1937 Storm 1 – Revised in 2012
30175 07/29/1937 M= 5  1 SNBR= 665 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                     
30180 07/29*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*262 843  40    0*274 834  40    0*
30180 07/29*265 857  25    0*270 847  30    0*274 839  40    0*278 833  55    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***          *** ***  **

30185 07/30*284 824  40    0*293 813  40    0*301 801  35    0*313 789  35    0*
30185 07/30*283 825  45    0*292 813  40    0*301 802  35    0*311 792  35    0*
            *** ***  **      ***                  ***          *** ***

30190 07/31*326 778  40    0*333 772  45    0*342 764  45    0*360 744  60    0*
30190 07/31*321 783  40    0*331 774  50    0*342 765  55  997*360 744  60  996*
            *** ***          *** ***  **          ***  **  ***              ***

30195 08/01*379 716  60    0*396 692  55    0*411 668  50    0*425 648  45    0*
30195 08/01E379 716  60    0E396 692  55    0E411 668  50    0E425 648  50    0*
           *                *                *                *         **

30200 08/02*438 643  40    0*452 645  35    0*465 652  30    0*471 661  25    0*
30200 08/02E438 643  45    0E452 645  40    0E465 652  35    0E476 659  30    0*
           *         **     *         **     *         **     **** ***  **

30205 TS                    

U.S. landfall: 7/29/1937 – 22Z – 28.1N, 82.8W – 55 kt - FL

U.S. close approach: 7/31/1937 – 15Z – 35.1N, 75.6W – 60 kt (max analyzed winds on NC coast 
60 kt while max intensity of TC also 60 kt as center passed just offshore Cape Hatteras) - NC

Minor track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed.  A major change is made to add 
an extratropical phase for the last two days of its existence.  Evidence for these alterations 
comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review, 
Florida and North Carolina Climatological Data, Dunn and Miller (1960), and Connor (1956).

July 28: HWM analyzed a stationary front over the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.  HURDAT does not 
yet list a system on this day.  The MWR tracks of lows first shows a position in the evening 
(00Z 29th) near 25N, 85W.  No gales or low pressures.

July 29: HWM shows a stationary front that extends into the middle of the Gulf of Mexico with 
no signs of any closed circulation or low pressure center at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a 
tropical storm with 40kt winds at 26.2N, 84.3W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center near 
27N, 85W in the morning and over Tampa near 28N, 82.5W in the evening. Ship highlights: 52kt SW 
with 1003mb at 27.9N, 83.1W at 20Z (MWR). Station highlights: 44kt SW (max w) at Tampa (41 kt 
after converting to 10m 1-min) at 2334Z (MWR). "During July 29 radio reports from the eastern 
part of the Gulf of Mexico, off the Florida coast, indicated the existence of a minor tropical 
disturbance with gentle cyclonic circulation and slight barometric depression. A special report, 
however, later received by mail from American steamer Mariana, going from Tampa toward New Orleans, 
showed that some storm development had occurred during the morning of the 29th. As the disturbance 
moved toward the coast, an estimated wind velocity of 40 to 45 miles an hour occurred at Egmont 
Key, at the entrance of Tampa Bay, at about 3pm, barometer 29.85. The disturbance crossed the west 
Florida coast north of Tampa late in the afternoon, moving northeastward. The heaviest rainfall, 
8.88 inches in 24 hours, was reported at Clearwater."  “Tropical Cyclones in Florida – July 29 – 
N of Tampa – Minor” (“Minor” has winds <74 mph, pressure >996 mb – Dunn and Miller).  “Many stations 
reported rather heavy falls [of rain] the 29-30th in connection with the minor tropical disturbance 
which crossed Florida on those days.  This disturbance, in an initial stage of development crossed 
the west coast line over Pinellas and northern Hillsboro Counties during the late afternoon of the 
29th.  Barometer readings of 29.80 inches were reported from Tampa and Clearwater.  A maximum wind 
velocity of 50 miles per hour was recorded at Tampa, while estimates of 60 miles were reported from 
several other places in that area.  The storm was of small area and very brief, lasting about three 
hours.  Winds in excess of 30 miles per hour continued at Tampa from 5 p. m. to 7 p. m.  Clearwater 
reported a rainfall of 8.88 inches…Except for some road washing at Clearwater and a slight fruit 
loss in Pinellas County, very little damage resulted from the storm in Florida” (Florida 
Climatological Data).

July 30: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1015mb embedded in a stationary front over the northeast 
coast of Florida near 29N, 81W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds 
at 30.1N, 80.1W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center near 29.5N, 80.5W with 1014mb in the 
morning and at 31.5N, 79W in the evening. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. Station 
highlights: no gales or low pressures. "In crossing Florida, according to Gordon E. Dunn, forecaster 
on duty at the Weather Bureau office at Jacksonville, 'the storm speedily lost intensity in wind 
and rainfall passed into the Atlantic near Daytona Beach about 4am attended by about a 20-mile wind 
and very little rain.' No gales were reported during the day" (MWR).  The storm speedily lost 
intensity and passed into the Atlantic near Daytona Beach around 4 a. m. on the 30th, attended by 
about a 20-mile wind and very little rain” (Florida Climatological Data).

July 31: HWM indicates an extratropical low with extending warm and cold fronts and at most 1010mb 
centered near 35.5N, 75.0W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 45kt winds at 
34.2N, 76.4W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center at 33.5N, 76.5W with a pressure of 999mb 
in the morning and an evening position of 38N, 71W. Ship highlights: 5 kt SE with 997 mb at 1330Z 
at 34.3N, 76.6W (MWR); N wind of unknown speed with 996 mb at 19Z at 36.1N, 74.1W (MWR); 60kt NNW 
with 1002mb at 36.8N, 73.9W at 20Z (MWR). Station highlights: 57kt NW (max w) (59 kt after converting 
to 10m 1-min) and 1000mb (min p) at Hatteras around ~14Z [max w not necessarily simultaneous with 
min p) (MWR). "At 7:30am, the storm was centered a short distance southwest of Hatteras, continuing 
northeastward at a speed of about 20 miles an hour, which was almost two times its progressive rate 
of the 30th. During the forenoon its center passed very close to Hatteras, where the maximum wind 
velocity, from the northwest, was at the rate of 65 miles an hour, lowest barometer 29.53 inches” 
(MWR).  “During the following night [30th] it redeveloped, and passed a short distance off Cape 
Hatteras during the forenoon of the 31st“(Florida Climatological Data).

August 1: HWM shows an extratropical low with an occluded front extending from it with a pressure 
of at most 1015mb centered near 41N, 67.5W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm 
with 50kt winds at 41.1N, 66.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center in the morning near 
41N, 77W with a pressure of 1007mb and an evening position of 44N, 65W. Ship highlights: 30 kt SSW 
with 1004 mb at 00Z at 37.7N, 70.8W with 40 kt recorded after that (MWR); 30kt NNW with 1001mb at 
41.5N, 67.5W at 12Z (COA); 50kt W with 1004mb at 40.9N, 65.3W at 16Z (MWR). Station highlights: 
no gales or low pressures. "The disturbance moved toward Nova Scotia, the coast of which it crossed 
late of August 1." 

August 2: HWM indicates an extratropical cyclone centered over Eastern Canada near 47N, 66W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as a tropical depression with 30kt at 46.5N, 65.2W at12Z. MWR's Track of 
Lows places the low in the morning near 46.5N, 65W with a pressure of 1011mb and an evening position 
of 47.5N, 69W. Ship highlights: 35 kt SW with 1012 mb at 00Z at 42.5N, 63.5W (COA); 35kt SW at 41.5N, 
64W at 12Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "…and [it] dissipated over the 
lower St. Lawrence Valley during the night of August 2-3" (MWR).

This cyclone likely formed as a partial result of some vorticity left over by a weakening stationary 
front located over the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.  HURDAT originally began this cyclone at 12Z on 
29 July as a 40 kt tropical storm, but observations indicate that a weak closed circulation existed 
by 00Z on the 29th.  The cyclone is begun 12 hours earlier than shown in HURDAT originally, which is 
consistent with both the MWR tracks of lows and the track shown in Connor (1956).  The analyzed 
intensity at 00Z on the 29th is 25 kt.  At 1130Z on 29th, a ship recorded a 35 kt SE gale with a 
1011 mb pressure.  The analyzed position at 12Z is about 40 nm WSW of that ship, which is also more 
than 1.2 degrees NNE of the original HURDAT position.  The 40 kt intensity listed in HURDAT at 12Z 
on the 29th is unchanged.  A 30 kt intensity is assigned for 06Z.  Therefore, no change is made to 
the timing that the cyclone became a tropical storm.  The cyclone moved in a direction between ENE 
and NE and approached the west coast of Florida.  Later on the 29th at 20Z, a ship located 
approximately 15 nm west of St. Petersburg/Clearwater recorded 52 kt (60 mph converted) SW with a 
simultaneous 1003 mb pressure.  A peripheral pressure of 1003 mb suggests winds of greater than 38 kt 
according to the Brown et al. (2006) north of 25N pressure wind relationship.  A 55 kt intensity is 
analyzed for 18Z (up from 40 kt originally).  The cyclone made landfall with an analyzed position of 
28.1N, 82.8W (near Palm Harbor north of Tampa) with a 55 kt intensity at 22Z on the 29th.  The lowest 
pressure recorded at Tampa was 1009 mb at 2325Z and the highest wind recorded there was 44 kt SE 
(41 kt max wind after converting to 1-min and 10m) at 2334Z.  The cyclone was responsible for 
9 inches of rain that fell in Clearwater, FL during a 24-hr period.  The cyclone moved northeastward 
and accelerated.  It was over Florida from 22Z on the 29th through 07Z on the 30th when it emerged 
into the Atlantic just north of Daytona Beach.  There were no gale force winds observed on the 30th 
from any land stations or ships, and commentary strongly suggests that the system weakened 
significantly while over land.  The 40 kt intensity in HURDAT at 00Z on the 30th is boosted slightly 
to 45 kt (given the system was over land for two hours from the 55 kt landfall intensity), and the 
06Z intensity is unchanged from the 40 kt originally.  At 06Z on the 31st, a ship recorded a 45 kt 
wind, and the analyzed intensity is 50 kt (up from 45 kt originally).  It is noted that the 
Historical Weather Maps analyzed the cyclone as frontal on the 31st (and 30th).  However, inspection 
of the temperature gradient across the system shows a weak (~5 F) temperature change near the center 
with a fairly symmetric wind/pressure structure.  Thus on the 30th and 31st the system is retained 
as a tropical cyclone.  At 1130Z, a ship recorded a 50 kt NW wind and two hours later, this ship 
record 5 kt SE with a 997 mb pressure.  This observation is analyzed as a center fix.  A central 
pressure of 997 mb is added to HURDAT at 12Z.  A 997 mb central pressure equals 49 and 53 kt 
according to the north of 25N and north of 35N Landsea et al. (2004) pressure-wind relationships.  
The cyclone is analyzed to have made its closest approach to Cape Hatteras around 15Z on 31 July, 
where the minimum pressure was 1000 mb and the maximum wind was 57 kt NW (59 kt after converting 
to 1-min 10m).  The analyzed track shows the center passing less than 10 nm off the coast of Cape 
Hatteras.  Later, around 19Z, ship data indicates a central pressure of 996 mb, and a 60 kt wind 
was recorded by a ship at 20Z with a simultaneous 1002 mb pressure.  A 996 mb central pressure is 
added to HURDAT at 18Z, and this yields 55 kt according to the Landsea et al. (2004) north of 35N 
pressure-wind relationship.  The cyclone, however, was small and fast-moving.  A 55 kt intensity is 
chosen for 12Z on the 31st (up from 45 kt originally).  A 60 kt intensity is chosen for 18Z (no 
change to HURDAT).  A 60 kt intensity is also analyzed for the close approach to North Carolina, 
which occurred around 15Z, and 60 kt winds are analyzed to have occurred on the coast of the North 
Carolina Outer Banks.  (It is possible that the system was a hurricane at the time of the closest 
approach to North Carolina.  It may be that the strong winds in Hatteras on the normally weak side 
of the cyclone are an indication of extratropical transition going on.  Thus without explicit 
confirmation of hurricane intensity, the reanalysis peaks the intensity at 60 kt – the same as that 
shown originally in HURDAT.)  The cyclone continued northeastward, passing well off of Nantucket, MA 
on 1 August, but then it turned northward and made landfall in Nova Scotia after 00Z on the 2nd.  
No changes are made to the original HURDAT positions from 00Z on 1 August through 12Z on 2 August. 
No changes are made to the original HURDAT intensity on the 1st from 00Z-12Z.  The peak intensity of 
60 kt from 18Z on the 31st through 00Z on the 1st is unchanged from HURDAT originally.  HURDAT 
originally never listed this cyclone as becoming extratropical; however, the cyclone is analyzed to 
have become extratropical at 00Z on 1 August with a 60 kt intensity.  The introduction of an 
extratropical phase is a major change.  After the extratropical cyclone made landfall in Nova 
Scotia with 45 kt winds, it made a turn to the NNW and dissipated after 18Z on 2 August (no change 
to timing of dissipation) while located over northern New Brunswick.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 2 – Revised in 2012
30210 08/02/1937 M= 7  2 SNBR= 666 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
30210 08/02/1937 M= 8  2 SNBR= 666 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                    *

30215 08/02*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*228 735  35    0*
30215 08/02*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*228 755  25    0*
                                                                   ***  **

30220 08/03*238 761  35    0*244 764  35    0*251 767  35    0*259 769  35    0*
30220 08/03*236 759  30    0*243 762  30    0*249 765  30    0*256 767  35    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  

30225 08/04*267 770  35    0*275 771  35    0*283 771  35    0*290 771  35    0*
30225 08/04*264 769  35    0*271 770  35    0*280 771  35    0*289 771  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          ***              ***

30230 08/05*296 771  40    0*303 770  40    0*312 768  40    0*323 763  45    0*
30230 08/05*298 771  35    0*307 770  35    0*317 768  40    0*326 762  40    0*
            ***      **      ***      **      ***              *** ***  **

30235 08/06*335 755  45    0*345 747  50    0*354 738  50    0*364 731  50    0*
30235 08/06*335 752  45    0*344 743  50    0*354 735  50    0*361 729  50    0*
                ***          *** ***              ***          *** ***

30240 08/07*374 723  50    0*390 710  50    0*406 688  45    0*416 674  45    0*
30240 08/07*371 722  55    0*385 712  55    0*399 694  55    0*410 678  55    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30245 08/08*422 662  40    0*427 650  40    0*429 639  35    0*435 605  35    0*
30245 08/08*418 664  50    0*424 651  45    0*426 637  40    0*426 623  35    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***
The 9th is new to HURDAT
30247 08/09*428 611  30    0*429 602  30    0*432 597  30    0*  0   0   0    0*

30250 TS

Major track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this tropical cyclone.  
A major change is made to delay the time the cyclone first attained tropical storm 
intensity by one day.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather 
Maps Series, the COADS ship database, Monthly Weather Review.

August 2: HWM does not yet show a closed low but suggests the presence of a weak trough 
near 75W just north of the Greater Antilles. HURDAT starts the system as a tropical storm 
with 35kt winds at 22.8N, 73.5W at 18Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives an evening estimate of 
23.5N, 76.5W. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. Station highlights: no gales or 
low pressures. "At 8pm (EST) observation of the August 2 evidence pointed to the existence 
of a slightly disturbed condition central near 24N, 76W”(MWR). 

August 3: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1015mb centered near 25N, 76W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 25.1N, 76.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning position of 26N, 77W with a pressure of 1014mb and an evening 
position of 27N, 77.5W. Ship highlights: 25 kt S with 1018 mb at 06Z at 26.0N, 74.2W (COA). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "There was squally weather in the locality 
of the northern Bahamas on the morning of the 3d accompanied by a weak cyclonic circulation, 
and a slight depression of the barometer central east-northeast of Nassau” (MWR).

August 4: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1010mb centered near 27.5N, 77W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 28.3N, 77.1W at 12Z. MWR's Track of 
Lows gives a morning position of 28N, 77.5W and a pressure of 1010mb and an evening position 
of 29.5N, 77W. Ship highlights: 25 kt SSE with 1010 mb at 12Z at 27.3N, 74.5W (HWM); 25 kt ESE 
with 1010 mb at 21Z at 30.5N, 75.5W (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 
"During the 4th the slow northward movement of the low continued, with the center approximately 
250 miles off the northeast Florida coast. Its intensity increased only slightly during the 
day, but the winds, though generally light, continued squally, with local winds of force 6, 
the highest reported” (MWR).

August 5: HWM shows a developing low with pressure of at most 1010mb centered near 32N, 76W at 
12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 31.2N, 76.8W at 12Z. MWR's 
Track of Lows places the center in the morning at 31.5N, 76W with a pressure of 1010mb and in 
the evening at 34N, 75W. Ship highlights: 25 kt SSE with 1010 mb at 12Z at 32N, 76W (HWM); 
35 kt E around ~21Z (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "On the morning of 
the 5th the low with center 175 miles east of the South Carolina coast, had contracted somewhat 
in size, but with little or no increase in general intensity” (MWR).

August 6: HWM shows an elongated closed low stretched northeast to southwest with a pressure of 
at most 1015mb centered near 33N, 76W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 
50kt winds at 35.4N, 73.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 35N, 74W and 
in the evening at 38N, 72.5W. Ship highlights: 35 kt SE with 1010 mb at 01Z at 34.6N, 74.0W 
(MWR); 50 kt SE at 0730Z (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "During the 6th, 
the disturbance, although continuing to be shallow, increased wind energy. The storm was 
centered at 8am (EST) of the 6th approximately 100 miles east of Hatteras, moving northeastward. 
At 8pm, it had reached a point about 200miles east of the Virginia Capes, covering a small area 
as a closed circulation, but strengthening the winds for a considerable distance in the direction 
of the high pressure area adjoining it to the eastward” (MWR).

August 7: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1015mb centered near 38.5N, 70.5W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a tropical storm with 45kt winds at 40.6N, 68.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track of 
Lows gives a morning position of 40N, 69.5W with a pressure of 1006mb and in the evening at 41N, 
68W. Ship highlights: 50 kt SE with 1009 mb at 0230Z at 37.6N, 71.4W (MWR); 50 kt SE with 1006 mb 
at 40.2N, 67.9W at 16Z (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "On the morning of 
the 7th the center lay southeast of Nantucket, with no winds higher than force 7 reported from the 
regular observing hour” (MWR).

August 8: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1015mb centered near 41.5N, 64W at 12Z. HURDAT lists 
this system as a tropical depression with 30kt winds at 46.5N, 65.2W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows 
places the center in the morning at 42.5N, 64W with a pressure of 1007mb and in the evening killing 
the system at 44N, 61W. Ship highlights: 40 kt SSW with 1005 mb at 41.2N, 65.8W at 04Z (MWR). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. “The lowest reported barometer in connection with 
this disturbance was 29.67 (1005mb), read on the American Steamer American Trader, wind 
south-southwest, force 9, at 11:30pm, of the 7th, at 41.3N, 65.8W. During the 8th the disturbance 
lost energy while passing to the east-northeastward south of Nova Scotia and had practically 
dissipated near Sable Island before the regular morning observation of the 9th” (MWR).

August 9: HWM analyzed a trough with lowest pressure in the vicinity of 43N, 60W.  HURDAT no 
longer lists a system on this day.  Ship highlights: 25 kt SSW with 1010 mb at 06Z at 42.4N, 
59.1W (COA); 15 kt W with 1006 mb at 08Z at 42.4N, 60.4W (COA). 

A trough was present near/just north of the Greater Antilles near 70W on 1 August and near 75W on 
2 August.  Observations indicate that the timing of genesis of 18Z on the 2nd in HURDAT is 
reasonable and thus is retained.  The initial position at 18Z on the 2nd is moved 2 degrees 
west of the original position – a major change, and the HURDAT intensity at that time is reduced 
from 35 to 25 kt.  The intensity is analyzed at 30 kt from 00-12Z on the 3rd.  The cyclone moved 
northward through the Bahamas from genesis through early on the 4th until it moved north of the 
Bahamas.  On the 4th, although the highest observed wind is 25 kt and the lowest available pressure 
observation is 1010 mb, the wind structure appears much better defined on this day, and there are 
not many observations near the center, so it possible that the cyclone was stronger on the 4th.  
The cyclone is analyzed to have become a tropical storm at 18Z on the 3rd (24 hr later than 
originally – a major change).  No changes are made to the original HURDAT intensity of 35 kt at 
all times from 18Z on the 3rd through 18Z on the 4th.  By the 5th the cyclone was near 32N, 77W, 
and by the 7th was moving northeastward near 40N, 69W.  All track changes from the 3rd – 6th of 
August are half of a degree or less.  The largest intensity change made from the 3rd through the 
6th was just 5 kt.  The first gale in association with this system was around ~21Z on 5 October 
– a 35 kt E wind from a ship.  A ship recorded a wind of 50 kt at 0730Z on the 6th.  A 40 kt 
intensity is analyzed at 12Z on the 5th and a 50 kt intensity is analyzed beginning at 06Z on 
the 6th (not changed from HURDAT originally).  On the 7th at 12-18Z, the position is moved about 
0.7 degrees SW of the original HURDAT position and the intensity is bumped up from 45 to 50 kt.  
On the 17th two separate ships observed 50 kt, neither being in the likely strong quadrant of 
the storm.  Intensity is boosted to 55 kt on the 17th, the new peak intensity for the system (up 
from 50 kt originally).  On 8 August, the cyclone turned toward the ENE and then toward the east 
south of Nova Scotia, so it never made landfall.  The cyclone did not accelerate either, and it 
did not become extratropical, in agreement with the original HURDAT.  A west-southwestward track 
adjustment of nearly 2 degrees was implemented at 18Z on the 8th in accordance with observations 
(HURDAT showed an unrealistic acceleration between 12-18Z).  HURDAT originally listed a final 
position at 18Z on the 8th as a 35 kt tropical storm.  Observations indicate that although the 
low continued to weaken early on the 9th, moving slowly east-northeastward as a 30 kt tropical 
depression before dissipation occurred after 12Z on the 9th.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 3 – Revised in 2012
30255 08/24/1937 M=10  3 SNBR= 667 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                     

30260 08/24*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*183 607  35    0*188 624  35    0*
30260 08/24   0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*175 610  30    0*182 621  30    0*
                                              *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30265 08/25*193 637  35    0*198 646  35    0*203 655  35    0*208 665  35    0*
30265 08/25*189 631  35    0*196 641  35    0*203 651  35    0*208 662  35    0*
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***

30270 08/26*214 674  35    0*219 683  35    0*224 692  35    0*229 702  35    0*
30270 08/26*214 673  35    0*219 685  35    0*224 697  35    0*229 708  35    0*
                ***              ***              ***              *** 

30275 08/27*235 712  35    0*240 725  35    0*244 739  35    0*246 747  35    0*
30275 08/27*235 718  35    0*240 728  35    0*244 737  35    0*245 745  35    0*
                ***              ***              ***          *** ***  

30280 08/28*247 753  35    0*247 769  35    0*250 781  40    0*253 782  40    0*
30280 08/28*245 752  35    0*245 759  35    0*245 765  40    0*248 771  40    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

30285 08/29*258 783  40    0*263 785  40    0*268 787  45    0*274 790  45    0*
30285 08/29*255 777  40    0*262 782  40    0*268 786  45    0*275 789  45    0*
            *** ***          *** ***              ***          *** ***

30290 08/30*280 793  50    0*284 797  50    0*288 805  50    0*292 817  45    0*
30290 08/30*281 792  50    0*286 797  55    0*290 805  60    0*293 817  50    0*
            *** ***          ***      **      ***      **      ***      **

30295 08/31*296 829  35    0*301 841  30    0*305 852  30    0*310 861  25    0*
30295 08/31*296 829  45    0*301 841  40    0*305 852  35    0*310 861  35    0*
                     **               **               **               **

30300 09/01*314 869  25    0*320 879  25    0*327 890  25    0*335 903  25    0*
30300 09/01*314 869  30    0*319 879  30    0*323 888  25    0*329 897  25    0*
                     **      ***              *** ***          *** ***

30305 09/02*343 913  25    0*348 919  25    0*353 925  25    0*359 932  25    0*
30305 09/02*336 906  20    0*342 913  20    0*348 920  20    0*355 927  20    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **
30310 TS

U.S. landfall: 8/30/1937 – 14Z - 29.1N, 80.9W – 60 kt

Minor track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this tropical storm.  
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS 
ships database, Monthly Weather Review, the Original Monthly Records from NCDC, Dunn 
and Miller (1960), Connor (1956), Florida Climatological Data, and the Netherlands 
Antilles and Aruba Meteorological Service.

August 23: HWM does not analyze any features of interest near or east of the Lesser Antilles. 
 HURDAT does not yet list this system.  No gales or low pressures.

August 24: HWM does not analyze a low at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm 
with 35kt winds at 18.3N, 60.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 20N, 
60W and in the evening at 20.5N, 60.5W. Ship highlights: 25 kt S with 1012 mb at 16Z at 17.5N, 
60.5W (COA). Station highlights: 15 kt NE with 1011 mb at 12Z at 17.2N, 62.6W (HWM). "On the 
24th a depressed area, not yet established as an enclosed low, appeared northeast of the 
Leeward Islands in the morning and north of them at the evening observation, thus indicating 
it to have a west-northwest bearing” (MWR).  

August 25: HWM shows signs of a tropical wave in the vicinity of the northern Leeward Islands 
but with no closed low at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds 
20.3N, 65.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 21N, 65W and in the 
evening at 21.5N, 68W. Ship highlights: 30 kt SSE with 1007 mb at 08Z at 21.5N, 62.5W (COA). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 

August 26: HWM does not analyze a low or trough. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm 
with 35kt winds at 22.4N, 69.2W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center in the morning 
at 22N, 70W and in the evening at 23N, 72.5W. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "During the 25th and 26th the disturbed condition, 
still showing immature circulation and lack of strong winds, continued to advance toward the 
west-northwest, and by 8pm of the 26th was north of Turks Island” (MWR).

August 27: HWM shows signs of a tropical wave in the vicinity of the eastern Bahamas, but no 
closed low is analyzed at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 
24.4N, 73.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center in the morning at 24N, 74W and in 
the evening at 26N, 76W. Ship highlights: 20 kt SE with 1011 mb at 21Z at 25.6N, 74.1W (COA). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "At 8pm of the 27th it was over the eastern Bahamas, 
attended by winds no stronger than light to moderate squalls” (MWR).

August 28: HWM shows a broad closed low of at most 1010mb centered near the north coast of Cuba 
at 22N, 77W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 25.0N, 78.1W 
at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the center at 24.5N, 78.5W with a pressure of 1009mb in the 
morning and an evening position being given at 25.5N, 79W. Ship highlights: 25 kt ESE with 
1005 mb [might possibly be biased ~2 mb too low] at 12Z at 24.9N, 75.5W (HWM); 35kt S near ~25.6N, 
74.3W around ~21Z (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "During the 28th the 
weather continued squally as on the preceding day, though the disturbed area had widened over a 
region central near, but slightly north of Nassau, and with little evidence of cyclonic 
circulation to be observed” (MWR).

August 29: HWM does not analyze a closed low at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm 
with 45kt winds at 26.8N, 78.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 27N, 79W 
and in the evening at 28.5N, 79.5W. Ship highlights: 35 kt SE at 00Z in the general vicinity of 
~27N, 74W (MWR); 50kt SE with 1007mb at 23Z at 28.6N, 78.6W (MWR). Station highlights: no gales 
or low pressures. "On the 29th the disturbance, moving northwestward, was central at 8pm off the 
middle east coast of Florida attended by increasingly squally weather and a slight fall in 
barometer” (MWR).

August 30: HWM shows a trough at 12Z near north-central Florida. HURDAT lists this system as a 
tropical storm with 50kt winds at 28.8N, 80.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning 
position of 29N, 80.5W with a pressure of 1006mb and an evening position of 30N, 83W. Ship 
highlights: 40 kt ESE with 1005 mb at 00Z at 28.5N, 78.7W (MWR); 40kt SE with 1009mb at 0930Z 
at 30.0N, 80.3W (MWR); 35 kt NE with 1011 mb at 12Z at 29.6N, 80.3W (COA). Station highlights: 
995mb at Daytona Beach (MWR, Connor); 43-52 kt at Ormond Beach (29.3N, 81.0W) (Connor). "At 
7:30am(EST) of August 30 the center of the disturbance then turning more toward the west was 
near the extreme northeastern Florida coast. The following description of the history of the 
storm as it affected the coast and mainland of Florida, is quoted from the report of Mr. Grady 
Norton, forecaster on duty at Jacksonville: The center of the storm passed inland on the east 
Florida coast moving in a northwesterly direction about 9am to 10am on August 30 in the 
vicinity of Ormond Beach, attended by gales of 50 to 60 miles per hour over a stretch of the 
coast extending roughly from New Smyrna to St. Augustine. The lowest pressure reported was 
29.38 inches (995mb), by the Coast Guard at the northern end of Daytona Beach and may not 
represent the lowest experienced. No lives were lost on this stretch of the coast, but 
considerable minor property damage occurred to communication lines and electric wires, and 
also to some buildings and other flimsy structures. A good many trees were blown down on 
wires and across highways, causing temporary delays in traffic. The storm was very small 
in diameter but rather intense for its size, and was remarkably persistent after passing 
inland. Although it gradually lost intensity, it caused some damage to power lines at Lake 
City, FL, more than 100 miles from where it entered land from the Atlantic, and heavy rains 
and squalls persisted on through the northwestern counties in Florida causing considerable 
damage by flooding and washing out of roads and bridges. As the storm went inland, exceptionally 
high tides were reported northward along the upper Florida and Georgia coasts” (MWR).  
“Tropical Cyclones in Florida - Aug 30-31 – Northeast coast – Minor – 15 sailors drowned Panama 
City” (“Minor” – winds <74 mph, pressure >996 mb – Dunn and Miller). “A tropical disturbance, 
very small in diameter, moved west-northwestward across the Florida coast about 9 a. m. of the 
30th in the vicinity of Ormond Beach, attended by gales of 50 to 60 miles per hour between 
New Smyrna and St. Augustine.  No lives were lost in this section, but considerable minor 
property damage occurred to communication lines and electric wires, and also some to buildings 
and flimsy structures.  Although this storm gradually lost intensity, it caused some damage to 
power lines at Lake City more than 100 miles inland from the Atlantic” (Florida Climatological 
Data).

August 31: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1015mb centered near 24.5N, 84.5W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a tropical depression with 30kt winds at 30.5N, 85.2W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning position of 30.5N, 85.0W with a pressure of 1013mb and in the evening at 
31.5N, 87W. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. Station highlights: 24 kt S at 
Apalachicola, FL (MWR, Connor).  “Heavy rains and squalls persisted through the 31st in the 
northwestern counties, resulting in considerable damage by the flooding and washing out of 
roads and bridges.  It is indicated that these heavy squalls caused the sinking of the SS Tarpon 
off Panama City with the loss of possibly 15 lives” (Florida Climatological Data).

September 1: HWM analyzes a trough but not a closed low at 12Z near southern Louisiana and 
Mississippi. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical depression with 25kt winds at 32.7N, 89.0W 
at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 33N, 88W with a pressure of 1011mb and 
in the evening at 34N, 90W. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. Station highlights: no 
gales or low pressures. "In Alabama, on September 1, heavy rains over the southern part of the 
State caused damage to crop and other property estimated in reports as amounting to possible 
millions of dollars” (MWR).

September 2: HWM does not analyze a closed low at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical 
depression with 25kt winds at 35.3N, 92.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows only gives a morning 
position of 36N, 92W and a pressure of 1010mb. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. 
Station highlights: 10 kt SE with 1011 mb at Memphis, TN at 12Z (HWM).

A tropical cyclone is analyzed to have formed on 24 August at 12Z (no change to the timing of 
genesis), as observations indicate that a closed low had formed near the Leeward Islands at that 
time.  Data was obtained from 21-23 August east of that location, but no closed circulation 
could be found.  It is possible that a weak closed circulation existed before that time, but even 
when the cyclone came into an area of more observational coverage on the 24th, it was weak.  
There were only a couple of observations with westerly wind components for the first four days 
from 24-27 August, though it is enough to keep the system in HURDAT those days.  The center is 
analyzed to have passed just north of the northernmost Leeward Islands on the 24th and 25th moving 
west-northwestward.  All track changes from the 24th through the 27th are 0.8 degrees or less.  
The intensity is lowered from 35 kt to 30 kt at 12-18Z on the 24th.  On the 25th, there were a 
couple of 30 kt observations and a 1007 mb pressure observed, so the 35 kt intensity listed in 
HURDAT originally is not changed.  The cyclone is analyzed to have become a tropical storm at 
00Z on the 25th (12 hours later than originally).  On the 26th and 27th, no changes are made to 
the intensities, though the limited observations available suggest that the system had weakened 
below tropical storm force intensity.  On the 28th, when the cyclone was in the Bahamas, it turned 
northwestward and moved in this direction before turning back to the west-northwest on the 30th 
right before it made landfall in northern Florida.  HURDAT originally showed a sharp 
north-northwestward turn on the 28th, but this kink is smoothed out, and the track adjustments 
are supported very well by observations.  The largest track adjustment implemented for the entire 
lifetime of the cyclone was a 1.6 degree east-southeastward adjustment at 12Z on 28 August.  After 
that, the cyclone is analyzed to have made a more gradual northwestward turn so that by 12Z on 
the 29th, there is virtually no change to the original HURDAT position.  On the 28th at 12Z, a 
ship plotted on the HWM map reported a 1005 mb pressure, but this pressure might be biased about 
~2 mb too low by analyzing its position relative to other ships on the August 27 and August 28 
HWM maps.  However, at 21Z on the 28th, the first gale was recorded in association with this 
cyclone – 35 kt.  The analyzed intensity of 25 kt at 12Z on the 27th is increased to the original 
HURDAT intensity of 35 kt at 06Z on the 28th.  Since a ship reported winds of 50 kt on the 29th 
at 23Z, no changes are made to the HURDAT intensity from 06Z on the 28th through 00Z on the 30th 
(when a 50 kt intensity is shown).  

The cyclone made landfall at 29.1N, 80.9W, near Daytona Beach, FL at 14Z on 30 August.  The highest 
wind observed was in the range of 43-52 kt at Ormond Beach (29.3N, 81.0W) and the lowest observed 
pressure was 995 mb at Daytona Beach (29.2N, 81.0W).  Commentary and observations indicate that 
although the 995 mb value may not have been a central pressure, it was likely slightly above the 
actual central pressure.  A 995 mb peripheral pressure yields winds of at least 52 kt according 
to the Brown et al. north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  Damage descriptions and impacts 
indicate that the cyclone was certainly a high-end tropical storm and might have been a minimal 
hurricane strength at landfall.  A 60 kt intensity is chosen for the 14Z landfall and for 12Z on 
the 30th (up from 50 kt originally).  A peak lifetime intensity of 60 kt is analyzed on 30 August 
from 06Z-14Z (an increase from the 50 kt peak in HURDAT originally from 00-12Z on the 30th).  
Although the cyclone came close to emerging over water into the Gulf of Mexico around 00-06Z on 
the 31st, it stayed over land.  Peak 5 min winds at Apalachicola were 24 kt S sometime on the 
31st and qualitative indications of heavy squalls continued on that date.  (Lowest pressure for 
the month at Apalachicola was 1011 mb on the 28th, not in association with this cyclone.)  Based 
upon the impacts over water, it now analyzed that the cyclone maintained tropical storm intensity 
through late on the 31st with these winds likely occurring only over the water.  Weakening to a 
tropical depression is now indicated for 18Z on the 31st, 18 hours after that shown originally.  
After that, the depression continued moving west-northwestward and then northwestward, traveling 
through southern Alabama, central Mississippi and Arkansas, where it was located on 2 September.  
The track is adjusted southeastward by slightly over half a degree from late on the 1st through 
the 2nd.  No intensity changes are made on the 1st, but the 25 kt intensity listed on the 2nd is 
lowered to 20 kt because the system was extremely weak and the highest observed wind that day was 
15 kt.  No changes are made to the timing of dissipation, which occurred after 18Z on 2 September, 
as the low became a weak open trough after that.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 4 – Revised in 2012
30315 09/09/1937 M= 6  4 SNBR= 668 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
30320 09/09*174 545  60    0*190 546  65    0*194 547  70    0*198 550  70    0*
30320 09/09*179 545  45    0*183 550  50    0*187 554  55    0*193 557  60    0*
            ***      **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30325 09/10*202 552  70    0*206 555  75    0*210 557  75    0*216 560  75    0*
30325 09/10*199 560  65    0*205 563  70    0*210 567  70    0*216 571  75    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **          ***  **          ***    

30330 09/11*223 565  80    0*230 570  80    0*238 575  80    0*248 580  80    0*
30330 09/11*223 575  80    0*231 580  80    0*240 585  80    0*251 591  80    0*
                ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

30335 09/12*259 586  80    0*267 590  85    0*277 595  85    0*295 606  85    0*
30335 09/12*262 596  80    0*274 600  85    0*287 604  85    0*301 610  80    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **

30340 09/13*315 620  80    0*332 631  75    0*350 640  75    0*374 647  70    0*
30340 09/13*316 619  75    0*332 629  70    0*350 638  65    0*374 646  60    0*
            *** ***  **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

30345 09/14*401 652  60    0*428 654  55    0*457 654  35    0*481 652  25    0*
30345 09/14*401 652  60    0E428 654  55    0E455 656  45    0E481 654  35    0*
                            *                **** ***  **     *    ***  **

30350 HR

Minor track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this tropical cyclone.  
A major change is made to add an extratropical phase at the end of the cyclone’s lifetime.  
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS 
ships database and Monthly Weather Review.

September 6-8: HWM does not analyze a closed low on any of these days.  HURDAT does not yet 
list a system on these days.  Ship highlights: 15 kt SSW with 1012 mb on the 6th at 12Z at 
12N, 46W (HWM); 25 kt NNE on the 6th at 23Z at 15.5N, 50.5W (COA); 20 kt S on the 7th at 03Z 
at 15.5N, 50.5W (COA); 30 kt ENE with 1013 mb on the 7th at 18Z at 18.5N, 54.5W (COA).  
No ships in the area on the 8th.  "As early as September 6 disturbed conditions existed in 
the vicinity of 14N, 44W, but it was not until the 9th that a more positive development 
was reported” (MWR).

September 9: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1000mb near 19.5N, 56.3W at 12Z. HURDAT lists 
this system as a hurricane with 70kt winds at 19.4N, 54.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives 
no position estimate because it is outside the map boundaries. Ship highlights: 30kt S with 
1004 mb at 19.0N, 55.0W at 12Z (MWR, HWM). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.

September 10: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1000mb near 21.5N, 57W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a hurricane with 75kt winds at 21.0N, 55.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track of 
Lows gives a morning position of 22N, 57W with a pressure of 997mb and in the evening near 
23N, 57.5W. Ship highlights: 45kt ESE with 1009mb at 20.5N, 53.5W at 00Z (COA); 50kt NNE 
with 995mb at 21.5N, 57.2W at 14Z (MWR); 35 kt ESE with 1005 mb at 22Z at 24.4N, 57.3W (MWR). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.

September 11: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1005mb near 23N, 59W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 80kt winds at 23.8N, 57.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the 
center in the morning near 23N, 58W and in the evening near 26.5N, 58.5W. Ship highlights: 
45kt NE with 1008mb at 25.5N, 59.5W at 12Z (COA); 35 kt ESE with 1010 mb at 18Z at 27.3N, 
59.7W (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "On the morning of 11th the storm 
center was approximately at 24N, 57.3W moving north-northwestward. During the remainder of the 
11th and through the 12th, on the night of which the storm passed east of Bermuda, little is 
known of the storm's intensity beyond that indicated by a few ships which reported moderate to 
fresh gales well outside the center. 

September 12: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1010mb near 30N, 61W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 85kt winds at 27.7N, 59.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the 
center in the morning near 29N, 59W and in the evening near 31N, 60.5W. Ship highlights: 30 kt 
ENE with 1010 mb at 00Z at 27.6N, 61.3W (COA); 30 kt ESE with 1014 mb at 12Z at 31.0N, 59.2W 
(HWM). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 

September 13: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1010mb centered just north of Bermuda near 
34N, 64W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 75kt winds at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning estimate of 35N, 63W with 992mb and in the evening near 39.5N, 65W. 
Ship highlights: 40kt N with 992 mb at 33.8N, 63.3W at 07Z (MWR); 40kt SSE around ~18Z near 
~38.9N, 62.3W (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.

September 14: HWM shows the system as an extratropical low with a short occluded front and 
extending warm and cold fronts with a pressure of at most 1000mb centered near 46N, 70.5W at 
12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 45.7N, 65.4W at 12Z. 
MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position of 46N, 65W with a pressure of 998mb and an 
evening position of 51N, 66W and continuing the system northward for two more days until it 
reaches 70N where it reaches a minimum low pressure of 991mb off the eastern coast of central 
Baffin Island. Ship highlights: 50kt SSW with 992mb at 43.3N, 64.8W at 05Z (MWR); 35-40 kt 
NE at 07Z near ~42.5N, 65.8W (MWR); 30kt NNW with 992mb at 42.8N, 65.8W at 09Z (MWR). Station 
highlights: 998mb at Eastport, ME (44.9N, 67.0W) at 12Z (MWR). "During the 13th and 14th the 
storm, then progressing almost due northward, showed little change in depth. At 8am of the 
14th the center, after crossing western Nova Scotia, passed near Eastport, Maine, where the 
barometer read 29.48 inches (998 mb). Thereafter the disturbance moved rapidly northward 
across New Brunswick and at 8pm of the 14th lay over the lower St. Lawrence Valley" (MWR).

September 15:  HWM shows a large complex extratropical low pressure system covering eastern Canada.

A tropical cyclone formed from an easterly wave that may have been located near the Cape Verde 
Islands on 4 September.  HURDAT originally began this system at 00Z on the 9th as a 60 kt 
tropical storm.  Additional data was obtained between that location and the African coast from 
4-8 September.  Although there is some evidence that at least a wave tracked westward at about 
6 degrees/day from 4-8 September from the Cape Verde Islands to the location on the 9th, along 
with a 10 kt SSW wind on the 6th and/or 7th, there is not nearly enough evidence of a closed 
circulation prior to the first point in HURDAT to extend the genesis backward in time.  A time 
series of the ship that reported the 10 kt SSW wind indicates it had just crossed the ITCZ 
moving from north to south and was likely not close to where a cyclone would have been at that 
time.  However, at least 3 separate ships show significant wind shifts on 6-7 September within 
5 degrees or less of where a system could have been, so there clearly was at least a strong 
tropical wave.  There were no ships within several hundred miles of where the developing system 
would have been located on the 8th of September.  On the 9th, a ship’s wind shifted from E at 
08Z with a 1006 mb pressure to 30 kt S at 12Z with a 1004 mb pressure.  Based mainly on that 
data, track changes as large as 0.8 degrees are implemented on the 9th.  A peripheral pressure 
of 1004 mb at 12Z on the 9th yields a wind speed greater than 39 kt according to the Brown et al. 
southern pressure-wind relationship.  The magnitude of the wind shift and pressure changes 
experienced by this ship during the 4-hour period indicates the ship was likely less than 1 degree 
from the center.  In fact, according to the path taken by the ship and the analyzed track, the ship 
passed about 20 nmi from the center at closest approach sometime between 08Z-10Z, and at 12Z, they 
are analyzed to be only 30 nmi apart.  Based on this, the HURDAT intensity is reduced by 15 kt 
from 00-12Z on 9 September.  A 55 kt intensity is analyzed for 12Z on the 9th (down from 70 kt 
originally).  The cyclone moved slowly north-northwestward from the 9th through the 11th, and 
it accelerated in the same direction late on the 12th and 13th.  It passed well east of Bermuda 
early on the 13th. On the 10th-11th, the positions are adjusted about 1 degree to the west of the 
original HURDAT positions, and on the 12th from 00-12Z, 1 degree northwestward track adjustments 
are implemented.  By the 13th, track changes are very tiny - 0.2 degrees or less.  The peak 
observation for the entire lifetime of the cyclone occurred on the 10th at 14Z – 50 kt NNE with 
995 mb from the ship Winamac at 21.5N, 57.2W.  A peripheral pressure of 995 mb yields winds 
greater than 56 kt according to the southern pressure-wind relationship.  The ship’s wind 
shifted from NNE at 14Z to 40 kt SSW at 16Z.  The minimum pressure value experienced by Winamac
is unknown, but the wind shifts experienced suggest the ship passed close to the center.  An 
intensity of 70 kt is analyzed beginning at 06Z on the 10th.  The cyclone is analyzed to have 
become a hurricane at 00Z on the 10th (18 hours later than originally).  HURDAT originally 
indicated that the cyclone continued to slowly strengthen to an 80 kt intensity by the 11th.  
The highest observed wind on the 11th is 45 kt and the lowest observed pressure was 1008 mb 
that day.  At 12Z on the 11th, 2 or 3 different ships reporting winds of 35-45 kt with a 
1008 mb pressure were located at distances of 75-105 nmi from the analyzed center.  A time 
series from one of these ships that reported once every 6 hours shows a rather large wind 
shift from ESE at 06Z to NE at 12Z to NNW at 18Z.  On the 12th, there are no observations 
of any gales or low pressures, and this is the day the original HURDAT shows the peak 
lifetime intensity of 85 kt.  The two ships on the 12th that recorded winds of 30 kt – one 
with 1010 mb and the other with 1014 mb – were 125 and 150 nmi from the analyzed center, 
respectively.  Because of the somewhat sparse nature of the observations, no changes are 
made to the intensity from 18Z on the 10th through 12Z on the 12th.  Thus the peak in intensity 
of 85 kt on the 12th is retained.  The next important observation occurred at 07Z on the 13th 
when a ship recorded 40 kt N with 992 mb at 33.8N, 63.3W.  A peripheral pressure of 992 mb 
indicates winds greater than 56 kt according to the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  
It is evident from observations on the 13th as well as on earlier days that this cyclone was 
small.  A 70 kt intensity is analyzed on the 13th at 06Z (down from 75 kt originally).  The 
hurricane is analyzed to have weakened to a tropical storm at 18Z on the 13th (6 hours earlier 
than originally).  On the 14th, the cyclone made landfall in Nova Scotia at about 08Z; however, 
prior to landfall, ships south of there near the center recorded some important observations 
between 05Z-09Z.  The ship Darcoila recorded 50 kt SSW with 992 mb at 05Z at 43.3N, 64.8W and 
the Ship Cryus reported a max wind of 40 kt and a min pressure of 992 mb as the winds shifted 
from NE to NNW between 07Z-09Z near 42.8N, 65.8W.  Due to the system becoming baroclinic with 
well-defined frontal boundaries, it is analyzed that the cyclone became extratropical at 06Z 
on the 14th.  HURDAT previously did not list an extratropical phase so the addition is a major 
change.  No changes are made to the positions or intensities on the 14th from 00-06Z.  At 12Z, 
the cyclone was located between Eastport, ME and Halifax, NS, but closer to Eastport, where a 
998 mb pressure was observed at 12Z.  The timing of dissipation (after 18Z on the 14th) is not 
changed as the cyclone either merged with a frontal system or elongated and was no longer 
closed after that time. 

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 5 (new to HURDAT) – Added in 2012

30351 09/10/1937 M= 3  5 SNBR=     NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
30352 09/10*  0   0   0    0*313 655  35    0*325 664  40    0*335 675  45    0*
30353 09/11*348 686  50    0*360 699  50    0*372 709  55    0*384 707  60    0*
30354 09/12E409 690  60    0E437 660  50    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
30354 TS

HWM, MWR, and COADS indicate that a tropical storm, previously undocumented in HURDAT, 
occurred in the northwestern Atlantic from 10-12 September.

September 9: HWM analyzes an E-W frontal boundary along 31N between 57W-82W.  HURDAT does 
not list this system.  No gales or low pressures.  “On the evening of the 9th a moderate 
cyclonic circulation was indicated to the southwestward of Bermuda” (MWR).

September 10: HWM analyzes an elongated, closed low of at most 1010 mb centered in the general 
vicinity of 33.5N, 65.5W with a warm front extending eastward from the low and a cold front 
extending southwestward from the low.  The MWR tracks of lows shows a 00Z position near 28N, 68W 
and a 12Z position near 31N, 67.5W with a 1006 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 35 kt E at 16Z at 
35.5N, 64.5W (COA); 45 kt NE with 998 mb at 21Z at 35.5N, 68.5W (COA).  Land/station highlights: 
25 kt S with 1008 mb at 12Z at Bermuda (HWM).

September 11: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1000 mb centered near 39N, 71W with an occluded 
front extending from the low to a triple point near 41N, 68W.  A warm front extends eastward from 
the triple point and a dissipating cold front extends southeastward from the triple point, and 
then southward.  HWM analyzes another closed low centered near 44N, 81W of at most 1000 mb.  The 
MWR tracks of low shows a 00Z position near 33N, 69W and a 12Z position near 37.5N, 71W with a 
1002 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 45 kt S with 997 mb at 00Z at 34.5N, 67.5W (COA); 45 kt N with 
994 mb at 12Z at 37.3N, 72.3W (COA); 50 kt W with 988 mb at 17Z at 36.4N, 70.8W (MWR); 50 kt SE 
with 990 mb at 21Z at 39.5N, 68.5W (COA).  “The center traveled first toward the north-northwest, 
then northward till by the morning of the 11th it was a well-developed low near the 70th meridian 
in the latitude of Cape May, N.J.” (MWR).

September 12: HWM analyzes a single, closed, elongated low centered in the general vicinity of 50N, 
67W, suggesting that the two lows mentioned in the September 11 paragraph had merged.  This low had 
an array of occluded, stationary, warm, and cold fronts in its vicinity, according to the HWM analysis.  
The MWR tracks of lows shows a 00Z position near 42.5N, 69.8W and a 12Z position near 50N, 66W with 
a 992 mb pressure.  Ship highlights: 50 kt SSW with 986 mb at 02Z at 40.3N, 67.6W (MWR); 40 kt SSE 
with 993 mb at 03Z at 41.6N, 66.2W (MWR); 35 kt S with 1002 mb at 04Z at 41.5N, 65.5W (COA).

Early on 10 September, a low originated from a dissipating frontal boundary, and it is estimated that 
a tropical cyclone formed at 06Z on 10 September south of Bermuda.  Data from a ship at 21Z on the 10th 
and 00Z on the 11th indicate the compact nature of the cyclone and that any temperature gradient across 
the low was less than 5 degree F.  This ship also measured winds of 45 kt coincident with a 997 mb 
pressure at 00Z on the 11th.  A peripheral pressure of 997 mb yields winds greater than 49 kt according 
to the Brown et al. (2006) north of 25N pressure wind relationship, and greater than 53 kt according to 
the Landsea et al. (2004) north of 35N pressure-wind relationship.  A 35 kt intensity is analyzed for 
06Z on the 10th increasing to 50 kt by 00Z on the 11th.  The tropical storm was moving northwestward 
from genesis until its recurvature point, which occurred at 12Z on 11 September south of New England.  
At 12Z on the 11th, a ship west of the center measured 45 kt N with 994 mb, and temperatures across this 
compact cyclone were still isothermal.  At 17Z on the 11th, a ship recorded 50 kt W with 988 mb.  A 
peripheral pressure of 988 mb yields winds greater than 65 kt according to the north of 35N pressure-wind 
relationship.  Since the highest wind recorded during the lifetime of this cyclone was 50 kt and since 
the structure was more of a subtropical cyclone and that it was in the process of becoming extratropical, 
a 60 kt intensity is analyzed for 18Z on the 11th.  As the cyclone moved northeastward, staying about 
100 nmi offshore of Nantucket, it is analyzed that the cyclone became extratropical at 00Z on the 12th 
east of New England with a 60 kt intensity.  Another extratropical low approaching from the west quickly 
dragged the extratropical remnant of the tropical cyclone into its circulation on 12 September.  The 
analyzed final point for the cyclone before it was absorbed is at 06Z on 12 September as a 50 kt 
extratropical low at 43.7N, 66.0W.  If satellite imagery were available in 1937, it is likely that 
this system would have been classified as a subtropical cyclone.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 6 (originally Storm 5) – Revised in 2012
30355 09/13/1937 M= 7  5 SNBR= 669 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
30355 09/13/1937 M= 8  6 SNBR= 669 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0      
                    *  *                

30360 09/13*  0   0   0    0*163 560  40    0*170 570  40    0*173 573  45    0*
30360 09/13*  0   0   0    0*170 564  40    0*173 568  40    0*175 572  45    0*
                             *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

30365 09/14*176 575  50    0*179 578  55    0*184 580  65    0*191 583  70    0*
30365 09/14*178 575  50    0*182 578  55    0*187 580  65    0*193 582  75    0*
            ***              ***              ***              *** ***  **

30370 09/15*198 583  75    0*204 582  80    0*210 578  85    0*214 567  85    0*
30370 09/15*200 579  90  969*207 577 110  951*214 574 110  955*217 567 110    0*
            *** ***  **  *** *** *** ***  *** *** *** ***  *** ***     ***

30375 09/16*218 556  90    0*220 548  90    0*223 540  95    0*236 527  95    0*
30375 09/16*218 556 105    0*219 544 105    0*221 533 105    0*231 526 100    0*
                    ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***      *** *** ***

30380 09/17*252 522  95    0*264 521  95    0*277 520  95    0*292 519  95    0*
30380 09/17*247 521 100    0*263 518 100    0*277 515  95    0*292 512  95    0*
            *** *** ***      *** *** ***          ***              ***

30385 09/18*312 515  95    0*335 511  90    0*360 503  90    0*387 491  85    0*
30385 09/18*311 509  95    0*334 503  95    0*358 495  95    0*383 489  90    0*
            *** ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30390 09/19*411 479  80    0*432 468  75    0E452 458  70    0E467 450  65    0*
30390 09/19*408 482  90    0*433 475  85    0*457 465  80  967E475 450  75    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **  *** ***      **

The 20th is new to HURDAT
30392 09/20E495 415  65    0E515 380  55    0E535 347  50    0E555 313  50    0*

30395 HR

Minor track changes and major intensity changes are analyzed for this hurricane.  
Major changes are also analyzed to the dissipation of this cyclone.  Evidence for 
these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ships 
database, and Monthly Weather Review.

September 12:  HWM shows a broad trough east of the Lesser Antilles.  
No gales or low pressures.

September 13: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1010mb centered near 18N, 57W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 17.0N, 57.0W at 12Z. 
MWR's Track of Lows does not give an estimate on the system until the evening of the 
14th. Ship highlights: 20 kt NNW with 1011 mb at 12Z at 19.0N, 58.5W (HWM). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 

September 14: HWM indicates with uncertainty that there is a closed low of at most 1010mb 
centered near 20N, 57.5W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 65kt winds 
at 18.4N, 58.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives an evening position estimate at 19N, 57W. 
Ship highlights: 35kt NE with 1007mb at 21.5N, 59.5W at 16Z (COA); 60 kt SE with 1001 mb at 
20.2N, 57.3W at 17Z (MWR); 40kt NE with 973mb at 20.0N, 58.0W at 23Z (MWR). Station highlights: 
no gales or low pressures. "A tropical storm of near hurricane intensity when earliest 
reported appeared near midday of the 14th near 20N, 57W” (MWR).

September 15: HWM indicates a deepening system with at most 1005 mb near 21N, 56.5W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 85kt winds at 21.0N, 57.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning estimate of 20.5N, 57.5W with a pressure of 958mb and in the evening 
at 22N, 57W. Ship highlights: 40kt ENE with 955mb at 5Z at 20.6N, 57.8W (MWR); 30kt NE with 
958mb at 21.5N, 57.5W at 11Z (MWR); 35 kt NE with 1005 mb at 22.0N, 58.0W at 12Z (HWM). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "The storm appeared to be moving slowly during 
the [15th], at first in a northerly, then in a northeasterly to east-northeasterly direction." 

September 16: HWM shows a closed low of at most 995mb near 21.5N, 54.3W at 12Z. HURDAT lists 
this system as a hurricane with 95kt winds at 22.3N 54.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a 
morning position of 22.5N, 53W and in the evening at 24N, 52W. Ship highlights: 60kt NE with 
996mb at 22.5N, 54.0W at 12Z (MWR/HWM); 45kt SE with 1013mb at 27.0N, 47.5W at 12Z (COA). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "At the morning observation of the 16th no 
very low barometer was in evidence, but near hurricane winds continued. During the afternoon 
of the 16th the storm took a north-northeast course” (MWR).

September 17: HWM shows a closed low with a pressure of at most 995mb near 28N, 51W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 95kt winds at 27.7N, 52.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows places the center in the morning at 27N, 51W and in the evening at 30N, 50W. Ship 
highlights: 60-70kt SE-NE-NW with 969mb at 26.8N, 51.7W at around 9Z (MWR); 40kt NE with 985mb 
at 27.5N, 52.0W at 12Z (MWR); 50kt SSW with 1005 mb at 25.8N, 49.1W at 12Z (COA); 35kt SE with 
1013mb at 27.8N, 45.7W at 18Z (COA); 35kt S with 1015mb at 30.5N, 45.5W at 23Z (COA). Station 
highlights: no gales or low pressures. "Early in the morning of the 17th, according to a 
report received at Bermuda, the Norwegian motorship Teddy passed very close to the center, 
in about 26 deg 50’ N., 51 deg 40’ W., with barometer 28.60  and winds of force 11 to 12 
shifting from southeast to northeast and northwest, with heavy rain and seas.  Later, at 
morning observation of the 17th, the French S.S. Carimare, near 27 ½ deg N., 51 ½ deg W., 
had a north wind of force 9, barometer 29.50, and close by to the eastward a ship (name 
not reported) had a gale of like force from the northeast, barometer 29.09.  The storm at 
that time was centered close by and moving rapidly northward” (MWR).

September 18: HWM shows a closed low of at most 995mb near 35N, 51W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 90kt winds at 36.0N, 50.3W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a 
morning position of 35N, 49.5W with a pressure of 966mb and in the evening near 40.5N, 48W. 
Ship highlights: 70kt NNW with 966mb at 34.2N, 50.0W at 9Z (MWR); 35kt W with 995mb at 33.8N, 
50.3W at 12Z (COA); 65kt SE with 1003mb at 35.5N, 47.9W at 12Z (COA/HWM); 45kt SE with 1007mb 
at 39.1N, 47.8W at 12Z (COA); 70kt SE with 1000mb around ~15Z in the vicinity of ~35.0N, 48.0W 
(MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "During the 18th the cyclone appeared to 
have gathered energy. By night of the 18th the hurricane, then moving on a north-northeast 
course was centered near 40N, 49W” (MWR).

September 19: HWM shows a large system with a pressure of at most 985mb at 12Z. HURDAT lists 
this system as an extratropical storm with 70kt winds at 45.2N, 45.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track of 
Lows gives a morning estimate of 44N, 45W with a pressure of 966mb and in the evening at 49N, 
41W. Ship highlights: 60 kt NW with 985 mb at 12Z at 44.0N, 45.8W (HWM); center fix at 1337Z 
at 46.3N, 46.0W with 967 mb central pressure (MWR); 70 kt NW after 1337Z near ~46.3N, 46.0W 
(MWR); 50kt SSE with 992mb at 46.7N, 40.4W at 14Z (MWR); 50kt SE with 985mb [pressure biased 
~15 mb too low?] at 47.5N, 40.5W at 19Z (COA); 70kt SSE in the vicinity of ~47.5N, 40.5W at 
21Z (MWR); 25kt SSW with 980mb at 2230Z and 60 kt SW after 2230Z in the vicinity of ~47.5N, 
40.5W (MWR); 50kt WSW with 989mb at 47.5N, 40.5W at 23Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales 
or low pressures. "The intensity of the storm on the 19th is well shows by excellent special
reports furnished by the American steamer City of Newport News, Capt. Robert L. Wright, to the 
United States hydrographic Office, and the Dutch steamer Bilderdyk, Capt. CHP Coster, to the 
United States Weather Bureau. The SS City of Newport News, bound from Havre toward Norfolk, 
after encountering severe gales on the eastern side of the hurricane during the morning, ran 
into the calm center at 46.3N, 46W at 920am, barometer 28.65 (967 mb). 'We were treated,' said 
Captain Wright, 'to a perfect exhibition of the old story - eye of the storm- the wind dropped 
from force 11 to a dead calm, the sea suddenly lost its strength, and long and confused swells 
continued running from the south-southwest. At that time the sun came out blindingly -a sickly 
yellow- and occasional patches of blue sky appeared momentarily around its vicinity. This 
condition lasted for 18 minutes.' Thereafter, the storm passed rapidly into high northern 
latitudes and on the 22d was central near Iceland” (MWR).

September 20: HWM analyzed a closed low of at most 1005 mb centered near 54.5N, 38.5W with 
an occluded front extending from 53N, 37W to 49N, 33W, becoming a cold front at 46N, 34W, 
extending to 44N, 37W to 44N, 45W.  HURDAT no longer lists a system on this day. MWR’s tracks 
of low shows a 12Z estimate near 52N, 37W and an evening estimate near 56N, 30W.  Ship 
highlights: 35 kt WNW with 1003 mb at 03Z at 47.5N, 41.5W (COA); 25 kt E with 983 mb at 07Z 
at 53.5N, 37.1W (COA); 35 kt SW at 12Z at 53.5N, 34.2W (COA); 30 kt SSE with 978 mb at 18Z at 
56.5N, 30.2W (COA); 35 kt SW at 18Z at 53.5N, 30.0W (COA).

According to the original HURDAT, a 40 kt tropical storm formed on 13 September at 06Z east of 
the Leeward Islands.  Additional data was obtained between that location and the African coast 
from 7-12 September.  The data indicates that although the cyclone might have existed earlier, 
there is not enough evidence to extend the track back in time.  This cyclone traveled slowly from 
13-15 September and it recurved around 18Z on the 14th.  From the 15th to the 16th the cyclone 
moved east-northeastward, and after that it accelerated north-northeastward until it was located 
east of Newfoundland on the 19th.  The largest track change from 06Z on the 13th through 12Z on 
the 19th is only 0.8 degrees, and most of the changes are less than half a degree.  Observations 
indicate that the cyclone intensified on the 14th and early on the 15th.  The ship California 
Express, which reported an observation every 6 hours from 17Z on the 14th through 11Z on the 
15th, was inside the radius of maximum winds for 3 of its 4 reports – from 23Z on the 14th through 
11Z on the 15th.  The 4 reports (every 6 hours) from the ship were as follows): 60 kt with 1001 
mb; 40 kt with 973 mb; 40 kt with 955 mb; 30 kt with 958 mb.  No more reports are available from 
the ship after the last report.  The pressure drop of 46 mb in 12 hours along with stronger winds 
being reported with the higher pressure indicates that these pressure observations are real and 
are not likely to be biased.  (It is of note, though, that the MWR [pg. 333] mentions a ship (the 
Glendene) - supposedly within 0.5 degrees of the California Express - reported 1005 mb at the same 
time.  This is difficult to reconcile at face value.  However, navigational errors in the 1930s 
were still quite high, especially over the open Atlantic like the hurricane was for most of its 
lifetime.  Thus it is likely that one or both ships may be in position error by 50 or even 
100 nm.  If the ships are in actuality farther apart, then there is no discrepancy.)  Other 
ships on subsequent days (17th and 18th) reported pressures in the 960s with hurricane force 
winds, which further substantiate the reports from this ship.  It is assumed that the ship was 
located well inside the RMW and very near the center at all of the last 3 of its reports.  
The 10 kt per mb rule is used to determine the central pressures.  Central pressures of 969, 
951, and 955 mb are added to HURDAT at 00, 06, and 12Z on 15 September.  The central pressures 
of 969 and 951 mb equal 92 and 112 kt, respectively, according to the intensifying subset of the 
Brown et al. southern pressure-wind relationship.  Although the cyclone was moving slow, it may 
have been smaller than average.  Intensities of 90 and 110 kt are chosen for 00 and 06Z on the 
15th (up from 75 and 80 kt originally – a major change at 06Z).  No change is made to the time 
the cyclone became a hurricane (12Z on the 14th).  A 955 mb central pressure at 12Z on the 15th 
equals 106 kt according to the southern pressure-wind relationship.  The analyzed peak intensity 
of 110 kt is maintained through 18Z on the 15th.  Major intensity increases of 25-30 kt are 
analyzed from 06-18Z on the 15th.  It is noted that despite the low pressures and possible 
very strong pressure gradients there are no reports of hurricane-force winds from the ships 
on 15 September.  On the 17th at 09Z, a ship recorded winds of 60-70 kt, and the minimum 
pressure experienced by the ship was 969 mb.  The observations and commentary suggests that 
this ship passed close to, but not through the center.  A 969 mb peripheral pressure yields 
winds greater than 86 kt according to the north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  24 hours 
later, a ship at 34.2N, 50.0W recorded hurricane force simultaneously with a 966 mb pressure, 
so the central pressure was likely somewhat lower.  A 966 mb peripheral pressure yields winds 
greater than 89 kt and greater than 85 kt according to the north of 25N Brown et al. and north 
of 35N Landsea et al. pressure-wind relationships, respectively.  At all times on the 17th 
and 18th, the original HURDAT intensity is either kept the same or increased by 5 kt, and this 
is due to the gradual weakening shown in the revised intensity, which is supported by observations.  
HURDAT originally listed that cyclone become extratropical at 12Z on the 19th, but available 
observations indicate that the strongest winds were still located with the low pressure pretty 
close to the center, and there is little evidence of a temperature gradient by 12Z.  Extratropical 
transition is delayed by 6 hours to 18Z on the 19th.  A central pressure of 967 mb with calm winds 
was observed by a ship around 1320-1337Z on the 19th near 46.3N, 46.0W.  A central pressure of 
967 mb is added to HURDAT at 12Z on the 19th.  This value equals 85 kt according to the Landsea 
et al. north of 35N pressure-wind relationship.  Hurricane force winds were observed by two 
different ships on the 19th – one around 14Z and the other around 21Z.  An 80 kt intensity is 
chosen for 12Z on the 19th (up from 70 kt originally), and a 75 kt intensity is analyzed at 18Z 
(up from 65 kt originally).  HURDAT originally listed a final position at 18Z on 19 September as 
a 65 kt extratropical cyclone.  Observations indicate that the cyclone was still closed on the 
20th, so the track is extended for 24 hours until 18Z on the 20th – a major change.  Although 
strong winds, low pressures, and a partial circulation were still present on the 21st, there is 
no evidence of a closed circulation on the northeast side; instead the system opened into a 
sharp trough.  The new final position at 18Z on 20 September is southeast of Greenland as a 
50 kt extratropical cyclone. 

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 7 (originally Storm 6) – Revised in 2012

30400 09/16/1937 M= 6  6 SNBR= 670 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                     
30400 09/16/1937 M= 6  7 SNBR= 670 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
                       *

30405 09/16*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*210 928  35    0*224 929  35    0*
30405 09/16*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*231 942  35    0*235 937  35    0*
                                              *** ***          *** ***

30410 09/17*234 928  35    0*241 926  40    0*247 923  40    0*251 921  40    0*
30410 09/17*239 933  35    0*243 930  40    0*247 926  40    0*251 922  40    0*
            *** ***          *** ***              ***              ***

30415 09/18*255 919  40    0*261 915  40    0*266 911  40    0*270 907  40    0*
30415 09/18*255 919  45    0*261 916  45    0*266 913  50    0*270 909  50    0*
                     **          ***  **          ***  **          ***  **

30420 09/19*274 904  40    0*278 901  40    0*281 899  40    0*286 893  40    0*
30420 09/19*274 904  50    0*279 901  45    0*285 898  45    0*291 893  40 1002*
                     **      ***      **      *** ***  **      ***         ****

30425 09/20*291 883  40    0*294 868  40    0*295 855  40    0*295 849  40    0*
30425 09/20*293 883  40    0*294 871  40    0*296 859  35    0*298 851  35    0*
            ***                  ***          *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30430 09/21*296 843  35    0*300 834  30    0*303 826  20    0*297 818  15    0*
30430 09/21*299 843  30    0*300 834  25    0*301 826  20    0*301 818  20    0*
            ***      **               **      ***              ***      **
30435 TS

U.S. Landfalls:
9/19/1937 – 18Z – 29.1N, 89.3W – 40 kt
9/20/1937 – 16Z – 29.7N, 85.4W – 35 kt

Note: The TC made a 3rd landfall as a 30 kt tropical depression on 9/21/1937 at 04Z 
at 30.0N, 83.8W.

Major track changes and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this tropical storm.  
Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS 
ships database, Monthly Weather Review, Dunn and Miller (1960) and Connor (1956).

September 15: HWM does not analyze any features of interest in the Gulf of Mexico on 
this date. HURDAT starts this system at 12Z on the 16th.  No gales or low pressures.

September 16: HWM does not analyze a closed low on this day. HURDAT lists this system 
as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 21.0N, 92.8W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places 
the center in the morning at 21N, 93W and in the evening at 22N, 93W. Ship highlights: 
30 kt E with 1008 mb at 22Z at 25.5N, 93.5W (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low 
pressures. "Somewhat disturbed weather conditions occurred over the southwestern part 
of the Gulf of Mexico on September 16, with slight lowering of pressure and evidence of 
a cyclonic circulation. The center of the depression was near 21N, 93W in the morning 
and about three degrees farther north 12 hours later” (MWR).

September 17: HWM shows maritime tropical conditions at the end of a stationary front in 
the middle of Gulf of Mexico with no closed low in the area. HURDAT lists this system as 
a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 24.7N, 92.3W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows places the 
center in the morning at 23.5N, 92.5W and in the evening at 25N, 92.5W. Ship highlights: 
30 kt E with 1009 mb at 06Z at 25.5N, 93.5W (COA); 25 kt SSE with 1009 mb at 18Z at 
24.5N, 90.5W (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "The disturbance 
moved slowly in a north-northeasterly direction with little general change in energy 
during the 17th and at 6pm EST, was central at approximately 25.5N, 92W, but the 
weather was unsettled over much of the northwestern Gulf" (MWR).

September 18: HWM shows a broad closed low of at most 1010mb centered near 25N, 92.5W at 
12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 26.6N, 91.1W at 12Z. 
MWR's Track of Lows places the center in the morning at 26.5N, 92W and in the evening at 
28N, 91W. Ship highlights: 50kt NE with 1007mb at 26.9N, 91.6W at 16Z (MWR/Connor); 
30 kt S with 1007 mb at 18Z at 27.3N, 90.6W (COA); 20 kt S with 1006 mb at 23Z at 26.1N, 
90.3W (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.

September 19: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1005 mb just south-southwest of the mouth 
of the Mississippi River near 27.0N, 91.0W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical 
storm with 40kt winds at 28.1N, 89.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position 
estimate of 28.5N, 90.0W and a pressure of 1005mb and in the evening near 29.5N, 89W. Ship 
highlights: 25 kt NE with 1006 mb at 00Z at 28.6N, 91.1W (COA); 35kt SE with 1006mb at 28N, 
89W at 1Z (MWR/Connor); 35 kt NE at 06Z at 28.5N, 92.5W (COA); 20kt SE with 1003 mb at 28.9N, 
89.1W at 12Z (COA); 25 kt WSW with 1005 mb at 22Z at 28.5N, 88.5W (COA). Station highlights: 
1008 mb at New Orleans at 12Z (MWR); 36kt (NNW?) with 1004mb at Port Eads (29.0N, 89.2W) at 
2130Z (MWR). "On the 18th and 19th the region was more generally disturbed and several ships 
in the northern Gulf reported winds of force 7 on both dates. The wind at Port Eads on the 
19th veered from south at 7:30am through west at 1:30pm to the north at 4pm. An incomplete 
wind velocity record at Port Eads gives a 5-minute maximum of 34 miles per hour at 3:28pm 
and an extreme velocity of 41 at 3:32pm, both on the [19th]. Winds at Pensacola were highest 
on the 19th, with a maximum of 28mph from the south” (MWR).

September 20: HWM shows a closed isobar of 1010 mb near 27.5N, 87W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 29.5N, 85.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives 
a morning estimate of 30N, 87.5W with a pressure of 1010mb and in the evening at 30N, 85W. 
Ship highlights: 15 kt NNE with 1006 mb at 00Z at 29.3N, 88.6W (COA); 25 kt WSW with 1009 mb 
at 00Z at 28.2N, 87.9W (COA). Station highlights: Gale NE at Port St. Joe (29.8N, 85.2W) 
(Connor); 26 kt S (max w) at Apalachicola (29.7N, 85.0W) at 1028Z (MWR); 1009 mb (min p) at 
Apalachicola at 1930Z (MWR/Connor). "The depression moved in a general easterly direction across 
the extreme upper part of the eastern Gulf during the later 19th and the 20th" (MWR).  “Tropical 
Cyclones in Florida – Sep 20-21 – Apalachicola – Minor” (“Minor” – winds <74 mph, pressure 
>996 mb – Dunn and Miller).

September 21: HWM shows the west end of a cold front located near the northeast corner of Florida 
with no closed low analyzed. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical depression with 20kt winds at 
30.3N, 82.6W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 30N, 82.5W with a pressure 
of 1010mb. Ship highlights: no gales or low pressures. Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 
"and [the system] disintegrated over northern Florida on the 21st. The average rate of movement 
along the entire track was about 9 miles per hour. No damage of importance resulted from the 
disturbance, although some injury was done to highways from the heavy rains south of Tallahassee” (MWR).

A tropical cyclone formed in the eastern Bay of Campeche on 16 September (no change to the timing of 
genesis in HURDAT).  Data was obtained for the 15th of September and there are some weak westerly 
winds from a ship and two Mexican stations, but there is not enough evidence that a tropical cyclone 
formed by then to begin the system earlier.  A major change in location to the northwest of the 
initial position is necessitated by available observations.  Measurements near the center are sparse 
on the 16th and the first 30 kt wind was observed early on the 17th along with evidence that the 
central pressure may have been around 1005 mb.  Therefore, there is not enough evidence to decrease 
the 35-40 kt intensity shown in HURDAT originally on the 16th and 17th, so no changes are made to 
the intensity those two days.  The cyclone moved north-northeastward on the 16th and 17th.  It 
approached the mouth of the Mississippi River on 19 September.  While over the Gulf of Mexico, the 
largest track change from the 16th-18th other than at the first three points is only 0.4 degrees.  
Regarding the intensity changes, a 50 kt wind was recorded from a ship at 16Z on the 18th.  
Observations a day later indicate the intensity was weaker than 50 kt by the time it was near 
Louisiana.  A peak intensity of 50 kt is analyzed from 12Z on the 18th to 00Z on the 19th (up from 
a peak intensity of 40 kt originally from 06Z on the 17th through 18Z on the 20th).  The original 
HURDAT track showed the center of the cyclone making an east-northeastward turn on the 19th, 
passing south of the southeastern tip of Louisiana and then heading just north of due east, staying 
just south of Apalachicola, FL on the 20th, and finally making its only landfall near the Big Bend 
of Florida early on the 21st.  Important changes have been made to this track.  Observations from 
Port Eads, LA on the 19th and Apalachicola, FL on the 20th indicate that the center of the tropical 
cyclone passed just north of both of those stations.  Therefore, the track is adjusted northward 
and it is analyzed that the center of the tropical storm made landfalls near Port Eads, LA and near 
Apalachicola, FL – both as a tropical storm.  Port Eads, LA recorded a maximum 1-minute wind of 
36 kt and a minimum pressure of 1004 mb (observations not necessarily simultaneous).  Observations 
from Port Eads as well as ship data from 6 hours before landfall indicate that the central 
pressure at the 18Z/19th landfall was 1002 mb +/- 2 mb.  This amount of certainty in the central 
pressure value is small enough to add in a central pressure of 1002 mb into HURDAT at 18Z on the 
19th.  A 1002 mb central pressure equals 40 kt according to the Brown et al. (2006) north of 25N 
pressure-wind relationship.  A 40 kt intensity is analyzed for the landfall in Louisiana (no change 
to original HURDAT intensity at 18Z on the 19th).  After the brief Louisiana landfall, the cyclone 
moved back over water.  It made its 2nd U.S. landfall on the 20th at 16Z at 29.7N, 85.4W (just west 
of Apalachicola) as a 35 kt tropical storm.  Port St. Joe, FL, which is located just NW and very 
near Apalachicola recorded tropical storm force winds from the NE on the 20th.  There is evidence 
that the center passed just north of Apalachicola, where a maximum wind of 26 kt S and a minimum 
pressure of 1009 mb were recorded.  This indicates the cyclone was weakening before landfall 
occurred.  A 35 kt intensity is analyzed for this landfall that occurred at 16Z on the 20th.  
A 35 kt intensity is analyzed from 12 and 18Z on the 20th (down from 40 kt originally at both 
times).  Still moving eastward, the cyclone briefly emerged back over the Gulf of Mexico around 
22Z on the 20th before making its final landfall near the Big Bend of Florida around 04Z on the 
21st.  There is evidence that the cyclone continued to steadily weaken from the 19th through the 
21st.  A 30 kt intensity is analyzed for 00Z on the 21st (down from 35 kt originally), which is 
the point before this final landfall.  Therefore, the last landfall is analyzed to have occurred 
as a tropical depression.  The depression is analyzed to have dissipated near Jacksonville, FL 
after 18Z on the 21st (no change to the timing of dissipation).

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 8 (originally Storm 7) – Revised in 2012
30440 09/20/1937 M= 9  7 SNBR= 671 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
30440 09/20/1937 M= 9  8 SNBR= 671 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                       *

30445 09/20*  0   0   0    0*152 414  60    0*153 439  60    0*159 452  65    0*
30445 09/20*  0   0   0    0*152 433  65    0*155 445  70    0*163 456  70    0*
                                 ***  **      *** ***  **      *** ***  **

30450 09/21*165 463  70    0*172 473  70    0*179 482  70    0*187 490  75    0*
30450 09/21*173 466  70    0*184 476  70    0*195 485  70    0*205 495  75    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  

30455 09/22*196 498  75    0*208 509  80    0*220 520  80    0*230 528  80    0*
30455 09/22*214 504  75    0*222 513  80    0*230 521  80    0*236 527  80    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***

30460 09/23*240 533  80    0*247 536  85    0*255 539  85    0*266 542  85    0*
30460 09/23*242 532  80    0*248 535  85    0*256 537  85    0*266 539  85    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***              ***

30465 09/24*278 546  85    0*288 550  85    0*300 555  85    0*315 563  85    0*
30465 09/24*278 542  85    0*289 548  85    0*301 555  85    0*315 564  85    0*
                ***          *** ***          ***                  ***

30470 09/25*332 575  85    0*347 587  85    0*363 600  85    0*385 612  85    0*
30470 09/25*332 576  85    0*349 589  85    0*366 602  85    0*388 615  80    0*
                ***          *** ***          *** ***          *** ***  **

30475 09/26E408 624  80    0E423 630  80    0E438 631  75    0E463 623  70    0*
30475 09/26*408 627  75    0E423 636  70    0E438 632  65    0E461 623  60    0*
           *    ***  **          ***  **          ***  **      ***      **

30480 09/27E488 587  65    0E505 565  60    0E522 542  50    0E544 520  40    0*
30480 09/27E484 596  55    0E510 565  50    0E540 530  45    0E575 495  40    0*
            *** ***  **      ***      **     **** ***  **     **** ***  

30485 09/28E568 497  35    0E594 473  35    0E620 450  35    0*  0   0   0    0*
30485 09/28E600 475  35    0E622 465  35    0E640 460  35    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          *** ***
30490 HR

Minor track changes (while a tropical cyclone) and minor intensity changes are analyzed 
for this hurricane.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather Maps 
Series, the COADS ships database and Monthly Weather Review.

September 20: HWM shows no signs of a closed circulation at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a 
tropical storm with 60kt winds at 15.3N, 43.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows does not have the 
system enter themap until the 23d. Ship highlights: 50kt SE with 1002mb at 18.1N, 44.2W at 12Z 
(MWR); 60kt SW with 998mb at 14N, 43W at 13Z (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 
"Radio reports from shipsin low latitudes early on the 20th showed the existence of an already 
well-developed storm of considerable extent with center in approximately 15N, 44W” (MWR).

September 21: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1010mb with thunderstorms to the north of the 
system centered near 21.5N, 53W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 70kt winds 
at 17.9N, 48.2W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 30 kt SE with 1010 mb at 13Z at 23.0N, 49.0W (MWR). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. 

September 22: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1005mb with thunderstorms on the eastern side of 
the system centered near 22N, 54W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a hurricane with 80kt winds 
at 22.0N, 52.0W at 12Z. Ship highlights: 50kt NW with 988mb at 22.4N, 52.7W at 6Z (MWR); 35kt W 
with 1004mb at 21.5N, 54.0W at 12Z (MWR); 40 kt NW with 992 mb at 12Z at 22.5N, 52.5W (MWR). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "On the morning of the 22d reports from the French 
steamer Marigot and another vessel, unknown, located the center with closer definiteness, and 
showed that the storm was moving in a northwesterly direction” (MWR).

September 23: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1000mb at 26N, 52.5W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 85kt winds at 25.5N, 53.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning 
position of 26N, 54W and in the evening at 27.5N, 55W. Ship highlights: 50 kt NE with 1000 mb at 
00Z at 25.0N, 54.0W (MWR); 45kt ENE with 1002mb at 28.5N, 54.5W at 18Z (COA); 50kt ENE in the 
vicinity of ~28.1N, 54.5W late (sometime before 00Z on the 24th) (MWR); 986 mb (time and location 
unknown) (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "During the 23d the storm continued 
to move slowly northwestward, accompanied by strong to whole gales, lowest reported barometer 
29.12, within the region 26-28N, 54W” (MWR).

September 24: HWM shows a closed low of at most 990mb near 30N, 56W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 85kt winds at 30.0N, 55.5W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a 
morning estimate of 30N, 55W and in the evening at 34N, 57.5W. Ship highlights: 40kt NE with 
992mb at 28.1N, 54.5W at 00Z (MWR); 50kt NNE with 998mb at 29.5N, 56.5W at 6Z (COA); 70kt NW 
with 993mb at 29.5N, 56.5W at 12Z (COA); 50kt E with 992mb at 31.6N, 54.8W at 13Z (MWR). 
Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "On the 24th the disturbance moved with greater 
rapidity. During the day the storm passed at a distance of several hundred miles to the 
eastward of Bermuda” (MWR).

September 25: HWM shows a closed low of at most 995mb near 36N, 61W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this 
system as a hurricane with 85kt winds at 36.3N, 60.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a 
morning estimate of 37N, 59.5W and in the evening at 41N, 62W. Ship highlights: 50kt ENE at 
39.5N, 60.5W at 12Z (COA); 45kt ESE with 982mb at 39.8N, 61.0W at 18Z (COA); 70kt SSW with 
998mb at 39.5N, 59.5W at 20Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures. "… and on 
the morning of the 25th [the storm] was northeast of [Bermuda], centered near 36.5N, 60W. At 
evening observation of the 25th the center had moved to about 40.5N, 62.5W, with lowest 
pressure 28.94 inches, and strong winds to gales of force 10 blowing over the surrounding sea” (MWR).

September 26: HWM shows a strong closed low of at most 980mb near 43.3N, 64.0W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as an extratropical storm with 75kt winds at 43.8N, 63.1W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning estimate of 43N, 64W with a pressure of 975mb and in the evening near 
47.5N, 61W. Ship highlights: 60kt NE near 42.4N, 63.2 before 06Z then at 06Z 50kt SE with 972mb 
at 42.4N, 63.2W (MWR); 35 kt WSW with 976 mb at 12Z at 42.7N, 65.0W (HWM); 50kt W with 990mb at 
42.7N, 63.0W at 12Z (COA); 50 kt SW with 1002 mb at 16Z at 42.3N, 59.9W (MWR). Station highlights: 
985 mb at Halifax, NS (MWR). "In crossing Nova Scotia during the 26th, the storm recurved into a 
northeasterly direction, crossed northern Newfoundland near the Strait of Belle Isle during the 
night of the 26th-27th, and by the 30th was over Iceland” (MWR).

September 27: HWM shows an elongated closed low of at most 995mb near 54N, 54W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as an extratropical cyclone with 50kt winds at 52.2N, 54.2W at 12Z. MWR's Track 
of Lows gives a morning position estimate of 52.5N, 54.5W with a pressure of 993mb and in the 
evening near 57.5N, 49W. Ship highlights: 35kt SW with 1006mb at 45.6N, 56.5W at 7Z (COA); 
25kt S with 1000mb at 53.5N, 48.6W at 12Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.

September 28: HWM shows an elongated closed low of at most 985mb centered over central Greenland 
near 64N, 47W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as an extratropical cyclone with 35kt winds at 
62.0N, 45.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position estimate of 63N, 42.5W with a 
pressure of 983mb and in the evening near 66N, 38W. Ship highlights: 20kt W with 995mb at 55.8N, 
37.5W at 6Z (COA); 35kt NW with 1017mb at 54.2N, 45.2W at 12Z (COA); 35kt W with 1012mb at 55.4N, 
38.4W at 18Z (COA); 45kt WNW with 1012mb at 55.0N, 42.3W at 18Z (COA). Station highlights: 
no gales or low pressures.

September 29: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 975 mb centered near 66N, 25N, with a warm 
front extending east-northeastward from the low and a cold front extending from a couple hundred 
nmi SE of the low extending south-southeastward from there.  HURDAT no longer lists a system on 
this day.  Ship/station highlights: Several gales and low pressures. September 30: HWM analyzes a 
closed low of at most 980 mb centered near 66N, 20W with a warm front extending through a somewhat 
elongated area to the north-northeast of the cyclone and the north end of a N-S cold front located 
a couple hundred nmi ESE of the low.  Ship/station highlights: 30 kt NNE with 984 mb at 12Z near 
66N, 24W (HWM).

This tropical cyclone likely formed from an African Easterly Wave that emerged off the African coast 
around 14-15 September.  HURDAT originally started this system at 06Z on 20 September as a 60 kt 
tropical storm in the central Atlantic.  Data was obtained from 15-19 September between that location 
and the African coast.  Substantial observational coverage near the African coast to 25W on 15-16 
September indicates that there was not yet any closed circulation in association with the wave.  
But as it traveled westward, there was no data near the system from 17-19 September, and genesis 
could have occurred on any of those days.  On 20 September around 12Z, a ship in the central tropical 
Atlantic recorded 50 kt SE with 1002 mb and another ship 260 nm to the south recorded 60 kt SW with 
998 mb.  The position of the cyclone is moved 1.9 degrees west of the original HURDAT position for 
the first point at 06Z on the 20th (HURDAT originally showed an unrealistic deceleration for the 
first couple of points).  The longitude at 12Z is moved west of the ships’ longitudes since they both 
had southerly wind components.  From the 20th – 22nd, the cyclone moved northwestward, and it moved 
north-northwestward from the 23rd to the 25th.  Positions are adjusted north-northwestward by 1 to 2 
degrees from 06Z on the 21st through 12Z on the 22nd due to a combination of evidence from observations 
and smoothing between times when there was more data.  On the 21st, a ship that was reporting 30 kt 
with 1010 mb located more than 300 nm NNW of the original HURDAT position had its winds shift by 45 
degrees in a short period time, suggesting that perhaps the storm was somewhat closer.  At 06Z on the 
22nd, a ship measured 50 kt with a 988 mb pressure.  From the 23rd – 25th of September, the largest 
track change is only 0.4 degrees.  Regarding the intensity, the 998 mb peripheral pressure measured 
on the 20th suggests winds of greater than 51 kt according to the Brown et al. (2006) southern 
pressure-wind relationship, and the 988 mb peripheral pressure on the 22nd suggests winds of greater 
than 67 kt according to the same relationship.  Due to the 60 kt observation on the 20th combined with 
the possibility that the observation may have occurred far away from the center, the cyclone is begun 
as a 65 kt hurricane rather than as a 60 kt tropical storm at 06Z on the 20th, and the revised 
intensity is increased to 70 kt at 12Z on the 20th (up from 60 kt originally at 12Z).  The cyclone is 
analyzed to have become a hurricane at 06Z on the 20th (12 hours earlier than originally), although 
it may have been a hurricane prior to that.  After 5-10 kt intensity increases are implemented on the 
20th, no intensity changes are made to HURDAT from the 21st through the 25th.  The peak lifetime 
intensity of 85 kt is maintained from 06Z on the 23rd through 18Z on the 25th.  The lowest pressure 
measured on the 23rd was 986 mb, which suggests winds of at least 70 and 65 kt according to the 
southern and north of 25N pressure-wind relationships, respectively.  A hurricane force wind was 
recorded on the 24th and again on the 25th.  At 18Z on the 25th, a 982 mb peripheral pressure 
suggests winds greater than 71 kt according to the Landsea et al. (2004) north of 35N pressure-wind 
relationship.  Because there is not enough information to estimate a central pressure at any time 
from the 20th – 25th, there is not enough evidence to change the original HURDAT intensity (other 
than on the 20th), although it is possible that this cyclone could have been a major hurricane at 
some point in its lifetime.  Extratropical transition is indicated at 06Z on the 26th, six hours 
after that originally indicated in HURDAT.  Early on the 26th, before the extratropical cyclone 
moved inland over Nova Scotia, a ship recorded 60 kt before 06Z and at 06Z a 972 mb pressure was 
recorded with simultaneous 50 kt winds.  The vigorous extratropical cyclone passed over Nova Scotia 
between 12Z-18Z on the 26th.  This extratropical cyclone is analyzed to have produced winds of 
hurricane force in that province of Canada.  The center passed several dozen nautical miles east 
of Halifax, where a minimum pressure of 985 was recorded.  The cyclone turned northeastward, 
rapidly weakened, and by 06Z on the 27th was located over northern Newfoundland.  Minor downward 
intensity adjustments of 5-10 kt are implemented from 18Z on the 25th to 12Z on the 27th.  No 
changes were made to the timing of dissipation, as the cyclone likely merged with another 
extratropical cyclone after 12Z on the 28th.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 9 (originally Storm 8) – Revised in 2012
30495 09/26/1937 M= 6  8 SNBR= 672 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0                     
30495 09/26/1937 M= 8  9 SNBR= 672 NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
                    *  *

30500 09/26*  0   0   0    0*232 794  35    0*237 792  35    0*243 790  35    0*
30500 09/26*  0   0   0    0*232 794  30    0*237 792  30    0*243 790  30    0*
                                      **               **               **

30505 09/27*255 787  35    0*272 778  35    0*290 769  35    0*304 760  35    0*
30505 09/27*255 785  30    0*272 778  30    0*290 772  30    0*307 767  35    0*
                ***  **               **          ***  **      *** *** 

30510 09/28*318 752  40    0*341 736  40    0*364 719  40    0*377 705  40    0*
30510 09/28*324 762  35    0*337 750  40    0E354 732  40    0E371 713  45    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***         **** ***         **** ***  **

30515 09/29E390 690  40    0E405 672  35    0E420 650  35    0E435 627  35    0*
30515 09/29E390 693  45    0E403 672  40    0E413 650  40    0E423 625  35    0* 
                ***  **      ***      **      ***      **      *** ***  

30520 09/30E450 599  35    0E465 570  35    0E480 530  35    0E488 499  35    0*
30520 09/30E435 595  35    0E453 565  35    0E475 530  40    0E495 499  45    0*
            *** ***          *** ***          ***      **      ***      **

30525 10/01E495 470  35    0E502 449  35    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
30525 10/01E510 473  50    0E521 447  55    0E532 415  60    0E543 395  65    0*
            *** ***  **      *** ***  **     **** ***  **     **** ***  **

The 2nd-3rd are new to HURDAT
30527 10/02E554 375  65    0E572 365  60    0E590 356  55    0E602 348  50    0*
30528 10/03E606 347  50    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*

30530 TS

Minor track and intensity changes are analyzed for this cyclone. Major changes to the 
intensity while extratropical were made.  A major change is also introduced for the timing 
of tropical storm intensity onset, delayed by 36 hours.  A major change is also made to the 
timing of dissipation.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the Historical Weather 
Maps Series, the COADS ships database, Monthly Weather Review, and the Original Monthly 
Record for Miami, FL available at NHC.

September 25:  HWM does not analyze any features of interest in the western Caribbean.  
HURDAT first analyzes this system at 06Z on the 26th.  MWR’s Tracks of Lows begins tracking 
this system at 12Z on the 26th.  No gales or low pressures.

September 26: HWM does not analyze a closed low. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm 
with 35kt winds at 23.7N, 79.2W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning position estimate 
of 22.5N, 79.5W with a pressure of 1010mb and in the evening at 26N, 79W. Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures. Station highlights: 25 kt N at Miami (23 kt after converting to 
10m 1-min) (max wind) at 1446Z (OMR-NHC). "Slight evidences of a cyclonic circulation appeared 
between the central north coast of Cuba and the Bahamas on the morning of the 26th” (MWR).

September 27: HWM shows a cold front draped over the western Atlantic Ocean and North Florida 
but no closed low in the vicinity. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds 
at 29.0N, 76.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 29N, 78W with a pressure 
of 1010mb and in the evening at 31.5N, 75W. Ship highlights: 30kt SE with 1011mb at 31.4N, 75.1W 
at 18Z (COA). Station highlight: no gales or low pressures. “The disturbed condition moved 
north-northeastward as a very shallow depression, accompanied by light winds, and at 7pm, EST, 
of the 27th was central near 31.5N, 75.5W. Its course thereafter curved more into northeasterly” (MWR).

September 28: HWM shows a closed low of non-tropical characteristics with a pressure of at most 
1015mb near 35N, 74W at 12Z. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 40kt winds at 36.4N, 
71.9W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 36N, 72W with a pressure of 1014mb 
and in the evening at 39.5N, 67.5W. Ship highlights: 30 kt NNE with 1010 mb at 09Z at 34.7N, 75.5W 
and 35kt NE after 09Z (MWR). Station highlights: 41kt NE at Nantucket (MWR). "On the morning of the 
28th the center lay at some distance east of the Virginia Capes, continuing shallow and poorly 
developed. At this time, however, with high pressure on the east, north, and west, the wind 
circulation became more energetic and winds of force 7 occurred on its west and north quadrants” (MWR).

September 29: HWM shows an extratropical low with a pressure of at most 1015mb near 40N, 65W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as an extratropical storm with 35kt winds at 42.0N, 65.0W at 12Z. MWR's 
Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 42N, 65W and in the evening at 45N, 59W. Ship highlights: 
35kt N with 1022mb at 39.8N, 71.3W at 00Z (COA); 35 kt NE (MWR). Station highlights: no gales or 
low pressures. "Thereafter, the center of the depression continued at some distance from the coast 
until the 29th when it skirted Nova Scotia close to the southward” (MWR).

September 30: HWM shows an extratropical low of at most 1010mb near 47N, 52.5W at 12Z. HURDAT lists 
this system as an extratropical storm with 35kt winds at 48.0N, 53.0W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows gives 
a morning estimate of 48N, 54W with a pressure of 1006mb and in the evening at 51N, 48W. Ship 
highlights: 15 kt S with 1002 mb at 19Z at 47.4N, 47.4W (COA); 25 kt WSW with 1002 mb at 23Z at 48.5N, 
46.5W (COA); 35kt SSW with 1004mb at 48.5N, 42.5W at 23Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low 
pressures. "On the morning of the 30th it crossed southeastern Newfoundland and late in the day merged 
with an extratropical cyclone in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic” (MWR).

October 1: HWM shows a closed low of a maritime polar airmass near 54N, 42W at 12Z. HURDAT kills this 
system at 06Z at 50.2N, 44.9W with 35kt winds as an extratropical storm. MWR's Track of Lows gives a 
morning estimate of 54N, 39W with a pressure of 977mb. Ship highlights: 35kt WSW with 999mb at 48.5N, 
43.3W at 04Z then 50kt WNW later in the day from the same ship (MWR); 50 kt SSW at 06Z at 48.5N, 
37.5W (COA); 45 kt SSW with 977 mb at 12Z at 52.5N, 39.5W (COA); 60 kt WNW with 979 mb at 18Z at 
52.5N, 41.5W (COA); 50 kt WNW at 23Z at 48.5N, 40.5W (COA).

October 2: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 985 mb centered near 60.5N, 33.5W with an occluded 
front extending from the low.  HURDAT no longer lists a system on this day.  Ship highlights: 45 kt 
NW with 998 mb at 00Z at 52.5N, 42.5W (COA); 30 kt ESE with 973 mb at 00Z at 55.4N, 34.3W (COA); 
45 kt W at 18Z at 56.3N, 31.6W (COA); 35 kt NW with 973 mb at 23Z at 59.5N, 35.5W (COA).

October 3: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 995 mb (the feature of interest), but with only 
1 closed contour, centered near 64N, 26W.  HWM analyzes another extratropical low of at most 985 mb 
centered near 52N, 43W.  Ship highlights relevant to the feature of interest: 45 kt W at 00Z at 56.4N, 
29.6W at 00Z (COA); 35 kt WNW with 972 mb at 02Z at 59.5N, 35.5W (COA).

This tropical cyclone was listed in HURDAT originally to have formed at 06Z on 26 September just north 
of Cuba.  Data was obtained for the 25th.  It is unclear whether the disturbance that led to this 
tropical cyclone approached from the south or from the ESE from the 25th to the 26th.  Available 
observations do not warrant beginning this cyclone earlier than listed in HURDAT originally.  On the 
26th, sufficient evidence of a completely closed low is lacking; however, there are no observations 
south of the originally located center.  Moreover, there are some indications of a weak low circulation 
in the northwestern Caribbean on the 26th.  However, since there is evidence of a closed low on the 
27th east of Florida, the timing and position of genesis, at 06Z on the 26th, are unchanged from 
HURDAT originally.  Available observations on the 26th and 27th indicate that the cyclone was weak, 
and the intensity is analyzed as a 30 kt tropical depression from 06Z on the 26th through 12Z on the 
27th (35 kt at those times originally).  Therefore, the time that the cyclone became a tropical storm 
is delayed by 36 hours.  The cyclone moved north-northeastward, paralleling the east of the U.S., and 
by the 28th at 12Z it was about 120 nm east of Cape Hatteras.  On 27th, very small track changes are 
implemented, but on the 28th, observations warrant position adjustments over 1 degree WSW of the 
original HURDAT positions.  For intensity, 35 kt is first assigned at 18Z on the 27th due to an observed 
30 kt wind at that time from a ship.  Another 30 kt observation with a simultaneous 1010 mb pressure 
was observed by a ship – the Gulfhawk – at 09Z on the 28th.  A short time later, the Gulfhawk recorded 
35 kt.  Since this observation occurred on the left side of the cyclone and roughly 70 nm from the 
center, the 40 kt intensity listed in HURDAT originally at 06Z and 12Z on the 28th are unchanged.  
HURDAT originally listed that the cyclone became extratropical at 00Z on the 29th at 39N, 69W.  
Available observations indicate that the cyclone already contained a warm front extending 
east-northeastward from the cyclone with a developing cold front extending SSW from the cyclone at 
12Z on the 28th.  The cyclone is analyzed as extratropical 12 hours earlier than originally – at 
12Z on the 28th.  However, given the sparse nature of observations near the cyclone’s center, the 
timing of extratropical transition has an uncertainty of about plus or minus six hours.  According 
to this analysis, this cyclone was only a tropical storm for 18 hours from 18Z on the 27th through 
06Z on the 28th – attaining a peak intensity of 40 kt at 06Z on the 28th before it became 
extratropical at 12Z.  HURDAT originally listed this as a tropical storm for 66 hours.  The peak 
intensity of 40 kt during the tropical phase is unchanged from HURDAT originally.  (It is possibly, 
given the uncertainties in the reanalysis, that the cyclone was extratropical by the time it attained 
gale force winds.  If this were the case, then it may not have been a tropical storm.)  After the 
cyclone became extratropical, while the center remained well offshore, Nantucket, MA recorded a 
maximum 1-min wind of 41 kt as a direct result of the cyclone, while Block Island, RI and Cape 
Henry, VA recorded 33 and 31 kt, respectively.  A 45 kt intensity is analyzed at 18Z on the 28th 
and 00Z on the 29th (up from 40 kt originally).  The cyclone is analyzed to have turned 
east-northeastward for a day on the 29th before resuming a northeastward course on the 30th.  On 
the 29th, it passed well south of Nova Scotia, and on the 30th, the center is analyzed to have 
traveled over southeastern Newfoundland between about 10Z-12Z.  From 18Z on the 29th – 06Z on the 
30th, the analyzed intensity is down to 35 kt (unchanged from HURDAT originally).  HURDAT 
originally listed dissipation after 06Z on 1 October as a 35 kt extratropical cyclone east of 
Newfoundland.  Available observations, however, indicate that the cyclone began to re-intensify 
as an extratropical cyclone late on the 30th and early on the 1st.  Also, there were no other 
lows/cyclones in the region for this system to merge with.  The cyclone is analyzed to have 
strengthened to 65 kt by 18Z on 1 October with a position of 54.3N, 39.5W at that time.  Winds 
as high as 60 kt and pressures as low as 972 mb were observed.  The last time that observations 
of wind direction confirm that the low is still closed is 02Z on 2 October.  At first, this is 
likely due to a lack of observations on the north side of the cyclone.  By the 3rd of October, 
another low quickly approached from SW, and by 12Z on the 3rd they were likely merged.  After 
00Z on the 3rd, the cyclone of interest had already begun to merge with the approaching cyclone, 
and the circulation is considered too elongated to still be considered a closed system after 
that time.  The dissipation is therefore delayed by 42 hours, and the new final position – 
at 00Z on 3 October – is at 60.6N, 34.7W as a 50 kt extratropical cyclone.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 10 (originally Storm 9) – Revised in 2012
30535 09/29/1937 M= 6  9 SNBR= 673 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0                    L
30535 10/02/1937 M= 3 10 SNBR=     NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=0
                    * **

The 29th through the 1st are part of a separate tropical cyclone of tropical depression peak 
intensity.  Thus the 29th through the 1st are removed from HURDAT for this system.  This separate 
tropical depression is included within the Additional Notes section.

30540 09/29*  0   0   0    0*173 855  35    0*188 855  35    0*193 855  35    0*
30545 09/30*198 855  35    0*203 855  35    0*208 855  35    0*213 855  35    0*
30550 10/01*218 856  35    0*224 857  35    0*231 860  35    0*238 869  35    0*

30555 10/02*245 880  35    0*251 891  35    0*256 897  35    0*268 909  35    0*
30555 10/02*245 877  35    0*249 886  40    0*261 897  40 1003*273 910  40 1002*
            *** ***          *** ***  **      ***      ** **** *** ***  ** ****

30560 10/03*281 919  35    0*286 920  35    0*290 920  35    0*299 919  35    0*
30560 10/03*281 919  35    0*288 921  35    0*295 920  35    0*305 920  30    0*
                             *** ***          ***              *** ***  **

30565 10/04*311 916  30    0*322 910  25    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
30565 10/04*318 920  30    0*332 919  25    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
            *** ***          *** ***
30570 TS

U.S. landfalls:
10/3/1937 – 12Z – 29.6N, 92.0W – 35 kt
10/3/1937 – 14Z – 29.8N, 92.0W – 35 kt

Minor alterations to track and minor intensity changes are analyzed for this tropical 
storm that made a U.S. landfall on the Gulf Coast.  A major change is made to show 
genesis occurring three days later.  Evidence for these alterations comes from the 
Historical Weather Maps Series, the COADS ships database, Monthly Weather Review, 
Louisiana Climatological Data, and Connor (1956).

September 28:  HWM shows no features of interest in the western Caribbean.  HURDAT 
first indicates this cyclone at 06Z on the 29th.  No gales or low pressures.

September 29: HWM shows an area of thunderstorms with no organized low pressure center. 
HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 18.8N, 85.5W at 12Z. 
MWR's Track of Lows does no show the system until Oct 1. No gales or low pressures.

September 30: HWM does not show a closed low. HURDAT lists this system as a tropical 
storm with 35kt winds at 20.8N, 85.5W at 12Z. No gales or low pressures. "Slightly 
threatening conditions appeared over the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico and the 
west Caribbean Sea on the afternoon of September 30, with some evidences of cyclonic 
circulation centered a little south of the Yucatan Channel” (MWR).

October 1: HWM indicates a spot low of at most 1010mb near 17.5N, 85.5W at 12Z with a 
trough extending north of the low into the southeast Gulf of Mexico. HURDAT lists this 
system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 22.4N, 85.7W at 12Z. MWR's Track of Lows 
gives a morning estimate of 23.5N, 88W and in the evening at 25N, 89W. Ship highlights: 
25 kt SE with 1006 mb at 12Z at 21.4N, 84.4W (COA); 50kt in the general vicinity of 
~22N, 85W at 17Z (MWR). "At 6am, local time, of October 1 the center of the condition 
appeared to be at approximately 23.5N, 86W. No wind exceeding force 6 occurred there 
during the day. The center moved very slowly northwestward between 6am and 6pm, but 
with much greater rapidity from then until the morning of October 2, when it lay near 
27.5N, 91W” (MWR).  “On October 1, it may be mentioned further, a second low of some 
energy showed signs of developing in the Yucatan Channel, and at about noon, local 
time, the Honduran schooner Racer reported a gale of force 10 off the western end of 
Cuba.  This secondary low deteriorated rapidly, however, and later merged with the 
primary low to the northward” (MWR).

October 2: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1005mb centered near 25N, 90W at 12Z. 
HURDAT lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 25.6N, 89.7W at 12Z. 
MWR's Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 27N, 90W with a pressure of 1003mb and 
in the evening at 28.5N, 91W. Ship highlights: 35kt E with 1010mb at 28.0N, 87.5W at 
12Z (HWM); 35kt SE at 26.2N, 86.4W at 12Z (HWM); 5 kt W with 1004 mb at 12Z at 26.0N, 
89.6W (COA); 35kt ESE with 1013mb at 26.6N, 88.2W at 13Z (MWR); 10kt SE with 1003mb at 
27.5N, 91.0W at 17Z (MWR). Station highlights:  29 kt (max wind) and 1008 mb (min 
pressure) at Port Eads (no time)(Louisiana). "The center of the low continued to move 
toward the northwestward until the night of the 2d, when it turned toward the north 
and entered the Louisiana coast at Atchafalaya Bay at about noon of the 3d” (MWR).

October 3: HWM shows a closed low of at most 1005mb near 29N, 91.7W at 12Z. HURDAT 
lists this system as a tropical storm with 35kt winds at 29.0N, 92.0W at 12Z. MWR's 
Track of Lows gives a morning estimate of 29.7N, 91.5W with a pressure of 1004mb and 
in the evening at 31.5N, 92W. Ship highlights: 15kt WNW with 1005mb at 26.6N, 91.7W at 
00Z (COA); 25 kt ESE at 06Z at 29.5N, 87.5W (COA); 10kt NW with 1004mb (looks too low) 
at 28.2N, 92.0W at 13Z (COA). Station highlights: no gales or low pressures.  “A 
tropical disturbance of slight intensity passed inland near Morgan City on the 3d.  
The highest wind recorded on the coast was 33 miles per hour at Port Eads on the 2d” 
(Louisiana).

October 4: HWM no longer shows a closed low.  HURDAT lists a final position for this 
system at 06Z at 32.2N, 91.0W as a 25 kt tropical depression.  MWR’s tracks of lows 
shows a final position in the morning near 33.5N, 92.5W with a 1009 mb pressure.  
No gales or low pressures.

A tropical wave moved westward in the Caribbean during late September.  On the 26th it 
was located along 69W, on the 27th near 75W, and on the 28th near 80W.  The disturbance 
continued westward until the 29th.  HURDAT originally began this system as a 35 kt 
tropical storm on the 29th at 06Z in the northwestern Caribbean.  Sparse observations 
on the 28th show a circulation that is too weak and broad to be considered a tropical 
cyclone on that day.  On the 29th at 06Z, the system developed into a tropical cyclone 
with 25 kt intensity in the northwestern Caribbean based on observations.  The cyclone 
remained nearly stationary in the northwestern Caribbean on the 30th as a tropical 
depression.  This position is about 175 nm south-southwest of the existing HURDAT.  
Observations on the 1st suggests that the original cyclone may have been weakening 
in the northwestern Caribbean Sea near 18N 85.5W.  It is likely that this feature 
dissipated by the end of the 1st.  Also on the 1st, a separate cyclone appears to 
have been forming over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, which may have absorbed the 
earlier cyclone.  It is this system that then becomes the cyclone that eventually 
strikes the United States.  Genesis is analyzed to have occurred around 00Z on the 
2nd, which is three days later than originally indicated in HURDAT.  (At 18Z on the 
1st, an isolated report of 50 kt occurred.  However, the highest winds observed for 
the entire time from the 28th through the 1st within 5 degrees of that ship and within 
5 degrees of the original HURDAT position were only 30 kt.  The 50 kt observation 
appears somewhat suspect and/or perhaps associated with a transient feature.)  At 12Z, 
a ship analyzed to be 10 nm or less from the center recorded 5 kt W with 1004 mb, and 
at 18Z, a different ship about 10 nmi from the center recorded 10 kt SE with 1003 mb.  
Also on the 2nd, there were several 35 kt observations.  Central pressures of 1003 
and 1002 mb are added to HURDAT at 12 and 18Z, respectively, on the 2nd.  These central 
pressure values equal 38 and 40 kt, respectively, according to the Brown et al. 
north of 25N pressure-wind relationship.  A 40 kt intensity is chosen on the 2nd from 
06Z-18Z (all up from 35 kt originally).  A 40 kt intensity is also justified due to 
several 35 kt ship reports.  A peak lifetime intensity of 40 kt is analyzed on 
2 October from 06Z-18Z (an increase from the original HURDAT peak intensity of 35 kt 
from 06Z on 29 September – 18Z on 3 October).  Observations from ships at 00Z on the 
3rd indicate the cyclone was weakening, and the intensity is reduced to 35 kt at that 
time (no change to HURDAT intensity on the 3rd at 00-12Z).  Observations from ships 
early on the 3 October as well as observations from the southern U.S. and Gulf Coast 
later on the 3rd and the 4th indicate that the center of the cyclone made landfall 
about 12Z on 3 October at 29.6N, 92.0W (near Atchafalaya Bay).  The cyclone then 
made its final landfall two hours later near 29.8N, 92.0W.  The analyzed intensity 
at 12Z on the 3rd (and both landfalls) is 35 kt (unchanged from HURDAT originally), 
although only limited coastal station observations are available currently available 
for the analysis.  Since the cyclone is analyzed to be well inland by 18Z, it is 
analyzed to have weakened to a tropical depression at 18Z on the 3rd (6 hours earlier 
than in HURDAT originally).  No changes are made to the timing is dissipation, but 
the position at the final point is moved one degree NW of the original position.

*******************************************************************************

1937 Storm 11 (new to HURDAT) – Added in 2012

30571 10/18/1937 M=4  11 SNBR=     NOT NAMED   XING=0 SSS=0
30572 10/18*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0E354 453  45    0E361 471  55    0*
30572 10/19*368 488  65    0*375 504  70    0*378 518  70    0*380 530  65    0*
30573 10/20*382 540  60    0*384 550  55    0*386 560  50    0*390 574  45    0*
30573 10/21*398 588  40    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0*
30574 HR

HWM, COADS and MWR indicate that a hurricane, previously undocumented in HURDAT 
occurred in the north Atlantic from 18-21 October.

October 18: HWM analyzes a large closed low of at most 1015 mb at the west-southwest 
end of a WSW-ENE front centered near 32N, 46.6W.  HURDAT did not previously list this 
system.  The MWR tracks of lows shows an evening position near 36N, 48W.  Ship 
highlights: 45 kt ENE and 1014 mb at 03 UTC at 36.5N, 47.5W (COA); 40 kt NE at 35.2N, 
54.5W (MWR); 35 kt E and 1010 mb at 15 UTC at 37.5N, 45.5W (COA); 35 kt NE and 1011 mb 
at 18 UTC at 37.7N, 50.7W (COA).  A few other gales.  No low pressures.

October 19: HWM analyzes a closed low of at most 1010 mb centered near 35.8N, 52.0W 
attached to the southwest end of a SW-NE front.  The MWR tracks of lows shows a morning 
position near 37N, 51W with a 1007 mb pressure and an evening position near 38N, 54W.  
Ship highlights: 35 kt NE and 997 mb at 00 UTC at 37.9N, 50.3W (MWR); 70 kt N-NNE and 
995 mb at 05 UTC at 38.4N, 50.8W (MWR); 50 kt NNW and 1008 mb at 12 UTC at 37.5N, 53.2W 
(COA); 45 kt SE and 1007 mb at 12 UTC at 38.3N, 50.1W (COA).  A few other gales.  No 
other low pressures.  Regarding the intensity: "The lone report of hurricane strength 
(force 12) is connected with a storm between the Azores and Bermuda about the 17th to 
19th.  The vessel was the British steamship Ariguani, eastbound.  An unusually severe 
encounter with the same storm was reported in more detail by the westbound Italian 
liner Vulcania, which rated the storm as the worst met in 10 years.  Windows and 
portholes were smashed and four persons on board suffered injuries.  On the whole, 
but few reports relating to this storm have come in; it was apparently of rather 
short duration and small area, and did not advance far" (MWR).

October 20: HWM analyzes an open trough from 52W to 61W and 39N southward several 
hundred miles with a dissipating SW-NE stationary front extending northeastward from 
the trough.  HURDAT did not previously list this system.  The MWR tracks of lows 
shows a final position in the morning near 39N, 56W with a 1012 mb pressure.  Ship 
highlights: 45 kt S and 1014 mb at 12 UTC at 37.4N?, 54.8W (COA).  No other gales.  
No low pressures.

October 21: HWM analyzes an open trough from 50W to 60W, south of 36N with a strong 
S-N cold front extending from 31N 71W to 43N 66W.  Ship highlights: No gales or low 
pressures.

On 16-17 October, a cold front moved westward through the central North Atlantic Ocean.  
The front weakened and a low formed along the southwest end of the dissipating front on 
18 October.  The low was somewhat elongated early on the 18th and the temperature gradient 
across the low at 12Z on the 18th was about 5F.  Thus the cyclone is begun as an 
extratropical low.  The cyclone moved west-northwestward, reaching a position of several 
hundred miles south-southwest of Newfoundland.  By early on the 19th, the structure had 
greatly improved, as it was much more symmetric, compact, no temperature gradient 
existed across the low.  Air temperatures were 68 to 70F at 12Z on the 19th with SSTs 
around 74F.  Thus tropical transition is estimated to have occurred by 00Z on the 19th.  
Regarding the intensity, a 45 kt wind was observed in association with the system nine 
hours prior to the analyzed genesis of the TC.  The highest winds recorded on the 18th 
between the time of genesis to the end of the day were 35 kt.  A 1005 mb ship at 12Z on 
the 18th is found to be biased 3 to 7 mb too low based on evidence from other ships 
very near that ship on other days.  However, by the 19th at 07Z, the tropical cyclone 
had rapidly spun up, and hurricane force winds were recorded with a simultaneous 
pressure of 995 mb.  A 45 kt intensity is analyzed for 12Z on the 18th, increasing to 
55 kt at 18Z and 65 kt at 00Z on the 19th.  A peak lifetime intensity of 70 kt is 
analyzed from 06-12Z on the 19th.  The cyclone continued moving west-northwest on the 
20th.  Although observations were sparse on the 20th, there is enough evidence to 
indicate that the cyclone was weakening.  By the 21st, there were no longer any signs 
of the system.  It either dissipated or was absorbed by a front approaching from the 
west after 00Z on the 21st.  The intensity is analyzed to have decreased by 5 kt per 
6 hr from 70 kt at 12Z on the 19th to 40 kt at 00Z on the 21st.  The final position 
at 00Z on the 21st is a few hundred miles southeast of Nova Scotia.

*******************************************************************************

1937 additional notes:

1) On 1 January, the SW end of a SW-NE front was located near 29N, 41W.  By the 2nd, 
the front moved away and a non-frontal cyclonic circulation was present in the area.  
The low drifted south-southwestward, and on the 3rd it reached its greatest intensity 
near 29N, 42W.  On this day, the central pressure was below 1005 mb and there was no 
temperature gradient across the low (isothermal air temperatures of 66-68 degrees 
surrounded the low).  The low was closed in a broad sense.  Although this system could 
possibly be classified as a subtropical cyclone on the 3rd, observations suggest that 
on the 2nd and again on the 4th and 5th that the low was too broad to be considered a 
tropical cyclone.  Thus, this system is not added to HURDAT at this time.

Note from Andrew to Andrew, Chris, and Committee: The COADS ship data has not been 
obtained for this suspect.  It is recommended that the COADS should be obtained to make 
sure that this system should not be added to HURDAT.

DAY 	LAT LON STATUS
Jan 2	32N 42W Broad low/trough 	
Jan 3   29N 42W Broad low
Jan 4   24N 43W Broad low/trough
Jan 5   21N 45W Broad low/trough


2) The MWR (page 210) mentions a former eastern Pacific system as a depression near 
Veracruz, Mexico on 27 May.  The COADS and HWM observations do support lowered pressures 
in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico on the 26th through the 28th of May.  However, there 
is no indication that there was a closed circulation present.  

DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
May 26   --- 98W Broad trough
May 27   --- 98W Broad trough
May 28   --- 98W Broad trough


3) Available HWM and COADS data indicate that a low embedded in a frontal system traveled 
east from the coast of the Canadian Maritimes on the 19th.  It meandered in the Atlantic for 
several days.  Temperatures became isothermal across the low on the 22nd or 23rd, but the 
overall circulation became very large, and for most days, the strongest winds were not near 
the center.  The days with the best structure and closest to a tropical cyclone were on the 
26th and 27th.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Jun 19 --- --- Front
Jun 20 45N 53W Extratropical
Jun 21 44N 47W Extratropical
Jun 22 44N 43W Occluded low
Jun 23 40N 38W Occluded low
Jun 24 37N 37W Occluded low
Jun 25 34N 39W Occluded low
Jun 26 37N 37W Occluded low/Tropical storm?
Jun 27 37N 40W Occluded low/Tropical storm?
Jun 28 42N 41W Weakening low

June 19: HWM indicates a low of at most 1015mb near 43N, 62.5W. The MWR Tracks of Centers of 
Cyclones show the center at about 41N, 68W (am) with a pressure of 1014mb and at 43.5N, 58W (pm). 
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

June 20: HWM indicates a low of at most 1010mb near 44N, 50.5W. The MWR Tracks of Centers of 
Cyclones show the center at about 45N, 52.5W (am) with a pressure of 1005mb and at 45N, 48.5W (pm). 
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

June 21: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 42.5N, 46W.  Ship highlights: 
No gales or low pressures.

June 22: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 43N, 44.5W.  
Ship highlights: 10kt SW with a pressure of 1002mb at 43.6N, 43W at 7Z (COA).

June 23: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1015mb near 38.5N, 38.5W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

June 24: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 34.5N, 38W.  
Ship highlights: 5kt SE with a pressure of 1001mb at 37.4N, 36.7W at 12Z (COA). 

June 25: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1015mb near 33N, 36W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

June 26: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 35N, 38.5W.  
Ship highlights: 35kt ENE with a pressure of 1010mb at 37.8N, 40W at 12Z (HWM).

June 27: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1015mb near 35N, 40W.  
Ship highlights: 40kt SSE with a pressure of 1015mb at 39.3N 36.8W at 12Z (HWM). 

June 28: Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.


4) HWM and COADS indicate that a tropical depression formed in the central Atlantic and moved slowly 
west for a few days before dissipating.  Warm air temperatures prevailed all around the low and to 
several hundred miles in all directions throughout the duration of the life cycle.  The highest wind 
observation found with this system was 20 kt and there were no low pressures. Thus, this system will 
not be added to HURDAT.

DAY   LAT LON STATUS
Aug 1 27N 40W Tropical depression
Aug 2 27N 41W Tropical depression
Aug 3 26N 42W Tropical depression
Aug 4 25N 45W Tropical depression
Aug 5         Open wave ~50W


5) HWM and COADS indicate that a tropical depression formed in the Gulf of Mexico and moved northwest 
to the northern Gulf Coast.  This system was tropical in nature for the duration of its life cycle.  
The 24 hour corrected mean pressure for New Orleans for the 29th was 1008 mb.  However, there were no 
gales or low pressures associated with this system.  Thus, this system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Aug 27 	       Open wave
Aug 28 27N 88W Tropical depression
Aug 29 28N 90W Tropical depression
Aug 30 29N 91W Tropical depression


6)  A tropical wave moved westward in the Caribbean during late September.  On the 26th it was located 
along 69W, on the 27th near 75W, and on the 28th near 80W.  The disturbance continued westward until 
the 29th.  HURDAT originally began this system as a 35 kt tropical storm on the 29th at 06Z in the 
northwestern Caribbean – originally storm #9.  Sparse observations on the 28th show a circulation that 
is too weak and broad to be considered a tropical cyclone on that day.  On the 29th at 06Z, the system 
developed into a tropical cyclone with 25 kt intensity in the northwestern Caribbean based on 
observations.  The cyclone remained nearly stationary in the northwestern Caribbean on the 30th as a 
tropical depression.  This position is about 175 nm south-southwest of the existing HURDAT.  Observations 
on the 1st of October suggests that the original cyclone may have been weakening in the northwestern 
Caribbean Sea near 18N 85.5W.  It is likely that this feature dissipated by the end of the 1st.  Also 
on the 1st, a separate cyclone (the second half of original storm #9, which is now storm #10) appears to 
have been forming over the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, which may have absorbed the earlier cyclone.  
There were no 

DAY      LAT   LON  STATUS
Sep 29   18N   85W  Tropical depression
Sep 30   18N   86W  Tropical depression
Oct  1   18N   85W  Tropical depression
Oct  2   ---   ---  Absorbed


7) Available HWM and COADS data indicate that a tropical depression formed in the Atlantic and moved 
northward over a period of several days.  There is uncertainty as to whether the low was closed on the 
12th and 13th.  By late on the 13th, the system started to become extratropical.  On the 14th, when the 
system was extratropical, it was a definite closed low.  Although there are a couple of observations of 
30 kt with this depression during the first few days, no gales or low pressures could be found.  
Thus, this system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Oct 7 Open wave
Oct 8  18N 52W Tropical depression
Oct 9  18N 52W Tropical depression
Oct 10 23N 52W Tropical depression
Oct 11 26N 53W Tropical depression
Oct 12 29N 54W Tropical depression?
Oct 13 32N 53W Tropical depression?
Oct 14 34N 53W Extratropical


8) Available HWM and COADS data indicate that a closed low north of the Canary Islands moved to the 
southwest for a few days before stalling on the 15th. This storm was at its most intense stage on the 
13th, when maximum sustained winds of the extratropical cyclone were 45 kts.  All of the observed 
gales with this system came while it was extratropical.  Thus, this system will not be added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Oct 12 42N 18W Extratropical
Oct 13 36N 17W Extratropical
Oct 14 35N 17W Extratropical
Oct 15 34N 23W Extratropical?
Oct 16 32N 23W Extratropical
Oct 17 34N 23W Tropical Depression?
Oct 18 35N 23W Tropical Depression?

October 12: HWM indicates a low near 39N, 21W. Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.

October 13: HWM indicates a closed low with a at most 1010mb near 39N, 18W.  Ship highlights: 
45kt NE with a pressure of 1017mb at 39.5N, 25.5W at 18Z (COA); 15kt SW with a pressure of 
1003mb at 34.5N, 15.5W at 9Z (COA).

October 14: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 34N, 20W.  Ship highlights: 
35kt ENE with a pressure of 1009mb at 39.1N, 18.4W at 19Z (COA); 20kt S with a pressure of 
1001mb at 32N, 13.4W at 12Z (COA).

October 15: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 31N, 26W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 16: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 32N, 24W. 
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 17: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1010mb near 32N, 24W. 
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures. 

October 18: HWM indicates a closed low of at most 1015mb near 33N, 24.5W.  
Ship highlights: No gales or low pressures.


9) Available HWM and COADS data suggest that a tropical depression formed in the Caribbean 
and stayed nearly stationary near 15N 75W for several days.  On the 30th and 31st there is 
no longer a definite closed circulation.  There were no gales associated with this system 
(in fact, nothing larger than 20 kt) and only one low pressure of 1004 mb on the 29th around 
15N, 77W (and no time history is available from this ship).  Thus, this system will not be 
added to HURDAT.

DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Oct 25 13N 76W Tropical depression
Oct 26 13N 77W Tropical depression
Oct 27 13N 78W Tropical depression
Oct 28 12N 77W Tropical depression
Oct 29 14N 77W Tropical depression
Oct 30 Open wave
Oct 31 Open wave


10) An area of marked cyclonic turning associated with a broad low or trough moved slowly 
westward in the southwestern Caribbean Sea from 2-5 November. Although there is some 
possibility that a closed circulation was present on 2-3 November, no gales or low pressures 
were found for the entire lifetime of the low, even after obtaining the COADS data to make 
sure.  Thus, this system is not added to HURDAT.

DAY 	LAT LON STATUS
Nov 2   14N 77W Broad low/trough
Nov 3   13N 78W Broad low/trough
Nov 4   13N 81W Broad low/trough
Nov 5   12N 83W Broad low/trough


11) HWM suggests that a weak trough around 13N, 48W on 7 November may have progressed westward 
near the north coast of South America or the southern Windward Islands around 9 November.  
By 11 November, observations indicate cyclonic turning between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola and 
the disturbance may have moved northward in the eastern Caribbean.  What happens to the 
disturbance after that is ambiguous.  Observations on 13 November suggest there may have been 
a broad low in the vicinity of 22N, 57W, but there isn’t much evidence for a closed circulation.  
On 15 November, there is likely a closed circulation near 33N, 54W, but there is a chance that 
this isn’t the same system that was being tracked from 6-11 November.  No relevant gales were 
observed for the entire time from the 6th-15th.  Several low pressures of around 1004-1005 were 
recorded from ships in the eastern Caribbean on 10-11 November, but the observations indicate 
that there was a large area of 1004-1008 mb pressure engulfing most of the eastern Caribbean Sea.  
Sufficient observational coverage in the eastern Caribbean Sea indicates that there was not a 
tropical cyclone present.  Furthermore, there is not evidence of a closed circulation on nearly 
all of the days from 6th-15th.  This system is not added to HURDAT.

DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
Nov 6    13N 43W Broad low/trough
Nov 7    13N 48W Broad low/trough
Nov 8    12N 55W Broad low/trough
Nov 9    10N 62W Broad low/trough
Nov 10   13N 64W Broad low/trough
Nov 11   17N 67W Broad low/trough
Nov 12   19N 65W Broad low/trough
Nov 13   22N 57W Broad low/trough
Nov 14   26N 56W Broad low/trough
Nov 15   33N 54W Broad low/trough


12 a and b) Two lows moved east-northeastward in the northeastern Atlantic between 16-20 November.  
HWM and COADS indicate that both of them were extratropical throughout their lifetimes.  
Thus, neither is added to HURDAT.

12a
DAY    LAT LON STATUS
Nov 16 32N 41W Extratropical
Nov 17 34N 27W Extratropical
Nov 18 40N 12W Extratropical

12b
DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
Nov 18 28N 32W Extratropical
Nov 19 31N 25W Extratropical
Nov 20 33N 18W Extratropical


13) HWM, COADS, the MWR tracks of lows chart, MWR p 392-393, and Connor indicate that a cyclone, 
likely non-tropical, occurred in the Gulf of Mexico from 23-26 November and produced winds as high 
as 60 kt at 00Z on 25 November and pressures as low as 1010 mb, which pressures were 1030 mb or 
higher to the north over the north Gulf Coast.  The cyclone started out in the south-central Gulf 
and progressed northeastward, reaching near 27N, 89W on the 25th before making an eastward turn and 
decelerating.  Observations on the 24th through early on the 25th indicate the cyclone was quite 
intense during that time- and there is also very good evidence that it was extratropical, with a 
strong north-south temperature gradient and very cold temperatures noted in the north and western 
Gulf Coasts.  An analysis at 12Z on the 25th indicates that in the immediate vicinity of the center 
of circulation, air temperatures were in the low 70s accompanied by a cyclonic circulation with 
light winds; however, just a short distance north of the center, in the region with higher winds, 
there were also lower temperatures, and the data shows the cold air that was being advected strongly 
from the north.  On the 26th, the circulation continued to weaken.  This system is not added to 
HURDAT because it is analyzed as extratropical throughout its lifetime.

DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
Nov 23   Broad low/trough in southwestern Gulf
Nov 24   24N 91W Extratropical
Nov 25   27N 89W Extratropical
Nov 26   28N 87W Extratropical


15) HWM indicates an area of cyclonic turning in the southwestern Caribbean from 24-25 November.  
After obtaining the COADS, there are no gales or low pressures for this system from all sources.  
Thus, this suspect is not added to HURDAT.

DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
Nov 24   12N 78W Broad low/trough
Nov 25   12N 81W Broad low/trough
Nov 26   Dissipated


16) A trough/broad low moved east-northeastward over the Atlantic from 29-31 December.  It was 
likely non-frontal during at least part of the time.  A few gales were observed on the 30th, but 
the structure is more of an occluded low with a large radius of maximum winds. Moreover, the 
temperature gradient across the system was about 5F south to north. The system elongated on the 
31st, but was exhibited a couple of gale force winds.  On January 1st, the system was absorbed 
into a frontal boundary. Thus while the cyclone exhibited some subtropical storm characteristics, 
it is judged to be more of an occluded low and not added into HURDAT.

DAY 	 LAT LON STATUS
Dec 29   27N 61W Broad low/trough
Dec 30   28N 55W Occluded low/subtropical storm?
Dec 31   31N 47W Occluded low/subtropical storm?
Jan  1   Absorbed into a frontal boundary