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Bibligraphy : Social Response to Hurricanes and Other Natural Disasters

by Gloria Aversano, Libraian and Haley Moreno, Intern

The scope of this bibliography includes NOAA and non-NOAA authors.  All citations are derived from NOAA consortia databases found on the NOAA Miami Regional and National Hurricane Center Branch Library’s E-Resources webpage (  best viewed in Mozilla Firefox browser.  

Links are accessible for those with authorized IP addresses, primarily from the National Hurricane Center and Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory.  
Title suggestions are welcomed.


1.  Brommer, David, and Jason Senkbeil. "Pre-Landfall Evacuee Perception  of the Meteorological Hazards Associated with Hurricane Gustav." Abstract  only. Natural Hazards   (2010). Abstract: "In this study, evacuees from the path of Hurricane Gustav were surveyed to determine which meteorological hazards most influenced their decision to leave. Surveys were conducted along two major evacuation routes on August 30 and 31, 2008, to collect time-sensitive data on individual evacuation decisions related to the meteorological hazards from Hurricane Gustav. The regions of New Orleans, Houma, and Lafayette were represented most frequently, as determined by zip code data collected from the surveys. Responses were evaluated first by meteorological hazard for the entire dataset and then by three-digit zip code region. Overall, storm surge was the most important meteorological variable, followed by the size of the storm, wind, rain, and tornadoes. When separated into three-digit zip code regions, analyses revealed evacuees from in and around New Orleans were driven to evacuate as a result of the perceived threat from storm surge and storm size; residents in the Houma, Louisiana region were motivated to leave due to the threat from storm surge and Lafayette and the surrounding areas were most-concerned with the threats posed by hurricane-force winds. Given the forecast track and intensity, survey respondents understood the meteorological hazards from Gustav and were motivated to leave based on personal evaluations of risk associated with the storm."
2.   Kusenbach, Margarethe, Jason Simms, and Graham Tobin. "Disaster Vulnerability and Evacuation Readiness: Coastal Mobile Home ResidentsinFlorida." Natural Hazards 52:1 (2010): 79-95.  Abstract: "This article examines disaster preparedness in a highly vulnerable population, mobile home park residents in hurricane-prone areas. The vulnerabilities of this population mandate evacuation as the only viable disaster response strategy, but this does not always happen. In order to explore evacuation decision making, interviews were conducted with 75 mobile home park residents in Ruskin, Florida. Descriptive results build on a conceptualization of physical, structural, socio-economic, and residual disaster vulnerability; the latter is defined as a combination of experiences, perceptions, and preparations that inhibit the willingness and abilities of respondents to protect themselves. While residents generally prepared for disasters, evacuation plans were troubling. Barriers to evacuation based on measured vulnerabilities remained unclear, and analysis of responses failed to explain respondents varying evacuation preparations. Future research needs to address differential evacuation behaviors among mobile home park residents. We further conclude that disaster preparation and education need to address the special risks of this and other vulnerable populations better."

3.  Lazo, Jeffrey K., et al. "Household Evacuation Decision Making and the Benefits of Improved Hurricane Forecasting: Developing a Framework for Assessment." Full-text. Weather and Forecasting 25 1 (2010): 207-19  Abstract: "Hurricane warnings are the primary sources of information that enable the public to assess the risk and develop responses to threats from hurricanes. These warnings have significantly reduced the number of hurricane-related fatalities in the last several decades. Further investment in the science and implementation of the warning system is a primary mission of the National weather Service and its partners. It is important that the weather community understand the public preferences and values for such investments; yet, there is little empirical information on the use of forecasts in evacuation decision making, the economic value of current forecasts, or the potential use or value for improvements in hurricane forecasts. Such information is needed to evaluate whether mproved forecast provision and dissemination offer more benefit to society than alternative public investments. Fundamental aspects of households perceptions of hurricane forecasts and warnings and their potential uses of and values for improved hurricane forecast information are examined. The study was designed in part to examine the viability of survey research methods for exploring evacuation decision making and for eliciting values for improved hurricane forecasts and warnings. First, aspects that affect households state likelihood of evacuation are explored, because informing such decisions is one of the primary purposes of hurricane forecasts and warnings. Then, stated-choice valuation methods are used to analyze choices between potential forecast-improvement programs and the accuracy of existing forecasts. From this, the willingness to pay (WTP) for improved forecasts is derived from survey respondents."

4.   Morss, Rebecca E., Jeffrey K. Lazo, and Demuth. Julie L. "Examining the Use of Weather Forecasts in Decision Scenarios: Results from a Us Survey with Implications for Uncertainty Communication."  Full-text. Meteorological Applications 17 2 (2010): 149-62.   Abstract: "The hydrometeorological community has limited understanding of how people interpret forecast information and use it in decision making, hampering effective forecast communication. This article addresses these issues in the context of weather prediction, focusing especially on forecast uncertainty. It does so using empirical data from decision scenario questions asked in a nationwide USsurvey. Respondents were asked their probabilistic threshold for taking action to protect against potential rain or frost. They were then asked to make yes/no protective decisions in a potential reservoir flooding or fruit frost scenario given different forecasts. The results indicate that people have different probabilistic thresholds for taking protective action and that context and presentation influence forecast use. The results also suggest that many people infer uncertainty into deterministic forecasts, and that many respondents were able to interpret probabilistic forecasts of the type presented well enough to use them in the decision questions. Further, the analysis suggests that most respondents did not make decisions according to the simplest form of the cost-loss decision model. The analysis also examines relationships between respondents' information use and other aspects of their perceptions and interpretations of forecast uncertainty, including their interpretations of probability of precipitation. The findings add to fundamental knowledge about people's interpretations and use of weather forecasts, especially forecasts that explicitly convey uncertainty, and provide a starting point for future related work using survey and experimental approaches. Copyright 2010 Royal Meteorological Society."

5.  Silver, Amber, and Catherine Conrad. "Public Perception of and Response to Severe Weather Warnings in Nova Scotia, Canada."  Full-text.   Meteorological Applications 17 2 (2010): 173-79.  Astract: "Hurricane Juan, which struck Atlantic Canada on 29 September, 2003, revealed the full extent of public vulnerability to severe weather events in Nova Scotia. In this study, 130 people were interviewed via a systematic sampling technique to examine perception of severe weather warnings, and to determine what actions (if any) they are most likely to take when a warning has been posted. It was found that different target groups (e.g. the elderly, students) use different modes of media to obtain their severe weather information. It recommended that forecast centres tailor their advisories for specific media sources so as best to reach various target groups. It was also found that respondents are generally satisfied with the weather warnings they receive, but there is a lack of awareness of the existence and extent of public vulnerability in Nova Scotia. The development of a comprehensive education campaign which will outline various facets of social vulnerability, while also offering recommendations on how best to lower existing social vulnerability, is critical." Copyright 2010 Royal Meteorological Society."

6.   Travis, William. "Going to Extremes: Propositions on the Social Response to Severe Climate Change."  Abstract only. Climatic Change 98 1 (2010): 1-19.      Abstract: "The growing literature on potentially-dangerous climate change is examined and research on human response to natural hazards is analyzed to develop propositions on social response pathways likely to emerge in the face of increasingly severe climate change. A typology of climate change severity is proposed and the potential for mal-adaptive responses examined. Elements of a warning system for severe climate change are briefly considered."

7.   Gladwin, Hugh, et al. "Social Science Research Needs for the Hurricane Forecast and Warning System."  Full-text BAMS 90  1  (2009):25-29.

8.   Li, Geraldine M. "Tropical Cyclone Risk Perceptions in Darwin, Australia:  A Comparison of Different Residential Groups." Abstract  only. Natural Hazards 48 3    (2009): 365-82.  Abstract: "Different individuals and groups perceive risk differently. This can significantly affect risk management and mitigation practices and requirements. This paper presents findings from a study of tropical cyclone risk perceptions in the city of Darwin in the Northern Territory   of Australia. Primary in-depth interview data and other secondary data are analysed, focussing in particular on wind damage, storm surge and life safety risk perceptions of residents since Cyclone Tracy, which impacted in 1974, and perceptions of future climate change as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The analysis reveals that a number of perceptions prevail. In particular, the study reveals a wide difference of perceptions between short-term residents (Group 1) and long-term and expert residents (Group 2) in relation to wind damage, storm surge and life safety risk. It also reveals a large division between laypersons (Group 3) and expert residents (Group 4) perceptions of climate change risk as it relates to tropical cyclone risk. The author recommends that flexible, multiple and integrative management and mitigation approaches are required to deal with such different perceptions and divisions in the resident population."

 9.   Senkbeil, J., et al. "The Perceived Landfall Location of Evacuees from Hurricane Gustav." Abstract only. Natural Hazards  (2009).  Abstract: "Hurricane evacuations in the United States are costly, chaotic, and sometimes unnecessary. Many coastal residents consider evacuation after viewing a forecasted graphic of where the storm is anticipated to make landfall. During the evacuation process, hurricane tracks commonly deviate from the forecasted landfall track and many evacuees may not pay attention to these track deviations after evacuating. Frequently, a disconnect may occur between the actual landfall track, the official forecasted track,and the perceived track of each individual as they made their evacuation decision. Specifically for evacuees, a shift in track may decrease the hazards associated with a landfalling hurricane since evacuees perceive their threat level to be high at the time of evacuation. Using survey data gathered during the evacuation from Hurricane Gustav (2008) in coastal Louisiana (USA), we calculated a type of Z-score to measure the distance error between each evacuee perceived landfall location and the actual landfall location from each evacuee's home zip code. Results indicate a personal landfall bias in thedirection of home zip code for evacuees of three metropolitan regions. Evacuees from the greater New Orleans area displayed the highest error, followed by evacuees from greater Lafayette. Furthermore, we validate the authenticity of the previous results by employing two additional methods of error assessment. A large regional error score might possibly be a predictor of evacuation complacency for a future hurricane of similar magnitude, although there are many other variables that must be considered. "

10. Sharma, Upasna, and Patwardhan, and D. Parthasarathy. "Assessing Adaptive Capacity to Tropical Cyclones in the East Coast of India: A Pilot Study of Public Response to Cyclone Warning Information ."  Full-text. Climatic Change 94 1 (2009): 189-209. Abstract: "Ability to respond positively to climate hazards (also called adaptive capacity) first requires a perception of the risk due to that hazard and then formulation, evaluation and implementation of response by the exposed units with the view to reducing impacts. From a policy perspective, facilitating the process of perception of risk (and sometimes formulation, evaluation and implementation of response) often requires some kind of generation and communication of information foruse by the exposed units. For example, the cyclone early warning system is a policy intervention which aims to generate and communicate information to the people about a possible cyclone occurrence, so as to facilitate timely and appropriate response such as evacuating the risk prone areas and/ortaking refuge in a cyclone shelter by the people in danger. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many a time the cyclone warning message is not able to generate the desired response from the target audience. An understanding of the factors underlying the process of perception, formulation, evaluation and response by the exposed units to manage cyclone risk is required to close the gap between the desired response and the actual response by the exposed units to the warning information. In this paper we attempt to identify such factors in the East coast of India to identify the factors that affect the perceptual and evaluative processes underlying the warning-response’ process i.e. evacuation behavior of the exposed units once they have received the cyclone warning. The findings highlight some important factors that could be addressed to improve the warning-response process and hence enhance the ability ofpeople to respond to cyclone risk."

11.  Suter, Larry, Thomas Birkland, and Raima Larter. "Disaster Research and Social Network Analysis: Examples of the Scientific Understanding of Human Dynamics at the National Science Foundation."  Full-text. Population Research and Policy Review 28 1 (2009): 1-10.

12.  Yong-Chan, Kim, and Kang Jinae. "Communication, Neighbourhood Belonging and Household Hurricane Preparedness."  Abstract only . Disasters 34 2 (2009): 470-88.  Abstract: "This paper reports on an examination of data on how local residents in Tuscaloosa, a mid-sized city in the state of Alabama, United States, responded to Hurricane Ivan of September 2004. The evaluation revealed that an integrated connection to community-level communication resources comprising local media, community organisations and interpersonal networks has a direct impact on the likelihood of engaging in pre-hurricane preparedness activitiesand an indirect effect on during-hurricane preparedness activities. Neighbourhood belonging mediated the relation between an integrated connectionto community-level communication resources and during-hurricane preparednessactivities. Neighbourhood belonging was determined to increase the likelihood of taking preparedness actions during Hurricane Ivan, but not prior to it. In addition, we discovered an interesting pattern for two different types of risk perceptions: social and personal risk perceptions. Social risk perceptions increase the likelihood of taking preventative steps before a hurricane while personal risk perceptions are positively related to engaging in preventative action during a hurricane. "


13.   Lindell, Michael K., and Seong N. Hwang. "Households' Perceived Personal Risk and Responses in a Multihazard Environment." Full text . Risk Analysis 28 2 (2008): 539-56.  Abstract: "This study proposed and tested a multistage model of household response to three hazards2014flood, hurricane, and toxic chemical release2014in Harris County Texas. The model, which extends Lindell and Perry's (1992, 2004) Protective Action Decision Model, proposed a basic causal chain from hazard proximity through hazard experience and perceived personal risk to expectations of continued residence in the home and adoption of household hazard adjustments. Data from 321 households generally supported the model, but the mediating effects of hazard experience and perceived personal risk were partial rather than complete. In addition, the data suggested that four demographic variables2014gender, age, income, and ethnicity2014affect the basic causal chain at different points."


14.  Blendon, Robert J., et al. "The Public's Preparedness for Hurricanes in Four Affected Regions." Full-text. Public Health Reports (1974-)122 2 (2007): 167-76. Abstract: "The purpose of this article is to look at how prepared people in communities outside the main areas devastated by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita thought they were for those storms and for major hurricanes in the near future, what factors were related to why people did not evacuate, and what concerns people had in communities that took in evacuees from the hurricanes. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted with randomly selected adults in Baton Rouge, Houston, Dallas, and Mississippi/Alabama (excluding the immediate Gulf Coast) to assess respondents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors about hurricane preparedness and response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Results: The surveys found a sizeable proportion of respondents who might not, for a number of reasons, comply with future orders to evacuate. A substantial proportion reported that they were not prepared for another major hurricane and indicated a desire for more information about how to prepare for future hurricanes. In communities that reported taking in large numbers of evacuees, residents expressed concern about the impact of the evacuees on their community. Conclusion: Evacuating communities involves a number of concrete problems that were not adequately addressed in the cases of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Responses to these surveys indicate a need for more comprehensive hurricane disaster planning."

15.  Kang, Jung E., Michael K. Lindell, and Carla S. Prater. "Hurricane Evacuation Expectations and Actual Behavior in Hurricane Lili."  Full-text. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 37 (2007): 887-903.  Abstract: "This study compared respondents' hurricane evacuation expectations with their actual behavior 2 years later during Hurricane Lili. Respondents were found to have accurate expectations about their information sources, evacuation transportation modes, number of vehicles taken, and evacuation shelter types. They also had generally accurate expectations about the time it would take them to implement some, but not all, evacuation preparation tasks. These results extend contemporary attitude 2013 behavior models by demonstrating a significant degree of correspondence between behavioral expectations and much later behavior under quite stressful conditions and suggest emergency planners can use many, but not all, aspects of coastal residents' evacuation expectations as a satisfactory basis for evacuation planning."

16.  Rosenkoetter, Marlene M., et al. "Perceptions of Older Adults Regarding Evacuation in the Event of a Natural Disaster."  Full-text.  Public Health Nursing 24 2 (2007): 160-68.  Abstract: "To investigate the evacuation needs and beliefs of older adults in 2 counties in Georgia; to identify health risk factors; and to provide public health and emergency management officials with planning information. A descriptive survey using The Older Adult Disaster Evacuation Assessment. 139 lower socioeconomic participants at congregate meal sites. Hurricane Katrina significantly influenced decisions to evacuate in disasters. Over 70% said they would definitely evacuate in the future and nearly 16% would probably evacuate, yet over 13% reported "maybe" or "no." Multiple logistic regressions suggest that those who do not trust their TV and county officials' information would have only 1/4 the odds of definitely evacuating. Those who say they would not follow their county officials' advice have only 1/3 the odds of definitely evacuating. Primary health problems were decreased mobility (40.1%), hypertension (70.5%), and arthritis (53.2%). Forty-six percent would need transportation; approximately 40% lived alone; and about 40% had fair or poor health. Trust and belief in county officials and the media were the best predictors of willingness to evacuate. Participants in this study would need assistance with transportation, preparation, and support for serious health problems in order to evacuate. Further study is needed with a larger, more representative sample."
17.  Weems, Carl F., et al. "The Psychosocial Impact of Hurricane Katrina: Contextual Differences in Psychological Symptoms, Social Support, and Discrimination."  Abstract only.  Behaviour Research and Therapy 45 10 (2007): 2295-306.    Abstract: "This study tested a contextual model of disaster reaction by examining regional differences in the psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina. A total of 386 individuals participated in this study. All were recruited in the primary areas affected by Hurricane Katrina and included residents of metropolitan New Orleans (Orleans Parish, Louisiana), Greater New Orleans (i.e., Metairie, Kenner, Gretna), and the Mississippi Gulf Coast (i.e., cities along the coast from Waveland to Ocean Springs, Mississippi). Participants were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, other psychological symptoms, perceptions of discrimination, perceptions of social support, evacuation distance, and the extent to which they experienced hurricane-related stressful events. Results were consistent with previous research on the impact of disasters on mental health symptoms. Findings extended research on individual differences in the response to trauma and indicated that regional context predicted unique variance in the experience of discrimination, social support, and emotional symptoms consistent with the theoretical model presented."


18.  Cutter, Susan L., and Christopher T. Emrich. "Moral Hazard, Social Catastrophe: The Changing Face of Vulnerability Along the Hurricane Coasts."  Full-text. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 604  (2006): 102-12.   Abstract: "The social vulnerability of the American population is not evenly distributed among social groups or between places. Some regions may be more susceptible to the impacts of hazards than other places based on the characteristics of the people residing within them. As we saw with Hurricane Katrina, when coupled with residencies in high-risk areas such as the hurricane coasts, differential vulnerabilities can lead to catastrophic results. The geographic discrepancies in social vulnerability also necessitate different mitigation, post-response, and recovery actions. Given temporal and spatial changes in social vulnerability in the future, a one-size-fits-all approach to preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation may be the least effective in reducing vulnerability or improving local resilience to hazards."

19.  Gerking, Shelby, and Glenn Harrison. "Risk Perception, Valuation and Policy: Introduction." Full-text. Environmental and Resource Economics 33  3 (2006): 267-71.  "Research notes: Papers in this volume are drawn from among those presented at a conference titled ‘‘Risk Perception, Valuation and Policy held at University of Central Florida, April 30–May 1, 2004 with support from the Office of the Provost, the College of Business Administration and the Department of Economics. The conference theme was chosen because appropriate characterization of attitudes toward risk is fundamental to properly understanding the costs and benefits of virtually all major environmental policies. Economic theory views risk in terms of three dimensions: the final outcomes of different states of nature, subjective beliefs about the probabilities that each outcome will be observed, and willingness to accept risk. This volume provides applications that illustrate the significance of all three dimensions."


20. Anderson-Berry, Linda, and David King. "Mitigation of the Impact of  Tropical Cyclones in Northern Australia through Community Capacity  Enhancement." Abstract only.  Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 10 3 (2005): 367-92.  Abstract: "Community mitigation of hazard impact requires hazard knowledge and preparedness on the part of the members of diverse and complex communities. Longitudinal research in the tropical cyclone prone north of Australia has gathered extensive datasets on community awareness, preparedness and knowledge, in order to contribute to education campaigns and mitigation strategies. Data have been used to identify issues of vulnerability to cyclones and capacity to deal with the hazard. This has been developed as a community vulnerability and capacity model that may be applied to diverse communities in order to assess levels of capability to mitigate and deal with the cyclone hazard. The model is presented here in a simplified form as its development is evolving and ongoing."

21. Peacock, Walter Gillis, Samuel David Brody, and Wes Highfield. "Hurricane Risk Perceptions among Florida's Single Family Homeowners."  Abstract only. Landscape and Urban Planning 73 2-3 (2005): 120-35.   Abstract: "Hurricanes and associated storm damage remain a constant threat to the health, safety, and welfare of residents in Florida. Hurricane risk perception has been found to be an important predictor of storm preparation, evacuation, and hazard adjustment undertaken by households, such as shutter usage. Planners and policy makers often employ expert risk analysis to justify hazard mitigation policies, yet expert and lay risk assessments do not always agree. Because the public is increasingly involved in planning and policy decision-making, consistency between "expert" risk assessments and lay perceptions of risk are important for policy legitimization and compliance. This article examines factors contributing to hurricane risk perceptions of single-family homeowners in Florida. Utilizing data from a statewide survey, we first map and spatially analyze risk perceptions throughout Florida. Second, we examine the influence of location on shaping homeowner perceptions along with other factors, such as knowledge of hurricanes, previous hurricane experience, and socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The findings suggest there is a good deal of consistency between residing in locations identified by experts as being high hurricane wind risk areas and homeowner risk perceptions. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for land use and hazards planning. "


22. Anderson-Berry, Linda J. "Community Vulnerability to Tropical Cyclones:  Cairns, 1996–2000." Abstract only. Natural Hazards 30 2 (2003): 209-32.   Abstract: "This paper is a partial discussion of a four-year study that investigated the vulnerability of the people living in the Cairns region to the tropical cyclone hazard. The longitudinal case study, focusing on the Cairns Northern Beaches area, was unique in that it included a social and societal `pre-cyclone impact' evaluation of various resident communities within the region, and then two consecutive `post-cyclone impact' studies. The primary research method supported an inductive qualitative approach to the collection and analysis of survey data. Some quantitative methods were invoked to support qualitative research findings. Survey data was collected in five separate questionnaire-based social surveys that were administered between 1996 and 2000. During the study, residents experienced the direct impact of two land-falling tropical cyclones. In addition to this, targeted and focused tropical cyclone awareness education was made increasingly available within the community. The social and demographic attributes that influence the individual's perception of risk and contribute to our understanding of community vulnerability were examined and evaluated. Changes in the residents' attitudes, cyclone preparedness behaviours and willingness to respond to cyclone warnings were monitored and measured. Analysis of early survey data indicated that community residents generally had some knowledge of cyclones but a limited understanding of cyclone processes and very little direct personal experience of the cyclone hazard. Individually and collectively, residents frequently demonstrated a biased perception of the risks associated with cyclones. The resident community was shown to be fragmented, with limited support being available to individual households. Initially, residents were found to be poorly prepared for cyclones and unlikely to respond to warnings appropriately. It appeared that, in the event of a land-falling tropical cyclone impacting the area, the community was highly vulnerable to unnecessary loss of property, livelihood and – in extreme circumstances – life. By 2000, Cairns community residents were somewhat better informed about cyclones and certainly more experienced. This paper provides some insight into how cyclone experience and education may synergistically have contributed to a change in risk perceptions and a reduction in the vulnerability of Cairns residents to the tropical cyclone and storm surge hazards."


23. Sattler, David N., et al. "Hurricane Georges: A Cross-National Study  Examining Preparedness, Resource Loss, and Psychological Distress in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and the United States." Abstract only. Journal of Traumatic Stress 15 5 (2002): 339-50.  Abstract: "This cross-national study examined preparation for and psychological functioning following Hurricane Georges in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and the United States. Four to five weeks after the storm made landfall, 697 college students (222 men, 476 women) completed a questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, preparation, social support, resource loss, and symptoms associated with acute stress disorder. Location, resource loss (especially personal characteristic resources) and social support accounted for a significant portion of psychological distress variance. The findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998). Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed."


24.  Rincon, Elizabeth, Marc Y. R. Linares, and Barry Greenberg. "Effect of Previous Experience of a Hurricane on Preparedness for Future Hurricanes."  Abstract only. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine 19 4 (2001): 276-79    Abstract: "The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that having experienced a major hurricane will promote better preparedness for future ones. A survey was conducted in November 1999 at Miami children's Hospital. No statistical differences were found between the population that was present in Dade County during hurricane Andrew and the one that was not; in regard of the possession of a generator at home, the obtaining of material to secure their home, the presence of hurricane shutters, the willingness to evacuate their home in case of advise. Only 37% of the families that experienced hurricane Andrew would go to a shelter versus 49% for the families that did not (P< .05). It was concluded that we can safely reject the hypothesis that having experienced a major hurricane will promote better preparedness for future ones. Those who experienced hurricane Andrew were less willing to go to a shelter compared with the group that did not."


25. Dash, Nicole, and Betty Hearn Morrow. "Return Delays and Evacuation Order Compliance: The Case of Hurricane Georges and the Florida Keys."  Abstract only. Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 2 3 (2000): 119-28.   Abstract: " Using interview data, we examine the effects of the heavily publicized delays in reentering the Florida Keys after Hurricane Georges on future evacuation intent. Of particular interest is the finding that the delays will have less influence on the future evacuation decisions of those who experienced them than on those who learned of them from secondary sources. Fear of return delays is only one factor in evacuation decision-making, albeit an understudied one. For this sample of evacuees, perceived risk is the most salient factor, and this risk assessment is not sufficiently diminished by the inconveniences, such as delays, associated with evacuation. For non-evacuees, however, the delay factor appeared to only increase their reluctance to evacuate the next time, despite their level of perceived risk."

26. Dow, Kirstin, and Susan L. Cutter. "Public Orders and Personal Opinions: Household Strategies for Hurricane Risk Assessment."  Abstract only.  Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 2 4 (2000): 143-55.  Abstract: "This paper examines the relationship between household evacuation decisions and official emergency management practices in light of recent increases in the availability and diversity of hurricane-related information. While we focus on Hurricane Floyd in South Carolina, we incorporate findings of our longitudinal research effort covering the last four years and six post-1995 hurricane threats to the state. While only 64% of residents in the mandatory evacuation zone complied with the Hurricane Floyd evacuation order, over 80% agreed that calling an evacuation was an appropriate precautionary response given the uncertainties of the storm. Longitudinal surveys indicate that Horry County residents have developed a fairly robust strategy in making evacuation decisions. This "hurricane savvy" population depends more heavily on individuals' assessments of risks than on official orders. Individual assessment practices differ from official orders in that greater weight is given to household circumstances and preferences, the diligent monitoring of a variety of information sources, and the incorporation of past experiences into the decision-making process. Surveys indicate differences between the general public and officials in terms of priorities and preferences about hurricane evacuations. The public demands more information about the hurricane threat. Officials place more emphasis on planning evacuation routes and public safety measures. "

27.  Sattler, David N., Charles Kaiser, F., and James Hittner, B. "Disaster  Preparedness: Relationships among Prior Experience, Personal Characteristics, and Distress."  Full-text Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30 7 (2000): 1396-420.  Abstract:"At the peak of a hurricane watch and warning, participants completed a questionnaire asking about their prior experience with a hurricane (property loss and distress), and their degree of preparation, perceived threat, and distress when threatened by Hurricane Emily (Study 1) or Hurricane Fran (Study 2). In Study 1, age, income, internal locus of control, perceived threat, and current distress predicted preparation. Among participants with hurricane experience, age and distress as a result of the hurricane accounted for a significant portion of preparation variance. In Study 2, age, perceived threat, and hurricane experience predicted preparation. The findings support both the conservation of resources stress model (Hobfoll, 1989) and the warning and response model (Lindell & Perry, 1992). Implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed."

28. Whitehead, John C., et al. "Heading for Higher Ground: Factors Affecting Real and Hypothetical Hurricane Evacuation Behavior."  Abstract only.  Global Environmental Change Part B: Environmental Hazards 2 4 (2000): 133-42.   Abstract: "The purpose of this paper is to assess the determinants of hurricane evacuation behavior of North Carolina coastal households during Hurricane Bonnie and a future hypothetical hurricane. We use the data from a telephone survey of North Carolina coastal residents. Hypothetical questions are used to assess whether respondents will evacuate and where in the case of a future hurricane with varying intensities. We examine the social, economic, and risk factors that affect the decisions to evacuate and whether to go to a shelter or motel/hotel relative to other destinations. The most important predictor of evacuation is storm intensity. Households are more likely to evacuate when given evacuation orders, when they perceive a flood risk, and when they live in mobile homes. Households who own pets are less likely to evacuate. Non-white households, pet owners and those with more education are less likely to go to either a motel/hotel or shelter, preferring instead to stay with friends or family. "

29.  Drabek, Thomas E. "Understanding Disaster Warning Responses."  Abstract only. The Social Science Journal 36 3 (1999): 515-23.Abstract: "When threatened with some type of disaster, how do people respond? What are the social factors that constrain their responses? Receiver characteristics, message characteristics, and social contexts are explained and related to variations in disaster warning responses. Finally, two components of a vision for the future are described: (1) disaster event taxonomies, and (2) implemented social policies. "

30.  Morrow, Betty H. "Identifying and Mapping Community Vulnerability."  Full-text. Disasters 23 1 (1999): 1-18. Abstract: "Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability."

31. Riad, Hasmin K., Fran H. Norris, and Barry R.  Ruback. "Predicting Evacuation in Two Major Disasters: Risk Perception, Social Influence, and Access to Resources. Full-text. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29 5 (1999): 918-34. 

32.  Ungar, Sheldon. "Is Strange Weather in the Air? A Study of U.S. National Network News Coverage of Extreme Weather Events." Full-text.  Climatic Change 41 2 (1999): 133-50.  Abstract: "The complex and somewhat bewildering phenomenon of why people sometimes decide not to evacuate from a dangerous situation is influenced by a combination of individual characteristics and 3 basic social psychological processes: (a) risk perception, (b) social influence, and (c) access to resources. This study used a combined sample of 777 adults interviewed after Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew. Although numerous variables significantly predicted evacuation, much variance in this behavior still remained unexplained. Different population subgroups gave different reasons for not evacuating (e.g., severeness of storm, territoriality). A multifaceted and tailored approach to both individuals and communities is needed; a simple warning is often not enough."

33.  Baker, Earl J. "Public Response to Hurricane Probability Forecasts." Abstract only. The Professional Geographer 47 2 (1995): 137-47.  Abstract: "The complex and somewhat bewildering phenomenon of why people sometimes decide not to evacuate from a dangerous situation is influenced by a combination of individual characteristics and 3 basic social psychological processes: (a) risk perception, (b) social influence, and (c) access to resources. This study used a combined sample of 777 adults interviewed after Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew. Although numerous variables significantly predicted evacuation, much variance in this behavior still remained unexplained. Different population subgroups gave different reasons for not evacuating (e.g., severeness of storm, territoriality). A multifaceted and tailored approach to both individuals and communities is needed; a simple warning is often not enough."


34. Beatley, T., and D. J. Brower. "Public Perception of Hurricane Hazards - Examining the Differential-Effects of Hurricane Diana." Abstract only. Coastal Zone Management Journal 14 3 (1986): 241-69.  Abstract: "This article reports the findings of a telephone survey of two coastal regions in North Carolina in the aftermath of hurricane Diana: one that received a direct hit from the storm (Oak/Pleasure Island area) and one that received only media reports of the storm and its impacts (Nags Head area). It was hypothesized that the hurricane had differential effects on attitudes in these two regions. It was predicted that because of the media depiction of Diana as a large hurricane, contrasted with the actual low levels of damages to result, support for mitigation programs in the region of greatest impact would be low. Conversely, it was expected that awareness and support of mitigation programs would be higher in the unaffected region, where the media images of disaster were not neutralized by firsthand observation of the storm's impact. Data from the study indicate that there are statistically significant differences between these groups in their perceptions of Diana's impact and hurricane hazards generally. While respondents in the area of greatest impact more accurately sized up the effects of Diana and expressed greater faith in the ability of structures in their communities to withstand future hurricanes, this did not result in lower levels of support for mitigation measures as expected. Rather, the survey results indicate that the residents in the affected area were more supportive, in most cases by a considerable margin. Furthermore, such factors as perceived level of storm damages were not generally associated with the perceived need for mitigation in either sample. Considering both samples, a high degree of support for all mitigation measures was expressed by respondents."


 35.  Christensen, Larry, and Carlton E. Ruch. "The of Social Influence on Response to Hurricane Warnings."  Abstract only. Disasters 4 2 (1980): 205-10.  Abstract: "One of the persistent problems which disaster researchers attempt to address is the identification of the variables which cause individuals to head a disaster (e.g. hurricane) warning. It is a well documented (Windham et al., 1977) and generally accepted (Bauman and Sims, 1978) fact that not all individuals heed the warnings issued by organizations as the National Weather Service. Some seek refugee when hearing an advisory to do so and others just ignore such advice and seen to passively risk loss of life and property. Still other individuals engage in various intermediate degrees of coping response which generally provide some degree of protection against an impending disaster."
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