  ***

31730 10/06*248 774  95    0*251 791 100    0*256 808 105    0*267 824  95    0*
31730 10/06*246 773  95    0*251 791  85    0*257 808  75    0*267 824  60  997*
            *** ***                   **      ***      **               **  ***

31735 10/07*281 839  80    0*292 846  75    0*303 847  60    0*314 845  60    0*
31735 10/07*280 837  70    0*292 846  80  982*303 846  70    0*314 841  60    0*
            *** ***  **               **  ***     ***  **          ***

31740 10/08*326 831  55    0*329 818  55    0*330 801  50    0*329 790  50    0*
31740 10/08*322 831  45    0*326 816  40    0*330 801  35 1004*329 790  40    0*
            ***      **      *** ***  **               ** ****          **

31745 10/09*326 777  50    0*322 767  50    0*319 759  50    0*312 750  50    0*
31745 10/09*325 777  50    0*320 764  50    0*312 752  50    0*304 747  50    0*
            ***              *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

31750 10/10*303 741  50    0*291 741  50    0*288 752  50    0*297 746  50    0*
31750 10/10*297 743  50    0*295 746  50    0*295 749  50    0*295 746  50    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** 

31755 10/11*297 736  50    0*295 722  50    0*293 706  45    0*293 689  45    0*
31755 10/11*297 736  50    0*295 722  50    0*293 703  45    0*293 685  45    0*
                                                  ***              ***

31760 10/12*294 671  45    0*295 656  40    0*297 641  40    0*304 618  40    0*
31760 10/12*294 671  45    0*295 656  40    0E297 641  40    0E304 625  40    0*
                                             *                *    ***

31765 10/13*313 592  40    0E321 575  35    0E331 557  35    0E348 527  35    0*
31765 10/13E315 607  40    0E331 587  35    0E350 565  35    0E370 540  35    0*
           **** ***          *** ***         **** ***         **** *** 

(October 14th was removed from HURDAT)
31770 10/14E367 498  35    0E381 474  35    0E395 450  35    0E418 413  35    0*


31775 HRCFL2BFL2AFL2  
31775 HRCFL2BFL1AFL1IGA1 
            ************ 

US LANDFALL SUMMARY
6th/10Z  25.5N 80.2W  85kt  Cat 2  980mb  10nm RMW  125nm ROCI  1015mb OCI
6th/11Z  25.5N 80.3W  85kt  Cat 2  980mb  10nm RMW  125nm ROCI  1015mb OCI
7th/09Z  29.9N 84.6W  80kt  Cat 1  982mb  20nm RMW  125nm ROCI  1015mb OCI

Major track changes (but only for the extratropical phase) and major 
alterations to the intensities are analyzed for this major hurricane.  
Another major change is to indicate dissipation 24 hours earlier than 
originally shown.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical 
Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, 
USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps, the Florida and Georgia 
Climatological Data, Original Monthly Records, Dunn and Miller (1960), 
Schwerdt et al. (1979), and Ho et al. (1987).  

October 3: HWM indicates a low near 20N, 61.5W. The MWR Tracks of lows showed 
a center at 23N, 63W (pm). Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. "The first indications of this 
storm were observed over the Atlantic about 300 miles north of the Virgin 
Islands on the evening of October 3" (MWR). 

October 4: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1010mb near 
23N, 68W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 1 Hurricane with 65kt winds at 
23.4N, 67.2W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 24N, 68W (am) 
with a pressure of 1008mb and at 24.5N, 70.5W (pm). Micro shows a closed low 
pressure system of at most 999mb near 23.5N, 67.4W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 
35kt E with a pressure of 1014mb at 24.2N, 65.2W at 04Z (COA); 35kt SE with a 
pressure of 1007 at 24.2N, 68W at 16Z (USWB); 25kt SSW with a pressure of 
1005mb at 21.6N, 68.5W at 1830Z (USWB). Station highlights: No gales or low 
pressures. "Morning observations of the 4th showed a definite circulation and 
established the center near latitude 23N, longitude 67W" (MWR). 

October 5: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1005mb near 
24.5N, 73.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 2 Hurricane with 85kt winds at 
24.1N, 73.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 25N, 74W (am) 
with a pressure of 1009mb and at 25.5N, 78W (pm). Micro shows a closed low 
pressure system of at most 999mb near 24.5N, 73.6W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 
35kt SE with a pressure of 1008mb at 23.8N, 69.2W at 00Z (COA). 35kt NW with 
a pressure of 1009mb at 23.6N, 64.4W at 12Z (USWB). Station highlights: 30kt 
NE with a pressure of 972mb at 1730Z at Cat Island, Bahamas (USBW). 15kt E 
with a pressure of 964mb at 1750Z at Cat Island, Bahamas (USBW). "Moving in a 
west-northwesterly direction, the storm crossed the Bahama Islands and passed 
a short distance south of Nassau on the evening of October 5, at which time 
it was determined to be a small but highly developed storm of hurricane 
force. The storm which broke about 7:35pm Sunday evening centered south of 
Nassau. The velocity of wind registered 102 miles per hour, averaging between 
70-75miles per hour. The barometer reached 29.12 inches (986.1mb). The wind 
velocity of 102 miles per hour, reported by Mr. McAndrews and registered by a 
Dines gust recorder, was the highest recorded on the islands during the 
passage of this storm. The lowest barometer 964.4mb was registered at The 
Bight, Cat Island. In addition to the islands of New Providence and Cat, 
damage resulted on Watling, Exuma, northern Andros, and islands of the Bimini 
group" (MWR). 

October 6: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1005mb near 
26N, 81W. HURDAT lists this as a Category 3 Hurricane with 105kt winds at 
25.6N, 80.8W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 26N, 81W (am) 
and at 27N, 84W (pm). Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
999mb near 26N, 81.2W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 35kt ENE with a pressure of 
1005mb at 25.7N, 77.2W at 00Z (MWR); 50kt NE with a pressure of 1007mb at 
25.5N, 79.2W at 0630Z (USWB); Station highlights: 65kt E (gust 90kt) with a 
pressure of 986mb at Nassau, Bahamas, no time given (MWR/CLIMA). 991mb at 
Carysfort Reef, no time given (CLIMA). 78kt (107kt gust) at Pan American 
Dinner Key (25.7N, 80.2W) no time given (MWR/CLIMA); 41kt NNE with a pressure 
of 1007mb at Fowey Rock Lighthouse at 06Z (USWB); a pressure of 992mb at 
Fowey Rock Lighthouse (25.5N, 80.1W) at 0930Z (MWR). 59kt NE with a pressure 
of 995mb at Miami at 0947Z (MWR/CLIMA). Calm at Goulds at 1045Z (MWR). 57kt 
SW with a pressure of 996mb at Everglades City, no time given (MWR/CLIMA). 
997mb at Punta Rassa, no time given (CLIMA). 52kt N with a pressure of 998mb 
at Sanibel Light, no time given (CLIMA). 38kt ENE with a pressure of 1000mb 
at Gasparilla Light, no time given (CLIMA). 1005mb at Egmont Key, no time 
given (CLIMA)."On October 6, 1941, a small tropical storm moving slightly 
north of west, passed over extreme southern Florida and into the Gulf of 
Mexico. Its center moved inland about 13 miles south of Miami at 5:30am; and 
at 5:45am, Goulds, Fla., a short distance inland, was in the calm area. The 
lowest barometer reading in Miami was 994.9mb at 5am on the 6th; and 991.5mb 
at Fowey Rock Lighthouse, located 12 miles east-southeast of Miami, at 
4:30am. The wind reached a velocity of 68 miles per hour at 4:47am. 
Velocities somewhat higher, no doubt, occurred during the next hour; however, 
due to interference of a taller building to the east of the station, these 
were not indicated on the register. At Pan American Dinner Key a peak 
velocity of 123 miles per hour was recorded, with a sustained velocity of 90 
miles per hour for 30 seconds" (MWR). "Continuing in a west-northwesterly 
direction the storm crossed the Everglades south of Lake Okeechobee and 
passed into the Gulf between Everglades City and Fort Myers about 11am of the 
6th. The lowest pressure, at Everglades City, 995.6mb, was accompanied by 
winds exceeding 65 miles per hour and a tide of 4.1 feet which flooded the 
town and surrounding low country to a depth of about 1 foot. Fort Myers was 
on the northern edge of the storm and suffered little damage from strong 
winds" (MWR). "Extreme south, Carabelle, Major, S Miami 123 mph" (Dunn and 
Miller (1960).  Ho et al. did not include the southeast Florida landfall in 
their compilation, suggesting that it did not have a central pressure lower 
than 983 mb in their opinion.

October 7: HWM indicates a Hurricane with a pressure of at most 1000mb near 
30N, 84W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 60kt winds at 30.3N, 
84.7W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 31N, 85W (am) and at 
33N, 84W (pm). Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 999mb near 
30.3N, 84.5W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 30kt NNW with a pressure of 995mb at 
29.8N, 85W at 0930Z (USWB). Station highlights: Calm winds and 982mb between 
0830Z and 0930Z at Carrabelle (MWR); 43kt NW with a pressure of 995mb at 
0920Z at Apalachicola, FL (OMR); 43 kt ESE with 999 mb at 1230Z and peak of 
56 kt ESE (between 12 and 18Z) at Tallahassee (OMR); 56 kt NW with 997 mb at 
1858Z and 33 kt NNW 996 mb at 1830Z at Albany (OMR). "Curving toward the 
north in the Gulf of Mexico the center moved up the west Florida coast, some 
distance off shore, causing strong winds at some of the outlying island 
stations. Edgemont Key at the mouth of Tampa Bay estimated the wind at 60 
miles per hour. The disturbance moved inland again at Carrabelle where the 
calm eye of the storm was experienced between 3:30 and 4:30am of the 7th. 
Winds of 65 to 75 miles per hour accompanied the storm at this point, with 
lowest barometer reported at 982.1mb. "Damage in Florida resulting from this 
storm has been estimated at $675,000, about equally divided between the 
northern and southern portions of the State. Five men were drowned near the 
small fishing village of Panacea, east of Carrabelle, and these added to 
three deaths reported from the Bahamas, bring the total of lives lost during 
this storm to eight. So far as is known seven injuries resulted, none of 
which could be directly attributed to the storm" (MWR).

October 8: HWM indicates a closed low near 33N, 80W. HURDAT lists this as a 
Tropical Storm with 50kt at 33N, 80.1W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed 
a center at 33N, 80W (am) with a pressure of 1004.7mb and at 32.5N, 78W (pm). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1005mb near 33N, 80.2W at 
12Z. Ship highlights: 45kt ESE with a pressure of 1003mb at 32.2N, 77.5W at 
22Z (MWR). Station highlights: 35kt S with a pressure of 1006mb at Savannah, 
GA at 0900Z (USWB); 35kt SW with a pressure of 1008mb at Parris Island, SC at 
0900Z (USWB); 5kt SE with a pressure of 1005mb at Charleston (Airport) 
(32.9N, 80W) at 1240Z (OMR). "Diminishing somewhat in intensity, but still 
accompanied by winds with gusts up to 75 miles per hour, the center moved 
northeastward across Georgia with considerable damage reported along its path 
as far north as Albany. North of that point little damage was caused by the 
diminishing winds that attended the storm into South Carolina, where it 
passed into the Atlantic in the vicinity of Charleston about 8am, October 8" 
(MWR). "1016 mb environmental pressure, 77 kt max sustained winds at landfall 
(Schwardt et al. (1979)) "981 mb central pressure, 982 mb at Carrabelle, 18 
mi RMW, 11 kt at landfall, 29.8N 84.7W landfall point" (Ho et al. (1987)

October 9: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 31N, 75W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 50kt winds at 
31.9N, 75.9W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 31N, 75W (am) 
and at 30N, 74W (pm). Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1008mb near 31.3N, 75.3W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 50kt WNW with a pressure of 
1005mb at 32N, 78.1W at 0030Z (USWB); 30kt W with a pressure of 1004mb at 
31.3N, 76.3W at 0600Z (USWB); 30kt SSW with a pressure of 1004mb at 29.8N, 
74.5W at 1800Z (USWB). Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 10: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 29.5N, 75W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 50kt winds at 
28.8N, 75.2W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 75W (am) 
with a pressure of 1006mb and at 30.5N, 73.5W (pm). Micro shows a closed low 
pressure system of at most 1005mb near 29.5N, 75W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 
35kt ESE with a pressure of 1002mb at 29.7N, 74.6W at 17Z (COA); 25kt NW with 
a pressure of 999mb at 29.2N, 74.7W at 19Z (MWR). Station highlights: No 
gales or low pressures. 

October 11: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of 1010mb near 
29N, 70.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 45kt winds at 29.3N, 
70.6W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 30.5N, 71W (am) and 
at 30.5N, 68W (pm - last position). Micro shows a closed low pressure system 
of at most 1002mb near 29.4N, 70.1W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 30kt W with a 
pressure of 1001mb at 29.3N, 74.1W at 00Z (COA); 30kt SW with a pressure of 
1003mb at 28.9N, 69.9W at 12Z (COA); 35kt SSW with a pressure of 1004mb at 
29N, 68.2W at 1830Z (USWB). Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
"Although this storm increased somewhat in intensity after moving into the 
Atlantic, no ship along it later path reported winds higher than force 9. It 
was traced in a looping course eastward over the ocean until it passed south 
of Bermuda near latitude 30N, during the night of October 11-12" (MWR). 

October 12: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1015mb near 
30N, 63.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds at 29.7N, 
64.1W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: 
No gales or low pressures. 

October 13: HWM indicates a closed low with a pressure of at most 1015mb near 
35.5N, 56.5W. HURDAT lists this as an Extratropical Storm with 35kt winds at 
33.1N, 55.7W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station 
highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 14: HWM indicates a frontal wave with intersecting fronts near 43N 
41W.  HURDAT lists this as an Extratropical Storm with 35 kt winds at 39.5N 
45.0W at 12Z.  No gales or low pressures.

"The first of these was a small storm of hurricane force, which moved 
westward from off the Atlantic through the Bahama Islands, and reached the 
coast with center about 13 miles south of Miami 5 to 6 am on October 6th. It 
crossed the Everglades and passed into the Gulf between Everglades City and 
Ft. Myers about 11 am of the 6th and then curved northward and passed some 
distance off shore until it reached the coast again at Carabelle about 4 am 
of the 7th. The center passed about 10 miles west of Tallahassee at 8:45 am 
and was near Albany, Georgia, at noon of the 7th. Thereafter, it lost force as 
it passed over southern Georgia an when it passed into the Atlantic again 
near Charleston, SC, at 8:00 am of the 8th, winds did not exceed 40 miles per 
hour. Over southern Florida the path of damaging winds was approximately 60 
miles in width, extending from Homestead northward beyond Ft. Lauderdale on 
the east coast, and from Punta Rassa to south of Everglades on the west 
coast. Over northern Florida damage extended from about the Apalachicola 
River eastward nearly to Perry and Madison, a distance of 80 to 90 miles. Due 
to timely warnings and emergency protective measures, damage to life and 
property were held to a minimum. Property and crop loss in southern Florida 
is estimated at about $325,000 with no loss of life. About $300,000 of the 
damage occurred to communities on the southeast coast, and the remaining 
$25,000 to communities on the west coast. Over north Florida damage was about 
$350,000, which includes the whole affected area from the Georgia line 
southward to the Gulf. In this area the greater losses were to timber and 
pecan orchards blown down, broken down and communication lines and some 
structural damage to buildings in the affected communities of Carabelle, St. 
Marks, Tallahassee, Monticello, Quincy, Chattahoochee and others. At Panacea, 
a fishing village east of Carabelle, five men were drowned when the waves 
washed them from a wooden footbridge. This was the only loss of life reported 
in connection with the storm in Florida. Five large Cuban fishing boats were 
grounded and lost at St. Teresa and other fishing and pleasure craft were 
damaged in the Carabelle-St. Marks area. A remarkable feature of this storm 
was the lack of rainfall in its passage over the Bahama Islands and southeast 
Florida. There was not enough rain to wash salt spray from vegetation that 
was blown inland over the southeast coast, and some damage from salt burning 
resulted to crops and shrubbery. Rainfall was not heavy until it reached the 
west coast and started recurving to northward." (Climatological Data Florida)

"Destructive winds attended the storm of the 7th and 8th through many southern 
and central counties, especially in and near Cairo, Pelham, Albany and 
Cordele. Great numbers of trees were blown down, a few buildings were 
unroofed or otherwise damaged; power and communication lines were badly 
damaged over a great area. At Norman Park Junior College, near Moultrie, a 
young lady student tripped over a live wire brought down by the wind and was 
killed. Large quantities of immature pecans were blown from the trees, 
involving heavy loses. Extensive rains occurred over a considerable area near 
the course of the storm center, many stations having from 4 to nearly 7 
inches of rain within 24 hours." (Climatological Data Georgia)

The timing of genesis for this system is unchanged at 18Z on the 3rd, as the 
sparse observations do not indicate a closed low yet was in existence by 12Z 
on the 3rd (nor on earlier dates either).  Minor track changes were made for 
every day of its existence as a tropical cyclone and major track alterations 
were introduced on the 13th while extratropical.  Intensity is unchanged for 
the first 24 hours, though limited observations were present.  
Intensification to a hurricane at 18Z on the 4th is retained.  Apparently, the 
cyclone underwent rapid intensification on the 5th, as 964 mb with E 15 kt 
winds were observed at Cat Island, Bahamas at 1750Z.  This indicates a 
central pressure of about 962 mb, which would support 100 kt from the 
intensifying subset of Brown et al. south of 25N pressure-wind relationship 
and 97 kt for north of 25N.  Given the rapid movement and small size of the 
system, the intensity is analyzed at 12 and 18Z on the 5th to be 105 kt.  This 
is consistent with damages that occurred throughout the central and northern 
Bahamas.  105 kt is the peak intensity for this hurricane and is the same as 
that previously shown in HURDAT (but is listed as occurring a day earlier).

The hurricane quickly continued west-northwestward and made landfall in south 
Dade County on the 6th of October.  The first landfall was at Elliot Key 
around 10Z at 25.5N 80.2W, followed shortly thereafter east of Goulds at 
25.5N 80.3W.  The hurricane's small core was bracketed by minimum pressure 
readings of 991 mb to the south at Carysfort Reef lighthouse and 992 mb to 
the north at Fowey Rocks lighthouse at 0930Z.  Two runs of the Schloemer 
equation were performed.  Assuming a 10 nm distance from the hurricane's 
center to Fowey Rocks, a central pressure of 954 mb is obtained with an RMW 
of 5 nm.  A central pressure of 977 mb is obtained with an RMW estimate of 10 
nm.  Conservatively, 980 mb is estimated as the central pressure at landfall.  
Highest observed sustained winds were 78 kt at the Pan American Dinner Key 
base along with 997 mb pressure.  A central pressure of 980 mb suggests an 
intensity of 78 kt south of 25N and 75 kt north of 25N.  Given the fast 
forward speed (17 kt), small size (125 nm radius of outer closed isobar) and 
high environmental pressure (1015 mb outer closed isobar), landfall intensity 
is analyzed to be 85 kt - making this a Category 2 hurricane in Southeast 
Florida.  This is consistent with the previous categorization ("CFL2"), but 
is substantially lower than the 100 kt in HURDAT previously just before 
landfall.  The hurricane was over land for about six hours.  The intensity at 
12Z on the 6th (a couple hours after landfall on the southeast Florida 
mainland coast) is 75 kt, 10 kt decreased from the landfall intensity and is 
30 kt less than that in HURDAT originally.  The hurricane passed directly 
over Punta Rassa and Sanibel Lighthouse likely just before 18Z on the 6th, 
recording 997 and 998 mb, respectively.  A central pressure of 997 mb 
suggests 49 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  Given the 
small size/fast movement/high environmental pressure, intensity at 18Z is 
estimated to be 60 kt, a large decrease from the 95 kt originally.  The 
cyclone emerged over water into the Gulf of Mexico at about this time and 
apparently reintensified.  

The hurricane made a final landfall around 09Z on the 7th of October over 
Carrabelle, at 29.9N 84.6W.  Carabelle measured a 982 mb pressure while in 
the eye between 0830Z and 0930Z.  This central pressure suggests maximum 
winds of 73 kt from the subset of intensifying cyclones north of 25N.  At 
this landfall, the system still was small and embedded within high 
environmental pressure, but was moving at a slower rate of speed (11 kt).  
Thus the landfall intensity is estimated at 80 kt, making this a high end 
Category 1 hurricane for Northwest Florida ("AFL1").  This is consistent with 
the original HURDAT intensity at 06Z (75 kt originally), but is lower than 
the Category 2 assessment ("AFL2") originally.  After landfall, a series of 
runs of the Kaplan-DeMaria inland wind decay model was performed.  These gave 
62 kt at 12Z on the 7th, 45 kt at 18Z, 36 kt at 00Z on the 8th, and 39 kt at 
06Z (just before it emerged over water again).  Highest observed winds within 
two hours of synoptic time were 56 kt (Tallahassee) at 12Z, 56 kt (Albany) at 
18Z, 35 kt at 00Z on the 8th and 40 kt at 06Z.  Intensities after landfall are 
thus estimated to be 70 kt at 12Z, 60 kt at 18Z, 45 kt at 00Z on the 8th, and 
40 kt at 06Z.  This is 10 kt higher, the same, 10 kt lower, and 15 kt lower, 
respectively, than the originally HURDAT.  The intensities of 70 kt at 12Z on 
the 7th and 60 kt at 18Z indicate that southern Georgia likely experienced 
Category 1 hurricane conditions, thus "IGA1" is now indicated.  This is 
consistent with the reports of damaging wind-caused impacts in northwestern 
Florida and southern Georgia.  At 12Z on the 8th, the cyclone crossed 
Charleston, which measured 5 kt SE and 1005 mb - thus allowing a central 
pressure estimate at that time of 1004 mb.  Around 12Z on the 8th, the cyclone 
again moved back over water, reaching the Atlantic Ocean.  The system 
slightly reintensified back to 50 kt by 00Z on the 10th.  A pressure of 999 mb 
with 25 kt NW was measured at 19Z on the 10th.  This peripheral pressure 
suggests an intensity of at least 45 kt from the north of 25N pressure-wind 
relationship.  50 kt is retained at 18Z on the 10th.  No intensity changes 
were made from the 00Z on the 9th onward.  Extratropical transition is 
estimated to have occurred around 12Z on the 12th, based upon ship and 
especially Bermuda's observations, which changed from 78F air temperature/75F 
dewpoint on the 11th to 68F over 58F on the 12th along with a wind change from 
SW 25 kt to NE 15 kt.  Observations on the 13th indicate major position 
alterations with the cyclone much farther northwest than originally shown.  
Historical Weather Map and COADS observations suggest that the extratropical 
cyclone was absorbed into a larger baroclinic system by the 14th.  The 
system's dissipation is consistent with the very high pressures of the two 
nearby ships (1021 and 1022 mb) and Bermuda (1025 mb).  Thus the 14th is 
removed from HURDAT.

*******************************************************************************

1941 Storm 6

31780 10/15/1941 M= 8  6 SNBR= 700 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                    L
31785 10/15*  0   0   0    0*207 690  35    0*210 699  35    0*213 710  35    0*
31785 10/15*  0   0   0    0*207 690  25    0*210 699  25    0*213 710  25    0*
                                      **               **               **

31790 10/16*217 721  35    0*221 732  35    0*225 744  35    0*228 757  35    0*
31790 10/16*217 721  25    0*221 731  25    0*225 741  25    0*228 752  25    0*
                     **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

31795 10/17*231 771  35    0*234 787  35    0*236 800  35    0*237 808  40    0*
31795 10/17*231 765  25    0*234 781  25    0*236 798  25    0*238 813  25    0*
                ***  **          ***  **          ***  **      *** ***  **

31800 10/18*239 817  40    0*243 826  40    0*248 834  40    0*255 840  40    0*
31800 10/18*242 826  25    0*247 834  25    0*252 840  30    0*258 844  30    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

31805 10/19*261 842  40    0*268 843  45    0*274 843  45    0*281 842  45    0*
31805 10/19*265 845  35    0*272 844  40    0*277 843  45    0*279 842  45    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      ***              *** 

31810 10/20*289 839  45    0*293 835  40    0*296 831  40    0*297 827  35    0*
31810 10/20*282 838  45    0*286 833  40    0*290 830  40 1004*294 830  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***     **** *** *** 

31815 10/21*297 824  35    0*296 819  30    0*293 817  30    0*289 817  25    0*
31815 10/21*295 829  35    0*294 828  35    0*291 826  30    0*290 823  25    0*
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***

31820 10/22*285 818  25    0*281 821  20    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
31820 10/22*288 821  25    0*284 820  20    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***          *** ***

31825 TS

U.S. Tropical Storm Landfall
-------------------------------------
10/20 14Z 29.2N 83.0W 40 kt FL

Minor track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this 
tropical storm that made landfall in Florida.  A major change was the delay 
of intensification to a tropical storm by almost four days from that 
originally shown in HURDAT.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the 
Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather 
Review, and USWB/NHC microfilm of synoptic weather maps.

October 14: HWM indicates that a trough or tropical wave stretches from the 
Atlantic into the Caribbean across eastern Dominican Republic. An old frontal 
boundary is located the north of the eastern Caribbean across latitude 23N. 

October 15: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most1010mb 
near 21N, 70W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 35kt winds at 21N, 
69.9W at 12Z. Micro shows a trough or tropical wave located along longitude 
68-70W. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No 
gales or low pressures. 

October 16: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 23N, 73.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 35kt winds at 
22.5N, 74.4W at 12Z. Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 
1011mb near 25N, 72W at 12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 17: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 23.5N, 80W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 35kt winds near 
at 23.6N, 80W at 12Z. Micro does not show an organized low pressure system. 
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No gales or 
low pressures. "It had developed from a wave of low pressure and squally 
weather that moved across the southern Bahamas and through the Florida 
Straits a few days previously." (MWR). 

October 18: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1015mb 
near 24N, 83.5W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds at 
24.8N, 83.4W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 26N, 85.5W 
(pm). Micro does not show an organized low pressure system. Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. 
"The first indications of a definite circulation in connection with this 
slight tropical disturbance were noted about 100 miles off the west Florida 
coast on the night of October 18-19" (MWR). 

October 19: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1015mb 
near 28N, 85W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 45kt winds at 
27.4N, 84.3W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 27N, 85W (am). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1005mb near 25N, 84.6W at 
12Z. Ship highlights: 40kt WSW with a pressure of 1002mb at 27.9N, 83.4W at 
12Z (MWR/USWB). Station highlights: No gales or low pressures. "On the 
morning of October 19, a ship, 50 miles west of Tampa, reported a west-
southwest wind of 45 miles per hour and a barometer reading of 1002.4mb." 
(MWR)

October 20: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1010mb 
near 29N, 83W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Storm with 40kt winds at 
29.6N, 83.1W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 84W (am). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1008mb near 28.9N, 83W at 
12Z. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: No gales 
or low pressures. "From this location the storm center then moved north-
northwestward and passed inland at Cedar Key, about noon of the 20th, where 
the lowest barometer reading was 1005.8mb." (MWR)

October 21: HWM indicates a Tropical Storm with a pressure of at most 1015mb 
near 29N, 83W. HURDAT lists this as a Tropical Depression with 30kt winds at 
29.3N, 81.7W at 12Z. The MWR Tracks of lows showed a center at 29N, 82W (am). 
Micro shows a closed low pressure system of at most 1011mb near 29N, 82.5W at 
12Z. Ship highlights: 35kt N with a pressure of 1009mb at Cross City at 0Z. 
35kt ENE with a pressure of 1010mb at Cross City at 06Z. Station highlights: 
No gales or low pressures. "Available observations show no winds over 
moderate gale force (40 to 50 miles per hour) during the progress of this 
storm. Torrential rains (10 to 15 inches) occurred at several points near the 
center as the disturbance stalled and dissipated over northern Florida. A 
report from Ocala lists the death of a 6-weeks-old infant, hurled 100 feet 
from its basket, and injury to both parents when their home was demolished by 
high winds. This report indicates the formation of a small and short-lived 
tornado rather than any highly destructive winds resulting directly from the 
tropical disturbance. All other reported damage resulted from flooding due to 
the excessive rains" (MWR). 

October 22: HWM indicates a SW-NE trough over the Florida peninsula. HURDAT 
lists this as a Tropical Depression with 20kt winds at 28.1N, 82.1W at 06Z 
(last position). Micro shows a closed low pressure of at most 1014mb near 
27.5N, 82W at 12Z.

"The second disturbance was of slight intensity and formed over the Gulf west 
of Florida during the night of the 18-19th. It moved north-northeastward and 
passed inland at Cedar Key about noon of the 20th. Wind velocities in 
connection with this distance never exceeded 40 to 50 mph, and no damage of 
importance resulted from wind. The lowest barometer reading at Cedar Key was 
29.70 inches at time of passage of the center. After passing inland the 
disturbance stalled over northern Florida between Cross City and Gainesville 
and gradually died out, but in the process produced torrential rains of 10 to 
more than 20 inches over a broad belt extending from the Cedar Key-Cross City 
area eastward to St. Augustine and over the area east of the St. Johns River 
from Jacksonville southward to Titusville. These rains flooded highways, 
washed out small bridges, damaged streets and drainage systems of towns, and 
did extensive damage to recently plated truck crops and seed beds. It has not 
been possible to get a reliable estimate of the damage, but it will in the 
aggregate reach several hundred thousand dollars."

No changes to the timing of genesis of this tropical storm.  Minor track 
changes were introduced for all days of its existence except for the 15th when 
no changes were made.  HURDAT initially started the system as a 35 kt 
tropical storm.  However, numerous ship and land-based observations clearly 
indicate the cyclone was a tropical depression around 25 kt for the first 
three days of its existence.  The vortex was quite weak from the 15th through 
the 18th and it was not clear if a closed circulation was even present late on 
the 17th and early on the 18th.  Given the ambiguity of the observations, the 
system is retained as a tropical cyclone late on the 17th and early on the 
18th.  The system began intensifying and became better organized late on the 
18th and it is estimated that the cyclone reached tropical storm intensity 
around 00Z on the 19th.  This is 90 hours after development to a tropical 
storm as originally shown in HURDAT - a major change.  A ship measured 40 kt 
WSW with 1002 mb on the morning of the 19th.  This supports maximum winds of 
at least 40 kt from the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  
Intensity is retained at 45 kt at 12Z on the 19th through 00Z on the 20th.  
This was the previous peak in intensity for this cyclone, which is unchanged.  
During the 20th, the cyclone moved north-northeastward and made landfall near 
Cedar Key, Florida around 14Z at 29.2N 83.0W.  Cedar Key observed a minimum 
of 1006 mb with 20 kt SW at 15Z.  A central pressure of 1004 mb is thus 
derived, which suggests a landfall intensity of 36 kt from the north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  Peak observed winds at and after landfall were 
30 kt N with 1009 mb at 00Z and 30 kt ENE with 1010 mb at 06Z at Cross City, 
Florida.  Landfall intensity is thus estimated to be 40 kt.  Decay to 
tropical depression occurred around 12Z on the 21st (based upon these Cross 
City measurements), which is 18 hours after that shown in HURDAT originally.  
Dissipation after 06Z on the 22nd is unchanged.

*******************************************************************************

Additional Notes:

1.  September 30-October 2:  The Historical Weather Maps, microfilm, and 
COADS data indicate that a broad trough of low pressure occurred over the 
western Caribbean on the 30th of September.  This moved west-northwestward 
across Central America on the 1st of October and into the Gulf of Mexico on 
the 2nd.  The disturbance dissipated on the 3rd.  While the system was shown in 
HWM as a low on the 1st and 2nd and in the microfilm at 12 and 18Z on the 2nd, 
observations do not indicate that the system ever developed a well-defined 
closed low.  Additionally, the system did not have any low pressures or 
tropical storm force winds.  Thus this system is not added into HURDAT.  
(Note that on the 30th, while this system was over the western Caribbean, 
Storm #4 was weakening over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico and then 
dissipated after 18Z on this date.  The HWM analysis mistakenly combined 
Storm #4 with this disturbance.)

Date		Location		Status
Sep. 30		85W			Trough
Oct. 1		90W			Trough
Oct. 2		92W			Trough


2.  Historical Weather Maps and COADS data depict a non-tropical low pressure 
system over the northeast Atlantic during the first week of November. The 
system is first detected on Nov 1 between Newfoundland and the Azores with a 
cold front stretching southwest of the center and a warm from stretching to 
the southeast. During the next few days it moves towards the southeast over 
warmer waters and begins to occlude. During this time ships in the area show 
pressures below 1000 mb but also air temperatures in the 50s and 60s. By 
November 4 it is a large system near 35N 33W, over 500 miles southwest of the 
Azores and gale-force winds are being reported in the islands. This indicates 
that the system was still non-tropical but the temperatures to its west are 
warmer as a ship reports 72F. On the 5th and 6th, the low pressure system 
stalls southwest of the Azores but there are no ships near the center. Later 
on the 6th it begins to move northeast and passes over the Azores on the 7th. 
The pressure in the city of Horta dropped to 985 mb and gusts of at least 62 
mph were reported in the Azores, according to the MWR. On the 8th the system 
moves away from the Azores farther into the NE Atlantic and it loses 
definition on the 9th near the coast of Portugal. While on the 7th, as the 
system passed through the Azores, it maintained a very large outer 
circulation consistent with an occluded low.  But the low pressure with 
strong winds at about the same time suggests that a mesoscale inner core had 
developed.  Unfortunately, the information available is not enough to 
determine if this system was a tropical or subtropical storm and therefore, 
it is not added to HURDAT. Possible similar storms that could be analogs are 
Tropical Storm Grace, 2009, and Hurricane Nicole, 1998.

"In the eastern North Atlantic a storm seems to have formed about the 1st and 
during the forenoon of the 2nd was indicated as having attained considerable 
strength, while central a short distance to west-southwest of the western 
Azores. The course was apparently to south-eastward during the next 3 days, 
then from the 5th to the 7th it returned northward and on the 7th was central 
over the island of Fayal. Afterward the movement was eastward, with 
apparently less intensity, and on the 11th the center was close to northern 
Portugal. Much of the information about this storm has been received from lt. 
Col. J. Agostinho, Director of the Meteorological Service of the Azores, who 
reports that gusts of 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour or more were noted 
locally on the islands." MWR, pg 339.


DAY      LAT  LON     STATUS
Nov 1    40N  42W     Extratropical 
Nov 2    38N  34W     Extratropical 
Nov 3    36N  33W     Extratropical
Nov 4    35N  33W     Extratropical
Nov 5    33N  31W     Extratropical
Nov 6    33N  33W     Extratropical
Nov 7    38N  29W     Extratropical/Subtropical?
Nov 8    41N  21W     Extratropical
Nov 9    44N  11W     Extratropical