Figures and Tables



Figure 1: Reconstructed Atlantic tropical cyclone tracks and intensities for 1856.

 

 



Figure 2: An idealized representation for finding the center of a tropical cyclone based upon peripheral wind observations. Two ship observations (indicated by the red wind barbs) roughly indicate the tropical cyclone center (where the two black lines cross) assuming cyclonic flow with a 20o inflow angle.

 



Figure 3: Surface windfield analysis for Major Hurricane Erin on 9 September 2001 at 1930 UTC. This analysis utilizes all available surface and near surface wind data including surface-reduced aircraft reconnaissance winds, surface-reduced cloud-drift winds, and ship and buoy observations. These data are all storm-relative composited for the period of 1500 to 1900 UTC, 9 September 2001 and are adjusted to a standard maximum sustained surface (1 min, 10 m) measurement. Peak sustained winds are analyzed to be 102 kt (52 m s-1) to the east-southeast of Erin's center at a radius of 20 nmi (37 km).

 



Figure 4: Same as Figure 3, but without the benefit of surface-reduced aircraft reconnaissance flight-level winds. In this case, highest analyzed surface winds were only 39 kt (20 m s-1) based upon observations from Bermuda about 100 nmi (160 km) from Erin's center. Such an analysis is typical of data available before the advent of aircraft reconnaissance data in the mid-1940s and is illustrative of the underestimation bias that occurred for many tropical cyclones during the era of the late 19th and early 20th Centuries being re-analyzed.

 

Table 1: Sources utilized by Partagas and Diaz in their original work:
Ship reports published in The New York Times, The Times (London) and Gaceta de la Habana, the Monthly Weather Review individual storm and seasonal summaries, the Historical Weather Maps series, reports of the Chief of the Weather Bureau (U.S.), Academia de Ciencias (1970), Alexander (1902), Cline (1926), Dunn and Miller (1960), Garcia-Bonnelly (1958), Garriott (1900), Gutierrez-Lanza (1904), Ho et al. (1987), Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografia (1978), Ludlum (1963), Martinez-Fortun (1942), Mitchell (1924), Neumann et al. (1993), Ortiz-Hector (1975), Rappaport and Partagas (1995), Rodriguez-Demorizi (1958), Rodriguez-Ferrer (1876), Salivia (1972), Sarasola (1928), Simpson and Riehl (1981), Sullivan (1986), Tannehill (1938), Tucker (1982), Vines (1877), and Vines (1895).

Sources utilized in the re-analysis effort beyond those listed above:
Abraham et al. (1998), Barnes (1998a, 1998b), Boose et al. (2001, 2002), Coch and Jarvinen (2000), Connor (1956), Doehring et al. (1994), Ellis (1988), Hebert and McAdie (1997), Ho (1989), Hudgins (2000), Jarvinen (1990), Jarrell et al. (1992), Neumann et al. (1999), Parkes et al. (1998), Perez et al. (2000), Roth (1997a, 1997b), Roth and Cobb (2000, 2001), Sandrik (2002), and Sandrik and Jarvinen (1999).

 

Table 2a: "Center fix" intensity measurement data for Storm 1, 1856.
____________________________________________________________
1856/01 (Synoptic/intensity):
Date Time Wind/Dir. Pressure1 Location Source2
8/10/1856 ???? UTC 40 kt/?? ???? mb 29.3N 89.9W Fort Livingston
8/10/1856 ???? UTC 60 kt/?? ???? mb 30.3N 91.4W Iberville Parish
8/10/1856 0900 UTC 70 kt/N-S 955 mb 28.6N 90.2W "C.D. Mervin"
8/10/1856 1400 UTC 40 kt/E ???? mb 30.0N 90.1W New Orleans
8/10/1856 2100 UTC 70 kt/?? ???? mb 29.0N 90.9W Last Island
8/10/1856 2200 UTC 70 kt/?? ???? mb 29.7N 91.2W Bayou Boeuf
8/11/1856 ???? UTC 40 kt/?? ???? mb 30.4N 91.2W Baton Rouge
8/11/1856 ???? UTC 40 kt/?? ???? mb 32.2N 91.1W New Carthage
8/11/1856 ???? UTC 60 kt/?? ???? mb 31.6N 91.4W Natchez
____________________________________________________________

1) If the sea level pressure measurement was determined to be a "central pressure", a "C" was indicated after the value. Otherwise, the pressure value was considered to be a peripheral (either eyewall or rainband environment of the storm) observation.

2) Sources are either from coastal or inland station data or from ship data (in quotation marks).

 

Table 2b. "Center fix" intensity position data for Storm 5, 1852.
____________________________________________________________
1852/05 (Center positions):
Date Time Location Source1
10/09/1852 ???? UTC 25.6N 86.5W "Hebe"

____________________________________________________________
1) Sources are either from coastal or inland station data or from ship data (in quotation marks).

 

Table 3: The Beaufort Wind Scale (Fitzpatrick 1999).
____________________________________________________________
Beaufort Number Knots Description Specifications at Sea
0 < 1 Calm Sea like a mirror
1 1-3 Light air Ripples with the appearance of scales are formed, but without foam crest
2 4-6 Light breeze Small wavelets, still short but more pronounced; crests have a glassy appearance and do not break
3 7-10 Gentle breeze Large wavelets; crests begin to break; foam of glassy appearance; perhaps scattered white horses
4 11-16 Moderate breeze Small waves, becoming longer; fairly frequent white horses
5 17-21 Fresh breeze Moderate waves, taking a more pronounced long form; many white horses are formed (chance of some spray)
6 22-27 Strong breeze Large waves begin to form; the white foam crests are more extensive everywhere (probably some spray)
7 28-33 Near gale Sea heaps up and white foam from breaking waves begins to be blown in streaks in the direction of the wind
8 34-40 Gale Moderately high waves of greater length; edges of crests begin to break into spindrift; foam is blown in well-markedstreaks along the direction of the wind
9 41-47 Strong gale High waves; dense streaks of foam along the direction of the wind; crests of waves begin to topple, tumble, and roll over; spray may affect visibility
10 48-55 Storm Very high waves with long overhanging crests; the resulting foam, in great patches, is blown in dense white streaks along the direction of the wind; on the whole, the surface of the sea takes on a white appearance; the tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and shock-like; visibility affected
11 56-63 Violent storm Exceptionally high waves (small and medium-sized ships might be for a time lost to view behind the waves); the sea completely covered with long white patches of foam lying along the direction of the wind; everywhere the edges of wave crests are blown into froth; visibility affected
12 > 63 Hurricane The air is filled with foam and spray; sea completely white with driving spray; visibility very seriously affected

 

Table 4: The Smithsonian Institute and Military Fort Wind Force Scale (Ludlum 1963, Ho 1989, M. Chenoweth, personal communication, 2001). Values are estimates of the highest gusts.
1 Very light breeze 2 mph (2 kt)
2 Gentle breeze 4 mph (4 kt)
3 Fresh breeze 12 mph (10 kt)
4 Strong breeze 25 mph (22 kt)
5 High breeze 35 mph (30 kt)
6 Gale 45 mph (39 kt)
7 Strong gale 60 mph (51 kt)
8 Violent gale 75 mph (65 kt)
9 Hurricane 90 mph (78 kt)
10 Most violent 100 mph (87 kt)

 

Table 5: Newly developed regionally-based wind-pressure relationships for the Atlantic basin. Winds are maximum sustained surface winds in knots and pressures are central pressures in mb at sea level.
P(MB) GMEX <25N 25-35N 35-45N KRAFT DVORAK
1000 45 47 48 49 50 45
990 62 64 63 63 67 61
980 76 78 75 73 80 76
970 89 89 85 82 92 90
960 100 100 94 90 102 102
950 110 110 103 97 111 113
940 119 119 110 103 120 122
930 128 127 117 --- 128 132
920 137 135 124 --- 135 141
910 145 143 --- --- 142 151
900 153 150 --- --- 149 161
890 --- 157 --- --- --- 170

 

Table 6: Best track information for Storm 1, 1856 in the standard HURDAT format (a) and in an "easy-to-read" version (b).

(a)

00820 08/09/1856 M= 4  1 SNBR=  29 NOT NAMED   XING=1 SSS=4
00825 08/09*250 839  70    0*257 851  80    0*263 865  90    0*270 878 100    0
00830 08/10*277 891 110    0*282 898 120    0*287 905 130    0*292 911 130  934
00835 08/11*297 916 110    0*300 918  80    0*303 919  60    0*306 918  50    0
00840 08/12*309 916  40    0*313 910  40    0*  0   0   0    0*  0   0   0    0
00845 HR LA4

(b)
Month Day Hour   Lat.   Long.   Dir.    ______Speed_____  _____Wind________ Pressure   Type
  8   9  0 UTC  25.0N  83.9W      deg     mph/    km/hr   80 mph/130 km/hr      mb  H-Cat. 1
  8   9  6 UTC  25.7N  85.1W  305 deg  13 mph/ 22 km/hr   90 mph/150 km/hr      mb  H-Cat. 1
  8   9 12 UTC  26.3N  86.5W  295 deg  14 mph/ 24 km/hr  100 mph/170 km/hr      mb  H-Cat. 2
  8   9 18 UTC  27.0N  87.8W  300 deg  14 mph/ 24 km/hr  120 mph/190 km/hr      mb  MH-Cat. 3
  8  10  0 UTC  27.7N  89.1W  300 deg  14 mph/ 24 km/hr  130 mph/200 km/hr      mb  MH-Cat. 3
  8  10  6 UTC  28.2N  89.8W  310 deg   8 mph/ 12 km/hr  140 mph/220 km/hr      mb  MH-Cat. 4
  8  10 12 UTC  28.7N  90.5W  310 deg   8 mph/ 12 km/hr  150 mph/240 km/hr      mb  MH-Cat. 4
  8  10 18 UTC  29.2N  91.1W  315 deg   8 mph/ 12 km/hr  150 mph/240 km/hr  934 mb  MH-Cat. 4Lndfll
  8  11  0 UTC  29.7N  91.6W  320 deg   6 mph/ 11 km/hr  130 mph/200 km/hr      mb  MH-Cat. 3
  8  11  6 UTC  30.0N  91.8W  330 deg   3 mph/  5 km/hr   90 mph/150 km/hr      mb  H-Cat. 1
  8  11 12 UTC  30.3N  91.9W  345 deg   3 mph/  5 km/hr   70 mph/110 km/hr      mb  TS
  8  11 18 UTC  30.6N  91.8W   15 deg   3 mph/  5 km/hr   60 mph/ 90 km/hr      mb  TS
  8  12  0 UTC  30.9N  91.6W   30 deg   3 mph/  5 km/hr   50 mph/ 70 km/hr      mb  TS
  8  12  6 UTC  31.3N  91.0W   50 deg   6 mph/ 11 km/hr   50 mph/ 70 km/hr      mb  TS

 

Table 7: Estimated average position and intensity errors in best track for the years 1851-1910.
Negative bias errors indicate an underestimation of the true intensity.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Situation Dates Position Error Intensity Error (absolute) Intensity Error (bias)
Open ocean 1851-1885 120 nmi/220 km 25 kt/13 m s-1 -15 kt/-8 m s-1
1886-1910 100 nmi/185 km 20 kt/10 m s-1 -10 kt/-5 m s-1
 
Landfall at sparsely 1851-1885 120 nmi/220 km 25 kt/13 m s-1 -15 kt/-8 m s-1
populated area 1886-1910 100 nmi/185 km 20 kt/10 m s-1 -10 kt/-5 m s-1
 
Landfall at settled 1851-1885 60 nmi/110 km 15 kt/8 m s-1 0 kt/0 m s-1
area 1886-1910 60 nmi/110 km 12 kt/6 m s-1 0 kt/0 m s-1

 

Table 8: Continental United States Hurricanes: 1851-1910. Updated August 27, 2003.
____________________________________________________________________________

#/Date         Time   Lat    Lon   Max  Saffir- RMW  Storm  Central   Environ.  States

                                  Winds Simpson      Surge  Pressure  Pressure  Affected

1-6/25/1851$   1200Z 28.5N  96.5W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    BTX1

4-8/23/1851$   2100Z 30.1N  85.7W  100kt  3    ---    12'%  (960mb)   ------    AFL3,GA1

1-8/22/1852$*  1200Z 23.8N  81.3W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (977mb)   ------    BFL1

1-8/26/1852    0600Z 30.2N  88.6W  100kt  3   30nmi   12'%   961mb    ------    AL3,MS3,LA2,AFL1

3-9/12/1852$   0000Z 28.0N  82.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    BFL1

5-10/9/1852$   2100Z 29.9N  84.4W   90kt  2    ---     7'%  (969mb)   ------    AFL2,GA1

8-10/21/1853*  0600Z 30.9N  80.9W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (965mb)   ------    GA1

2-9/8/1854     2000Z 31.7N  81.1W  100kt  3   40nmi   ---    950mb    ------    GA3,SC2,DFL1

3-9/18/1854    2100Z 28.9N  95.3W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    BTX2

6-9/16/1855$   0300Z 29.2N  89.5W  110kt  3    ---  10-15'% (950mb)   ------    LA3,MS3

1-8/10/1856$   1800Z 29.2N  91.1W  130kt  4   12nmi 11-12'%  934mb    ------    LA4

5-8/31/1856$   0600Z 30.2N  85.9W   90kt  2    ---     6'%  (969mb)   ------    AFL2,AL1,GA1

2-9/13/1857&   1100Z 35.2N  75.7W   80kt  1    ---    ---    961mb    ------    NC1

3-9/16/1858    1700Z 40.9N  72.2W   80kt  1   45nmi   ---   (976mb)   ------    NY1

3-9/16/1858    1800Z 41.3N  72.0W   70kt  1   45nmi   ---    979mb    ------    CT1,RI1,MA1

5-9/16/1859    0000Z 30.3N  88.1W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AL1

1-8/11/1860$   2000Z 29.2N  90.0W  110kt  3    ---    12'%  (950mb)   ------    LA3,MS3,AL2

4-9/15/1860$   0400Z 29.3N  89.6W   90kt  2    ---    10'%  (969mb)   ------    LA2,MS2,AL1

6-10/2/1860$   1700Z 29.5N  91.4W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    LA2

2-8/16/1861$*  0000Z 24.2N  82.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (970mb)   ------    BFL1

5-9/27/1861    1700Z 34.5N  77.4W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    NC1

8-11/2/1861    1000Z 34.7N  76.6W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    NC1

4-9/13/1865$   2100Z 29.8N  93.4W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    LA2,CTX1

7-10/23/1865$  1000Z 24.6N  81.7W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    BFL2

7-10/23/1865$  1400Z 25.4N  81.1W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    BFL2,CFL1

1-7/15/1866    1200Z 28.5N  96.5W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    BTX2

1-6/22/1867    1400Z 32.9N  79.7W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    SC1

7-10/2/1867$#  1500Z 25.4N  97.1W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    ATX1

7-10/4/1867$   1500Z 29.2N  91.0W   90kt  2    ---     7'%  (969mb)   ------    LA2,CTX1

7-10/6/1867$   1500Z 29.6N  83.4W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

2-8/17/1869    0700Z 28.1N  96.8W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    BTX2

5-9/5/1869$    1200Z 29.2N  90.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    LA1

6-9/8/1869&    2100Z 41.0N  71.9W   80kt  1   30nmi   ---    963mb    ------    NY1

6-9/8/1869     2200Z 41.4N  71.7W  100kt  3   30nmi    8'%   965mb    ------    RI3,MA3,CT1

10-10/4/1869&  1900Z 41.3N  70.5W   80kt  1   30nmi   ---   (965mb)   ------    MA1

10-10/4/1869&  2000Z 41.7N  70.4W   80kt  1   30nmi   ---   (965mb)   ------    MA1

10-10/4/1869   2300Z 43.7N  70.1W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (968mb)   ------    ME2

1-7/30/1870    1800Z 30.5N  88.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AL1

6-10/10/1870$* 0500Z 24.6N  80.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (970mb)   ------    BFL1,CFL1

9-10/20/1870$  1400Z 24.7N  82.8W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (977mb)   ------    BFL1

9-10/20/1870$  2000Z 26.0N  81.6W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (977mb)   ------    BFL1

3-8/17/1871$   0200Z 27.1N  80.2W  100kt  3   30nmi   ---    955mb    1016mb    CFL3,DFL1,AFL1

4-8/25/1871$   0500Z 27.6N  80.3W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (965mb)   ------    CFL2,DFL1

6-9/6/1871$    1400Z 29.2N  83.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

3-9/19/1873$   1500Z 29.9N  84.4W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

5-10/7/1873$   0100Z 26.5N  82.2W  100kt  3   26nmi   14'%   959mb    1014mb    BFL3,CFL2,DFL1

6-9/28/1874$   0300Z 29.1N  82.9W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

6-9/28/1874    1800Z 32.8N  80.0W   80kt  1    ---    ---    981mb    ------    SC1,NC1

3-9/16/1875    2100Z 27.7N  97.2W  100kt  3    ---    15'%  (960mb)   ------    BTX3,ATX2

2-9/17/1876    1400Z 34.4N  77.6W   80kt  1    ---    ---    980mb    ------    NC1,VA1

5-10/20/1876$  0500Z 25.8N  81.4W   90kt  2    ---    ---    973mb    ------    BFL2,CFL1

2-9/18/1877$   1600Z 29.2N  91.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    LA1

2-9/19/1877$   2000Z 30.4N  86.6W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

4-10/3/1877$   0500Z 30.0N  85.5W  100kt  3    ---    12'%  (960mb)   ------    AFL3,GA1

5-9/10/1878$   1100Z 28.6N  82.6W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (970mb)   1010mb    BFL2,DFL1

5-9/12/1878    1200Z 32.5N  80.4W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (976mb)   ------    NC1,SC1,GA1

11-10/23/1878  0400Z 34.8N  77.1W   90kt  2    ---    12%  (963mb)   ------    NC2,VA1,MD1,DE1,NJ1,PA1

2-8/18/1879    1200Z 34.7N  76.7W  100kt  3   16nmi    7    971mb    1014mb    NC3,VA2

2-8/19/1879&   0600Z 41.4N  70.8W   60kt  TS   ---    ---    984mb    ------    (None)

3-8/23/1879    0200Z 29.4N  94.4W   90kt  2    ---    ---    964mb    ------    CTX2,LA2

4-9/1/1879$    1600Z 29.5N  91.4W  110kt  3    ---    ---   (950mb)   ------    LA3

2-8/13/1880#   0100Z 25.8N  97.0W  110kt  3   12nmi   ---    931mb    ------    ATX3

4-8/29/1880$   1200Z 28.2N  80.6W   90kt  2    ---    ---    972mb    ------    CFL2,DFL1

4-8/31/1880    0400Z 29.7N  84.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

6-9/9/1880     1000Z 34.7N  77.1W   70kt  1    ---    ---    987mb    ------    NC1

9-10/8/1880    1900Z 28.9N  82.7W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

5-8/28/1881    0200Z 31.7N  81.1W   90kt  2   15nmi   ---    970mb    ------    GA2,SC1

6-9/9/1881     1600Z 33.9N  78.1W   90kt  2   15nmi   ---    975mb    ------    NC2

2-9/10/1882    0200Z 30.4N  86.8W  100kt  3    ---    ---    949mb    ------    AFL3,AL1

3-9/15/1882    0500Z 29.8N  93.7W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (969mb)   ------    LA2,CTX1

6-10/11/1882   0400Z 29.5N  83.3W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

3-9/11/1883    1300Z 33.9N  78.5W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (965mb)   ------    NC2,SC1

2-8/25/1885    0900Z 32.2N  80.7W  100kt  3    ---    ---   (953mb)   ------    SC3,NC2,GA1,DFL1

1-6/14/1886    1600Z 29.6N  94.2W   85kt  2    ---     7'%  (973mb)   ------    CTX2,LA2

2-6/21/1886    1100Z 30.1N  84.0W   85kt  2    ---    ---   (973mb)   ------    AFL2,GA1

3-6/30/1886    2100Z 29.7N  85.2W   85kt  2    ---    ---   (973mb)   ------    AFL2

4-7/19/1886    0100Z 28.8N  82.7W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

5-8/20/1886    1300Z 28.1N  96.8W  135kt  4   15nmi   15'    925mb    ------    BTX4

8-9/23/1886#   0700Z 26.0N  97.2W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (973mb)   ------    ATX1,BTX1

10-10/12/1886  2200Z 29.8N  93.5W  105kt  3    ---    12'%  (955mb)   ------    LA3,CTX2

4-7/27/1887    1500Z 30.4N  86.6W   75kt  1    ---    ---   (981mb)   ------    AFL1

6-8/20/1887*   1200Z 35.0N  75.0W   65kt  1    ---    ---   (946mb)   ------    NC1

9-9/21/1887    1700Z 26.1N  97.2W   85kt  2    ---    ---    973mb    ------    ATX2

13-10/19/1887  0200Z 29.1N  90.4W   75kt  1    ---    ---   (981mb)   ------    LA1

1-6/17/1888    0600Z 28.7N  95.7W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    BTX1

3-8/16/1888$   1900Z 25.8N  80.1W  110kt  3    ---    14'%  (945mb)   ------    CFL3,BFL1

3-8/19/1888    1600Z 29.1N  90.7W   95kt  2    ---    ---   (964mb)   ------    LA2

6-9/26/1888&   1300Z 41.6N  69.9W   55kt  TS   ---    ---    985mb    ------    (None)

7-10/11/1888   0100Z 29.2N  83.1W   95kt  2   11nmi    9'    970mb    ------    AFL2,DFL1

6-9/23/1889    0400Z 29.1N  89.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    LA1

1-7/5/1891     2200Z 28.8N  95.5W   80kt  1    ---    ---   (977mb)   ------    BTX1,CTX1

3-8/24/1891$   1500Z 25.4N  80.2W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    CFL1

4-8/24/1893    1200Z 40.6N  73.9W   75kt  1   30nmi   ---    986mb    ------    NY1,VA1

6-8/28/1893    0500Z 31.7N  81.1W  100kt  3   23nmi   9-10'  954mb    1010mb    GA3,SC3,NC1,DFL1

8-9/7/1893     1400Z 29.2N  91.1W   85kt  2    ---    ---    973mb    ------    LA2

10-10/2/1893   0800Z 29.3N  89.8W  115kt  4   12nmi   ---    948mb    ------    LA4

10-10/2/1893   1600Z 30.3N  88.9W   95kt  2   17nmi 10-12'%  970mb    ------    MS2,AL2

9-10/13/1893   1300Z 33.0N  79.5W  105kt  3   15nmi   14'%   955mb    ------    SC3,NC2,VA1

4-9/25/1894$   1100Z 24.7N  82.0W   80kt  1    ---    ---    985mb    ------    BFL1

4-9/25/1894$   1900Z 26.5N  82.0W   90kt  2    ---    ---   (975mb)   ------    BFL2,DFL1

4-9/27/1894    0700Z 32.3N  80.7W   80kt  1    ---    10'%  (976mb)   ------    SC1

4-9/29/1894*   1200Z 37.0N  75.0W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (978mb)   ------    VA1

5-10/9/1894    0300Z 30.2N  85.5W  105kt  3    ---    ---   (955mb)   ------    AFL3,GA1

5-10/10/1894   1500Z 40.7N  72.9W   75kt  1    ---    ---   (978mb)   ------    NY1,RI1

2-8/30/1895#   0400Z 25.0N  97.6W   65kt  2    ---    ---   (973mb)   ------    ATX1

1-7/7/1896     1700Z 30.4N  86.5W   85kt  2    ---    ---   (973mb)   ------    AFL2

2-9/10/1896    1300Z 41.2N  70.6W   70kt  1   30nmi   ---   (985mb)   ------    RI1,MA1

4-9/29/1896    1100Z 29.2N  83.1W  110kt  3   15nmi   ---    960mb    1014mb    AFL3,DFL3,GA2,SC1,NC1,VA1

2-9/13/1897    0500Z 29.7N  93.8W   75kt  1    ---     6'%  (981mb)   ------    LA1,CTX1

1-8/2/1898     2300Z 29.7N  84.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   ------    AFL1

2-8/31/1898    0700Z 32.1N  80.8W   75kt  1    ---    ---   (980mb)   ------    GA1,SC1

7-10/2/1898    1600Z 30.9N  81.4W  115kt  4   18nmi   16'    938mb    1010mb    GA4,DFL2

2-8/1/1899     1700Z 29.7N  84.7W   85kt  2    ---    ---    979mb    1017mb    AFL2

3-8/18/1899    0100Z 35.2N  75.8W  105kt  3    ---    ---   (945mb)   1012mb    NC3

8-10/31/1899   0900Z 33.6N  79.0W   95kt  2   35nmi    9'%   955mb    1012mb    NC2,SC2

1-9/9/1900     0140Z 29.1N  95.1W  125kt  4   14nmi   20'%   931mb    1012mb    CTX4

3-7/11/1901    0720Z 36.0N  75.8W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (983mb)   1016mb    NC1

4-8/14/1901    2110Z 29.3N  89.6W   80kt  1    ---     8'%  (973mb)   1013mb    LA1

4-8/15/1901    1700Z 30.4N  88.8W   80kt  1   33nmi    8'%   973mb    1013mb    MS1,AL1

3-9/11/1903    2250Z 26.1N  80.1W   75kt  1   43nmi    8'%   976mb    1016mb    CFL1

3-9/13/1903    2330Z 30.1N  85.6W   80kt  1    ---    10'%  (977mb)   1016mb    AFL1

4-9/16/1903    1120Z 39.1N  74.7W   70kt  1    ---    ---    990mb    1020mb    NJ1,DE1

2-9/14/1904    1320Z 33.1N  79.2W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   1017mb    SC1

3-10/17/1904   0750Z 25.3N  80.3W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   1016mb    CFL1

2-6/17/1906    0240Z 24.7N  81.1W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (986mb)   1013mb    BFL1,CFL1

2-6/17/1906    0750Z 25.2N  80.7W   75kt  1   26nmi   ---    979mb    1013mb    CFL1

5-9/17/1906    2140Z 33.3N  79.2W   80kt  1   30nmi   ---    977mb    1018mb    SC1,NC1

6-9/27/1906    1100Z 30.2N  88.6W   95kt  2   43nmi   14'%   958mb    1013mb    MS2,AL2,AFL2,LA1

8-10/18/1906   0930Z 24.7N  81.1W  105kt  3   12nmi   ---    953mb    1010mb    BFL3,CFL3

8-10/18/1906   1130Z 25.2N  80.8W  105kt  3   12nmi   ---    953mb    1010mb    CFL3,BFL1

2-5/29/1908&   2100Z 35.2N  75.6W   55kt  TS   ---    ---    989mb    1015mb    (None)

3-7/31/1908    1130Z 34.6N  77.1W   70kt  1    ---    ---   (985mb)   1017mb    NC1

2-6/29/1909    1700Z 26.1N  97.2W   85kt  2    ---     7'%   972mb    1012mb    ATX2

4-7/21/1909    1650Z 28.9N  95.3W  100kt  3   19nmi   10'%   959mb    1015mb    CTX3

6-8/27/1909#   2140Z 23.7N  97.7W   65kt  1    ---    ---   (955mb)   1014mb    ATX1

8-9/21/1909    0000Z 29.5N  91.3W  105kt  3   28nmi   15'%   952mb    1012mb    LA3,MS2

10-10/11/1909  1800Z 24.7N  81.0W  100kt  3   22nmi   ---    957mb    1009mb    BFL3,CFL3

3-9/14/1910    2200Z 26.9N  97.4W   95kt  2    ---    ---   (965mb)   1011mb    ATX2

5-10/17/1910*  1900Z 24.6N  82.6W   90kt  2   28nmi   ---    941mb    1008mb    BFL2

5-10/18/1910   0600Z 26.5N  82.0W   95kt  2   28nmi   15'%   955mb    1008mb    BFL2

____________________________________________________________________________

Notes:

Date/Time: Day and time when the circulation center crossed the U.S. coastline (including barrier islands). Time was estimate to the nearest hour for the period of 1851 to 1899 and to the nearest ten minutes for the period of 1900 to 1910.

Lat/Lon: Location was estimated to the nearest 0.1 degrees latitude and longitude (about 6 nmi).

Max Winds: Estimated maximum sustained 1-min surface (10 m) winds to occur along the U. S. coast. Winds are estimated to the nearest 10 kt for the period of 1851 to 1885 and to the nearest 5 kt for the period of 1886 to 1910.

Saffir-Simpson: The estimated Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale at landfall based upon maximum sustained surface winds. "TS" indicates that the hurricane's center made landfall, but that hurricane force wind remained offshore.

RMW: The radius of maximum winds at the surface (primarily for the right front quadrant of the hurricane), if available.

Storm surge: Maximum observed storm surge, if available. Though a higher value may have occurred, it might not have been recorded.

Central Pressure: The observed (or analyzed from peripheral pressure measurements) minimum central pressure of the hurricane at landfall. Central pressure values in parentheses indicate that the value was a simple estimation (based upon a wind-pressure relationship) and not directly observed or calculated.

Environmental Pressure: The sea level pressure at the outer limits of the hurricane circulation determined by moving outward from the storm center to the first anticyclonically turning isobar in four equally spaced directions and averaging the four pressures thus obtained.

States Affected: The impact of the hurricane on individual U.S. states based upon the Saffir-Simpson Scale (again through the estimate of the maximum sustained surface winds at each state). (ATX-South Texas, BTX-Central Texas, CTX-North Texas, LA-Louisiana, MS-Mississippi, AL-Alabama, AFL-Northwest Florida, BFL-Southwest Florida, CFL-Southeast Florida, DFL-Northeast Florida, GA-Georgia, SC-South Carolina, NC-North Carolina, VA-Virginia, MD-Maryland, DE-Delaware, NJ-New Jersey, NY-New York, PA-Pennsylvania, CT-Connecticut, RI-Rhode Island, MA-Massachusetts, NH-New Hampshire, ME-Maine. In Texas, south refers to the area from the Mexican border to Corpus Christi; central spans from north of Corpus Christi to Matagorda Bay and north refers to the region from north of Matagorda Bay to the Louisiana border. In Florida, the north-south dividing line is from Cape Canaveral [28.45N] to Tarpon Springs [28.17N]. The dividing line between west-east Florida goes from 82.69W at the north Florida border with Georgia, to Lake Okechobee and due south along longitude 80.85W.)

$ - Indicates that the hurricane may not have been reliably estimated for intensity (both central pressure and maximum sustained wind speed) because of landfall in a relatively uninhabited region. Errors in intensity are likely to be underestimates of the true intensity.

* - Indicates that the hurricane center did not make a U.S. landfall, but did produce hurricane force winds over land. The position indicated is the point of closest approach. In this table, maximum winds refer to the strongest winds estimated to impact the United States. In this case, central pressure is given for the hurricane's point of closest approach.

& - Indicates that the hurricane center did make a direct landfall, but that the strongest winds likely remained offshore. Thus the winds indicated here are lower than in HURDAT.

# - Indicates that the hurricane made landfall over Mexico, but also caused hurricane winds in Texas. The position given is that of the Mexican landfall. The strongest winds at landfall impacted Mexico, while the weaker maximum sustained winds indicated here were conditions estimated to occur in Texas. Indicated central pressure given is that at Mexican landfall.

% - Indicates that the value listed is a "storm tide" observation rather than a "storm surge", which removes the astronomical tide component.

 

Table 9: Continental United States Tropical Storms: 1851-1910. Updated August 27, 2003.

____________________________________________________________________________

#/Date          Time   Lat    Lon     Max  Landfall

                                     Winds  State

6-10/19/1851    1500Z  41.1N  71.7W   50kt   NY

3- 8/19/1856    1100Z  34.8   76.4    50     NC

4- 9/30/1857$   1000Z  25.8   97.0    50     TX

3- 9/14/1858$   1500Z  27.6   82.7    60     FL

3- 9/16/1858*   0300Z  35.2   75.2    50     NC

7-10/17/1859$   1600Z  26.4   80.1    60     FL

7-10/ 7/1861    1200Z  35.3   75.3    50     NC

8-11/ 1/1861$   0800Z  26.0   81.8    60     FL

8-11/ 3/1861    0800Z  41.0   72.3    60     NY

8-11/ 3/1861    0900Z  41.2   72.0    50     CT

6- 9/18/1863    1300Z  34.6   77.1    60     NC

9- 9/29/1863$   1200Z  29.3   94.8    60     TX

2- 6/30/1865$   1800Z  26.0   97.5    50     TX

3- 8/22/1865*   1800Z  34.5   74.6    40     NC

5- 9/ 7/1865$   0000Z  29.7   92.0    60     LA

7-10/30/1866    0800Z  39.5   74.3    60     NJ

2- 8/ 2/1867*   0100Z  34.9   75.0    60     NC

2- 8/ 2/1867*   2200Z  40.9   69.3    50     MA

2-10/ 4/1868$   1600Z  29.9   85.4    60     FL

2- 9/ 3/1870*   1800Z  40.5   68.8    40     MA

1- 6/ 4/1871    0700Z  29.1   95.1    50     TX

2- 6/ 9/1871    1700Z  29.2   95.0    50     TX

3-8/23/1871     0000Z  31.2   81.3    60     GA

7-10/ 5/1871$   1600Z  30.0   83.9    60     FL

1- 7/11/1872    0500Z  29.1   89.1    50     LA

1- 7/11/1872    0800Z  30.2   89.0    50     MS

5-10/23/1872$   0800Z  27.9   82.7    50     FL

5-10/25/1872    0100Z  34.4   77.7    50     NC

1- 6/ 2/1873    1100Z  30.8   81.4    40     GA

4- 9/23/1873$   1000Z  27.8   82.8    50     FL

1- 7/ 4/1874    2000Z  28.5   96.2    50     TX

4- 9/ 4/1874$#  1200Z  25.0   97.6    40     TX

4- 9/27/1875$   1300Z  30.1   85.7    50     FL

2- 9/16/1876$*  1500Z  25.5   79.7    40     FL

7-10/26/1877$   2100Z  29.3   83.2    40     FL

1- 7/ 2/1878$   1500Z  26.0   81.8    40     FL

5- 9/ 7/1878$   2100Z  24.7   80.9    60     FL

5- 9/ 8/1878$   0200Z  25.2   81.0    60     FL

8-10/10/1878$   2100Z  29.9   85.4    50     FL

11-10/22/1878$* 0000Z  25.9   79.8    50     FL

2-8/19/1879&    0600Z  41.4   70.8    60     MA

5-10/ 7/1879    0500Z  29.0   89.2    50     LA

6-10/16/1879$   0800Z  30.4   86.6    50     FL

7-10/27/1879$   2100Z  29.0   82.7    60     FL

1- 6/24/1880    1500Z  28.7   95.7    40     TX

6- 9/ 8/1880    1600Z  29.8   83.6    50     FL

11-10/23/1880   0800Z  41.3   70.0    60     MA

11-10/23/1880   1300Z  44.0   68.8    60     ME

1- 8/ 3/1881    1300Z  30.2   88.3    50     AL

2- 8/13/1881    2100Z  28.0   96.9    40     TX

4- 9/22/1882    2200Z  34.7   77.0    50     NC

4- 9/24/1882    0500Z  40.7   72.8    40     NY

3- 9/11/1884    0100Z  31.6   81.2    40     GA

3- 8/22/1885    2300Z  30.1   85.7    50     FL

4- 9/21/1885    0300Z  29.0   89.4    50     LA

4- 9/21/1885    1200Z  30.0   85.6    50     FL

4- 9/23/1885*   0300Z  41.6   69.7    50     MA

6- 9/26/1885    0400Z  29.6   89.0    60     LA

6-10/ 2/1885*   1500Z  35.0   74.8    50     NC

8-10/11/1885    2200Z  29.4   83.2    60     FL

5-8/18/1886*$   0100Z  23.9   81.9    55     FL

3-6/14/1887     0700Z  30.2   88.7    35     MS

7-8/25/1887*    0600Z  35.0   74.4    50     NC

16-10/30/1887$  0100Z  26.8   82.3    40     FL

2-7/5/1888      1600Z  28.8   95.6    50     TX

4-9/6/1888*$    0000Z  23.0   81.9    50     FL

5-9/8/1888$     0000Z  26.7   80.0    45     FL

6-9/26/1888&    1300Z  41.6   69.9    55     MA

7-10/11/1888    1600Z  33.9   78.1    60     NC

9-11/25/1888*   1800Z  35.3   74.2    60     NC

2-6/17/1889     1500Z  29.1   82.9    45     FL

4-9/11/1889*    2100Z  38.4   72.7    60     NJ

6-9/23/1889     1300Z  30.3   87.7    60     FL

9-10/5/1889$    2300Z  24.7   81.1    40     FL

9-10/6/1889$    0100Z  25.2   80.9    40     FL

2-8/27/1890     1600Z  29.1   90.8    50     LA

7-10/7/1891$    0000Z  25.0   81.2    45     FL

8-10/9/1891$    1400Z  25.8   81.7    45     FL

9-10/12/1891*   0600Z  35.0   74.1    60     NC

1-6/10/1892$    2300Z  25.7   81.3    40     FL

4-9/12/1892     0700Z  29.0   90.6    50     LA

9-10/24/1892$   1900Z  27.6   82.8    45     FL

1-6/15/1893     2300Z  29.9   83.7    60     FL

11-10/23/1893   0300Z  35.2   75.6    50     NC

11-10/23/1893   1100Z  38.1   75.6    45     VI

12-11/8/1893*   1800Z  35.6   74.6    55     NC   

2-8/7/1894      1800Z  30.3   87.6    50     AL

4-9/28/1894     1200Z  34.7   76.7    60     NC

1-8/15/1895     1900Z  29.3   89.6    50     LA

1-8/16/1895     1300Z  30.2   88.8    45     MS

4-10/7/1895     0400Z  29.3   94.8    35     TX

6-10/16/1895$   1300Z  25.7   81.3    35     FL

5-10/9/1896$    0200Z  26.4   82.0    50     FL

5-10/13/1896*   1200Z  40.0   67.2    60     RI

2-9/10/1897$&   1800Z  24.4   81.9    50     FL

3-9/21/1897$    0200Z  26.7   82.3    60     FL

3-9/23/1897&    1000Z  35.2   75.7    50     NC

3-9/24/1897     1100Z  40.8   72.7    50     NY

3-9/24/1897     1300Z  41.3   72.2    45     CT

5-10/20/1897    2000Z  35.2   75.5    55     NC

6-10/25/1897    2300Z  36.1   75.8    55     NC

1-8/2/1898$     0300Z  27.1   80.1    35     FL

5-9/20/1898     1100Z  29.6   92.8    50     LA

6-9/28/1898     0700Z  29.4   94.7    50     TX

8-9/26/1898$    0600Z  25.1   80.8    40     FL

9-10/11/1898$&  1200Z  24.5   80.0    40     FL

1-6/27/1899     0900Z  29.1   95.1    35     TX

2-7/30/1899$    1000Z  24.9   80.6    40     FL

3-8/13/1899*    1200Z  27.0   78.6    60     FL

6-10/5/1899$    1000Z  27.9   82.8    50     FL

4-9/13/1900     0630Z  29.2   89.5    40     LA

4-9/13/1900     1500Z  30.3   88.8    35     MS

6-10/12/1900    0250Z  29.5   83.3    40     FL

1-6/13/1901     2050Z  29.9   84.6    35     FL

2-7/10/1901     1010Z  28.6   96.0    45     TX

3-7/12/1901     2210Z  34.0   77.9    35     NC

4-8/10/1901     2130Z  26.3   80.1    40     FL

7-9/17/1901     1930Z  30.4   86.6    50     FL

9-9/28/1901     0250Z  29.9   84.6    40     FL

1-6/14/1902     2310Z  29.8   83.7    50     FL

2-6/26/1902     2110Z  27.7   97.2    60     TX

4-10/10/1902    2120Z  30.3   87.3    50     FL

3-10/20/1904    1010Z  25.5   81.2    35     FL

5-11/3/1904     1230Z  30.5   86.4    35     FL

3-9/29/1905     0940Z  29.6   92.6    45     LA

5-10/9/1905     1720Z  29.5   91.4    45     LA

1-6/12/1906     2030Z  30.1   85.6    45     FL

8-10/21/1906    0930Z  30.0   81.4    50     FL

1-6/28/1907     2340Z  30.3   85.9    50     FL

2-9/21/1907     1700Z  30.4   88.9    40     MS

3-9/28/1907     2020Z  30.1   85.7    45     FL

2-5/29/1908&    2100Z  35.2   75.6    55     NC

2-5/30/1908     2250Z  41.3   72.0    35     CT

4-9/1/1908      0900Z  34.7   76.5    45     NC

3-6/28/1909     2010Z  26.0   80.1    45     FL

3-6/30/1909     1400Z  30.1   84.1    35     FL

7-8/29/1909     0900Z  26.4   80.1    45     FL

2-8/21/1910#    0000Z  25.7   97.2    40     TX

____________________________________________________________________________

Notes:

Date/Time: Day and time when the circulation center crossed the U.S. coastline (including barrier islands). Time was estimated to the nearest hour for the period of 1851 to 1899 and to the nearest ten minutes for the period of 1900 to 1910.

Lat/Lon: Location was estimated to the nearest 0.1 degrees latitude and longitude (about 6 nmi).

Max Winds: Estimated maximum sustained 1-min surface (10 m) winds to occur along the U. S. coast. Winds are estimated to the nearest 10 kt for the period of 1851 to 1885 and to the nearest 5 kt for the period of 1886 to 1910.

Landfall States: TX- Texas, LA-Louisiana, MS-Mississippi, AL-Alabama, FL- Florida, GA-Georgia, SC-South Carolina, NC-North Carolina, VA-Virginia, MD-Maryland, DE-Delaware, NJ-New Jersey, NY-New York, CT-Connecticut, RI-Rhode Island, MA-Massachusetts, NH-New Hampshire, ME-Maine.

$ - Indicates that the tropical storm may not have been reliably estimated for intensity (maximum sustained wind speed) because of landfall in a relatively uninhabited region. Errors in intensity are likely to be underestimates of the true intensity.

# - Indicates that the tropical storm or hurricane made landfall over Mexico, but also caused tropical storm force winds in Texas. The position given is that of the Mexican landfall. The strongest winds at landfall impacted Mexico, while the weaker maximum sustained winds indicated here were conditions estimated to occur in Texas.

* - Indicates that the tropical storm or hurricane center did not make a U.S. landfall, but did produce tropical storm force winds over land. The position indicated is the point of closest approach. In this table, maximum winds refer to the strongest winds estimated to impact the United States.

& - Indicates that the tropical storm or hurricane center did make a direct landfall, but that the strongest winds likely remained offshore. Thus the winds indicated here are lower than in HURDAT.

 

Table 10: Estimated dates when accurate tropical cyclone records began for specified regions of the United States based upon U.S Census reports and other historical analyses. Years in parenthesis indicate possible starting dates for reliable records before the 1850s that may be available with additional research.
State Date
Texas - south 1880
Texas - central 1850
Texas - north 1860
Louisiana 1880
Mississippi 1850
Alabama < 1851 (1830)
Florida northwest 1880
Florida southwest 1900
Florida southeast 1900
Florida northeast 1880
Georgia < 1851 (1800)
South Carolina < 1851 (1760)
North Carolina < 1851 (1760)
Virginia < 1851 (1700)
Maryland < 1851 (1760)
Delaware < 1851 (1700)
New Jersey < 1851 (1760)
New York < 1851 (1700)
Connecticut < 1851 (1660)
Rhode Island < 1851 (1760)
Massachusetts < 1851 (1660)
New Hampshire < 1851 (1660)
Maine < 1851 (1790)